Properties of matter


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Properties of matter

  1. 1. 1 Properties of matterProperties of matter
  2. 2. 2 General Properties ofGeneral Properties of MatterMatter Matter is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter
  3. 3. 3 What are properties?What are properties? Characteristics used to describe an object Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness video
  4. 4. 4 General Properties ofGeneral Properties of mattermatter Mass, weight, volume, and density Properties are used to identify a substance
  5. 5. 5 What is mass?What is mass? Mass is the amount of matter in an object Mass is constant Mass is also the measure of inertia
  6. 6. 6 What is inertia?What is inertia? Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion The more mass the greater the inertia
  7. 7. 7 QuestionsQuestions How is mass related to inertia? Why are properties of an object important?
  8. 8. 9 QuestionQuestion Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why?
  9. 9. 10 QuestionQuestion What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly?
  10. 10. 11 QuestionQuestion Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt?
  11. 11. 12 QuestionQuestion What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place?
  12. 12. 13 QuestionQuestion What other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle?
  13. 13. 14 WeightWeight The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object Weight changes with gravity The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)
  14. 14. 15 Weight formulaWeight formula 1 kg = 2.2 pounds Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s2 ) W= m x g What is your mass? What is your weight in Newtons?
  15. 15. 16 What is gravity?What is gravity? The force of attraction between objects is gravity All objects exert a gravitational force on each other
  16. 16. 17 QuestionQuestion Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?
  17. 17. 18 Gravitational pullGravitational pull The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force
  18. 18. 19 QuestionQuestion Why can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive?
  19. 19. 20 What affects gravity?What affects gravity? The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases gravity depends on mass and distance
  20. 20. 21 GravityGravity The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh
  21. 21. 22 QuestionQuestion Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?
  22. 22. 23 QuestionQuestion The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon?
  23. 23. 24 QuestionsQuestions What are three properties of matter related to mass?
  24. 24. 25 QuestionQuestion What is density and how is it calculated?
  25. 25. 26 DensityDensity The density of water is 1.0 g/ml Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water
  26. 26. 27 DensityDensity Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water
  27. 27. 28 IceIce Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed
  28. 28. 29 Astronomy fact!Astronomy fact! The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!
  29. 29. 30 CalculationsCalculations If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?
  30. 30. 31 CalculationCalculation If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm3 , what is the density of aluminum?
  31. 31. 32 CalculationCalculation If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm3 , what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm3 ?
  32. 32. 33 What is specific gravity?What is specific gravity? A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity
  33. 33. 34 QuestionsQuestions How is density different from specific gravity?
  34. 34. 35 What is a physical property?What is a physical property? Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
  35. 35. 36 Phases of matterPhases of matter (video)(video) Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma solids have a definite shape and volume
  36. 36. 37 Solid particle arrangementSolid particle arrangement Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous
  37. 37. 38 Types of solidsTypes of solids Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar) Amorphous solids can lose their shape
  38. 38. 39 Examples of amorphous solidsExamples of amorphous solids Tar, candle wax, glass Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature)
  39. 39. 40 Liquid particle arrangementLiquid particle arrangement Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move
  40. 40. 41 QuestionQuestion Describe the shape of a liquid.
  41. 41. 42 Describe a liquidDescribe a liquid Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume
  42. 42. 43 QuestionQuestion What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four- liter container?
  43. 43. 44 Properties of liquidsProperties of liquids Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow
  44. 44. 45 What is viscosity?What is viscosity? The resistance of a liquid to flow The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity
  45. 45. 46 Behavior of liquidsBehavior of liquids Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles
  46. 46. 47 Surface tension (video)Surface tension (video) Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion
  47. 47. 48 QuestionQuestion Describe the viscosity of a liquid. Describe a liquid’s shape.
  48. 48. 49 QuestionsQuestions How is adhesion different from cohesion? Explain surface tension.
  49. 49. 50 Properties of gasesProperties of gases Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video) They fill all the available space in a container
  50. 50. 51 Kinetic Molecular Theory ofKinetic Molecular Theory of MatterMatter Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion
  51. 51. 52 QuestionQuestion How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?
  52. 52. 53 Gas lawsGas laws Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume
  53. 53. 54 Charles LawCharles Law Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure)
  54. 54. 55 Charles’ LawCharles’ Law As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases Heating air causes it to expand
  55. 55. 56 QuestionQuestion How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?
  56. 56. 57 PressurePressure The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area
  57. 57. 58 Boyle’s LawBoyle’s Law Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature)
  58. 58. 59 Boyle’s lawBoyle’s law If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law) The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure
  59. 59. 60 PlasmaPlasma Plasma (phase) most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars)
  60. 60. 61 QuestionQuestion What are the four phases of matter? Describe the plasma phase of matter.
  61. 61. 62 Phase changes (video)Phase changes (video) Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation
  62. 62. 63 What is a physical change?What is a physical change? Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties Type of matter remains the same
  63. 63. 64 QuestionsQuestions Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation).
  64. 64. 65 Physical changesPhysical changes Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change
  65. 65. 66 MeltingMelting videovideo Phase change from a solid to a liquid
  66. 66. 67 Melting pointMelting point Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid Physical property
  67. 67. 68 QuestionsQuestions How is melting different from freezing?
  68. 68. 69 Phase changes (video)Phase changes (video) Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes
  69. 69. 70 VaporizationVaporization Phase change from a liquid to a gas
  70. 70. 71 Boiling point (video)Boiling point (video) The temperature in which a liquid boils Point at which a liquid changes to a gas
  71. 71. 72 Freezing (video)Freezing (video) Phase change of a liquid to a solid The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point
  72. 72. 73 CondensationCondensation Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas
  73. 73. 74 QuestionQuestion Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization.
  74. 74. 75 Sublimation examplesSublimation examples Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation
  75. 75. 76 Chemical propertiesChemical properties Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties Ex: flammability
  76. 76. 77 Chemical changesChemical changes The change of a substance into a new and different substance Also known as a chemical reaction video
  77. 77. 78 QuestionsQuestions What is another name for a chemical change? Describe sublimation. How is a chemical change different from a physical change?