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Human reproduction


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Human reproduction

  1. 1. HUMAN REPRODUCTION Biology and Geology Ana Isabel Marchal Martínez
  2. 2. Reproduction in living beings <ul><li>Reproduction consist of the capacity of living beings to origininate new individuals. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of reproduction <ul><li>ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>SEXUAL REPRODUCTION </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sexuality in human beings. <ul><li>What is the WHO ? </li></ul><ul><li>How defines the WHO the sexual health? </li></ul><ul><li>Have a look in your book… and answer the question… </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of human reproduction. <ul><li>Human reproduction is… </li></ul><ul><li>sexual. </li></ul><ul><li>When the… </li></ul><ul><li>ovum and the… </li></ul><ul><li>spermatozoid are joined it is formed </li></ul><ul><li>the zygote , which forms an… </li></ul><ul><li>embryo . </li></ul><ul><li>The union of these cells is called… </li></ul><ul><li>fertilisation . </li></ul><ul><li>The ovum is formed in the… </li></ul><ul><li>ovary </li></ul><ul><li>And the spermatozoid in the… testicles . </li></ul><ul><li>Both of them are called… </li></ul><ul><li>gametes. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Changes during growth <ul><li>Primary sexual characteristics: Present at birth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female genitalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male genitalia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary sexual characteristics: appears in the maturity. </li></ul><ul><li>This changes occurs during a very specifc age which is known as puberty and are the result of the action of sexual hormons. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Changes during puberty <ul><li>In the female: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pubic hair and hair under the arms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of body fats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development os mammary glands. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the male: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of public hair. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The beard and hair over a large part of the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An increase in the bones and muscles, change of voice, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Diagram of human reproduction.
  9. 9. Reproductive organs and cells <ul><li>The female reproductive apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>The ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>The falopian tubues </li></ul><ul><li>The uterus </li></ul><ul><li>The womb </li></ul><ul><li>The vagina </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reproductive organs and cells <ul><li>The male reproductive apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>The testicles </li></ul><ul><li>The epididymis </li></ul><ul><li>The vas deferens </li></ul><ul><li>The seminal vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>The prostate </li></ul><ul><li>The urethra </li></ul><ul><li>The penis/ glans / prepuce </li></ul>
  11. 11. The reproductive cells <ul><li>The ovum </li></ul><ul><li>The spermatozoids </li></ul>
  12. 12. What are the sexual hormones? <ul><li>The ovaries and the spermatozoids produce substances known as hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>This hormones are known as sexual hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogens are produced in the ovary and are the female sexual hormond. </li></ul><ul><li>Androgens are produced in the testicles and are the male sexual hormond. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Changes during puberty <ul><li>Between 10 and 12 years old in girls </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries start to produce ova: ovulation. </li></ul><ul><li>It starts the fuctioning of the menstrual cycle and appearance of the female secondary characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of boys is later. </li></ul><ul><li>This mark the beginning of the formation of sexual hormond in the female by the ovary. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sexual maturity <ul><li>Once puberty has passed, both male and female are sexually mature people and capable reproduction . </li></ul><ul><li>In women, a cyclical activity in ovary is produced with the maturity of the ovum every 28 days. </li></ul><ul><li>This changes occur until the age of 50, when menstruation becomes irregular and finally disappears. This period is known as menopause or climatery. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The menstrual cycle <ul><li>FILMS </li></ul><ul><li> MENSTRUATION </li></ul><ul><li> MENSTRUATION CRAMPS </li></ul>
  16. 16. The menstrual cycle <ul><li>Complete the menstrual cycle as for the first day of menstruation. </li></ul><ul><li>On what days of the cycle is the endometry prepared for receiving a fertilised ovum? </li></ul><ul><li>On what day of the cycle does the ovum pass a long the Fallopian tube? </li></ul><ul><li>On what day of the cycle is there more chance os fertilisation? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Fertilisation <ul><li>Fertilisation is the union between an ovum and a spermatozoid to form an egg cell or zigote from which a new individual will be formed. </li></ul>AFTER 4 OR 5 DAYS SOME SPERMATOZOIDS DIE.
  18. 18. Pregnancy <ul><li>The installation of the embryo on the walls of the placenta is known as nesting. (7 days). </li></ul><ul><li>The embyo is sorrounded by the chorion. What is the chorion??? </li></ul><ul><li>The chorion grows and link with the endometry forming the placenta. </li></ul><ul><li>The placenta is the area of union between the embryo and the mother. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Birth <ul><li>FILM </li></ul><ul><li> CHILDBIRTH </li></ul><ul><li>DILATATION OF THE UTERINE NECK </li></ul><ul><li>EXPULSION OF THE FOETUS </li></ul><ul><li>EXPULSION OF THE PLACENTA. </li></ul>