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Arquitectura de la antigua Grecia

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Arquitectura de la antigua Grecia

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Arquitectura de la antigua Grecia

  1. 1. LA ARQUITECTURA DE LA ANTIGUA GRECIA
  2. 2. MARCO GEOGRÁFICO
  3. 3. MARCO CRONOLÓGICO *ARCAICA: siglo VIII- VI a de C. *CLÁSICA: siglo V y IV a de C. *HELENÍSTICA: siglo IV al I a de C.
  4. 4. Arte ciudadano, arte de la POLIS
  5. 5. FUSIÓN con el PAISAJE
  6. 6. SIMPLICIDAD de formas
  7. 7. Los EDIFICIOS deben ser EURÍTMICOS: justas proporciones, armonía, belleza
  8. 8. PURA MATEMÁTICA
  9. 9. MATERIALES Madera y adobe (inicios) Piedra (mármol)
  10. 10. COLOSALISMO EGIPCIO VERSUS ESCALA HUMANA GRIEGA
  11. 11. CONEXIÓN CON EGIPTO: Sistema constructivo ADINTELADO O ARQUITRABADO. Interior: techos de madera
  12. 12. Al EXTERIOR presentan TEJADO A DOS AGUAS
  13. 13. ELEMENTOS SUSTENTANTES: MURO Y COLUMNAS MUROS: bloques de mármol (sillares) Sillares unidos con grapas de plomo
  14. 14. ENTABLAMENTOS, formados por ARQUITRABE, FRISO Y CORNISA
  15. 15. s
  16. 16. CARIÁTIDES
  17. 17. IMPORTA más el ESPACIO EXTERIOR que el INTERIOR
  18. 18. ELEMENTOS DECORATIVOS: relieves, pinturas. POLICROMÍA
  19. 19. VISIÓN EN DIAGONAL
  20. 20. TEMPLO DE LA CONCORDIA, AGRIGENTO
  21. 21. URBANISMO: sistema en damero (cuadrícula) llamado HIPODÁMICO (por Hipodamo de Mileto).
  22. 22. PUERTO DEl PIREO, ATENAS
  23. 23. RESTOS DEL ÁGORA DE ATENAS
  24. 24. FINALIDAD religiosa y civil TIPOLOGÍAS ARQUITECTÓNICAS: TEMPLOS Y TEATROS
  25. 25. LOS TEMPLOS
  26. 26. SANTUARIO: CONJUNTO DE TEMPLOS
  27. 27. VALLE DE LOS TEMPLOS, AGRIGENTO
  28. 28. Maqueta encontrado en el santuario de Hera en Argos, es del siglo VIII a de C
  29. 29. Pequeñas DIMENSIONES
  30. 30. FINALIDAD: albergar la estatua del dios al que está dedicado.
  31. 31. Actos religiosos: en el EXTERIOR del templo.
  32. 32. Pueden tener planta circular: THOLOS
  33. 33. Predomina la planta RECTANGULAR
  34. 34. Los templos se construían gracias al esfuerzo colectivo de toda la CIUDAD.
  35. 35. ACRÓPOLIS DE ATENAS, 480 A DE C
  36. 36. EL PARTENÓN DE LAACRÓPOLIS DE ATENAS *¿Qué es? *¿Dónde se encuentra? *Cronología. Etapa.
  37. 37. Símbolo y resumen de la ARQUITECTURA GRIEGA
  38. 38. Símbolo y resumen de la ARQUITECTURA GRIEGA SIMPLICIDAD de formas FUSIÓN con el PAISAJE EURITMIA. Simetría. Armonía. ESCALA humana. Dimensiones pequeñas. PERFECCIÓN técnica. Alta calidad de los MATERIALES Rica POLICROMÍA. Importancia de los RELIEVES y ELEMENTOS ORNAMENTALES.
  39. 39. •  ARQUITECTOS: •  DIRECTOR de las obras: •  COMITENTE: •  DEDICADO •  OBJETIVO: •  PRECEDENTE:
  40. 40. •  ARQUITECTOS: ICTINO Y CALÍCRATES •  DIRECTOR de las obras: FIDIAS •  COMITENTE: PERICLES •  DEDICADO: a la Diosa Atenea, protectora de la ciudad. •  OBJETIVO: símbolo de la ciudad de Atenas. •  PRECEDENTE: el PREPARTENÓN, que fue arrasado por los persas cuando en las guerras médicas destruyeron la Acrópolis.
  41. 41. *ANTECEDENTE *DENOMINACIÓN DE PARTENÓN *Es ARQUITECTURA ESCULTÓRICA para ser vista en… *ESPACIO SAGRADO.
  42. 42. *ANTECEDENTE: megarón prehelénico. *DENOMINACIÓN DE PARTENÓN: por Atenea Partenos. *Es ARQUITECTURA ESCULTÓRICA para ser vista en DIAGONAL. *ESPACIO SAGRADO. Imagen de la diosa y tesoro del templo pero las reuniones eran al exterior.
  43. 43. La PLANTA del Partenón es rectangular . Presenta cuatro : pronaos, naos, cámara de las vestales y opistodomus. Este templo presenta dos vestíbulos: el anterior a la cella se denomina pronaos y el posterior, opistodomus. La naos aparece dividida en tres naves separadas por columnas dóricas. La cámara de las vestales o vírgenes: ahí estaba el Tesoro del templo: presenta 3 naves y
  44. 44. *MATERIAL *Presenta un KREPIS o basamento escalonado. *SILLARES unidos con ... *Es un templo OCTÁSTILO (8 columnas en el pórtico). *PERÍPTERO. ANFIPRÓSTILO. *SISTEMA adintelado o arquitrabado. Cubierta exterior a dos aguas.
  45. 45. *MATERIAL: mármol blanco del Pentélico. *Presenta un KREPIS o basamento escalonado. *SILLARES unidos con grapas de plomo. *Es un templo OCTÁSTILO (8 columnas en el pórtico). *PERÍPTERO. ANFIPRÓSTILO. *SISTEMA adintelado o arquitrabado. Cubierta exterior a dos aguas.
  46. 46. *ELEMENTOS DECORATIVOS: relieves en el FRONTÓN Y en el FRISO. TEMAS: relativos a la diosa Atenea y a las luchas de Atenas contra sus enemigos. Autor: Fidias. *Iban POLICROMADAS.
  47. 47. *Estado de CONSERVACIÓN. *CONCLUSIÓN: paradigma de la belleza griega. Fuente de inspiración: arte griego, romano, renacentista, barroco, neoclásico…
  48. 48. LOS TEATROS
  49. 49. *Invento GRIEGO. *Relacionado con el culto a DIONISOS. *MATERIALES: madera…. piedra. *COLINA inclinada. *ACÚSTICA perfecta.
  50. 50. GRADAS O GRADERÍO
  51. 51. *EL TEATRO es al aire libre. *PARTES DEL TEATRO GRIEGO: *GRADAS o graderío. *ORQUESTRA: donde cantaba el coro. *PROSCENIO: parte elevada donde actuaban los actores. *ESCENA: telón de fondo y decorados.
  52. 52. ORQUESTRA
  53. 53. PROSCENIO
  54. 54. ESCENA
  55. 55. TEATRO EPIDAURO
  56. 56. MAUSOLEO DE HALÍCARNASO
  57. 57. LOS GRIEGOS EN ESPAÑA

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