CHANT
An astonishing collection of
melodies;
a vast body of work reflecting
individual composition, communal
refinement, a...
CHANT

Language: ARAMAIC

Mark, Ch 16. c. 900
ORIGINS OF CHANT
We do not know when it was first sung, how it
was first composed, where or by whom.
(Pope Gregory I (d. 6...
Listening(!) example 1
Gregorian chant – LAUDATE DEUM
Alleluia! Laudate Deum omnes angeli eius,
Laudate Deum omnes virtute...
CHANT
MUSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

usually NO
• TEMPO? well . . . DEBATABLE
• REPETITION?

• METER? NO
• TEXTURE? MONOPHONIC
CHANT
MELODIC CHARACTERISTICS
• REPETITION? subtle,

small-scale

• CONTOUR & MOTION?

CONJUNCT & SMOOTH
• RANGE?

NARROW ...
CHANT
NEW MELODIC TERMS
• MELISMA –
multiple notes per syllable
of text (adj. melismatic)
• SYLLABIC TEXT SETTING –
one no...
Listening example for
melisma
A…….….LLE…….…..LU………..IA……...

(reserve CD track 2)
CHANT
PERFORMANCE CONTEXT
• SUNG BY?

MEN AND WOMEN
BUT NOT TOGETHER

• PERFORMED EVERY DAY
IN TAVERNS? NO
ON THE STREET? ...
CHANT
PERFORMANCE CONTEXT
• SUNG WHEN?
• HOW OFTEN?

DAILY
TO OBSERVE
THE HOURS
The Hours (approximately)
Matins (3 Nocturnes) – during the night
Lauds – at cockcrow
Prime – 6 a.m.
Terce – 9 a.m.
MASS –...
NEUMES
In the beginning was the word, but how do I
remember all those tunes?

Neumes – notational signs for
single tones a...
from NEUMES to NOTES (almost)
930 AD

930

11th c.
NEUMES

notate CONTOUR, INTERVAL and,
with a staff and clef, PITCH,
suggestions for duration
BUT RHYTHM comes later
GUIDO d’ AREZZO
Around 1000, defines THE STAFF
C
and adds new names for the 6 notes
ut re mi fa sol la
Part of
the
Culture
of the
Book

1615 edition BIBLE
Initial A
Part of
the
Culture
of the
Book
TROPES
TROPE – the addition of
words to extended melismas
to aid in memory; melismas
become syllabic
Great example of Medi...
a troped piece

Example:
Kyrie from An English Ladymass sung by Anonymous 4
O gracious mistress of the
singing people, who...
Hildegard
of Bingen
1098-1179

Abbess, scholar,
visionary, poet,
musician, healer,
spiritual leader
One of the earliest
“n...
Listening example
Hildegard of Bingen, Columba aspexit, c.1150
• large intervals
• large or wide range
•this is NOT Gregor...
While we listen, some of Hildegard’s
illuminations of her visions

9 rings of angels
While we listen, some of Hildegard’s
illuminations of her visions

giving birth
EARLY MEDIEVAL
SUMMARY
800-1150
• POLITICS & SOCIETY – Charlemagne, Ottonian
(German) emperors; FEUDALISM
• ARCHITECTURE –...
LISTEN
THREE
TIMES
Bayeux Tapestry c. 1088

Battle of Hastings
1066
FEUDALISM
New Anchor Dates

1000

- Musical STAFF used for
- CHANT in the
- EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIOD in
- MONASTERIES

1066

- BATTLE O...
Up to dates?
480 BC

0

547

Start of CLASSICAL GREEK
PERIOD

Just after the start of the ROMAN
EMPIRE; Caesar Augustus re...
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  • Color = roman + vigils = nocturnes
  • Example Anon 4 English Ladymass Kyrie [track 5]
  • CHANT

    1. 1. CHANT An astonishing collection of melodies; a vast body of work reflecting individual composition, communal refinement, and collective memory
    2. 2. CHANT Language: ARAMAIC Mark, Ch 16. c. 900
    3. 3. ORIGINS OF CHANT We do not know when it was first sung, how it was first composed, where or by whom. (Pope Gregory I (d. 604) was not the composer!) Three periods of evolution • 'Gregorian' strictly speaking c. 700-850 some 500-600 pieces established • Carolingian 850-1000 • Medieval 1000-1300 All of it commonly called: chant, Gregorian chant, plainchant, plainsong now a collection of some 3,000 pieces
    4. 4. Listening(!) example 1 Gregorian chant – LAUDATE DEUM Alleluia! Laudate Deum omnes angeli eius, Laudate Deum omnes virtutes eius. Alleliua! Alleluia! Praise God all his angels, Praise Him all his hosts. Alleluia! Language: LATIN Texture: MONOPHONIC Chant Type: MELLISMATIC
    5. 5. CHANT MUSICAL CHARACTERISTICS usually NO • TEMPO? well . . . DEBATABLE • REPETITION? • METER? NO • TEXTURE? MONOPHONIC
    6. 6. CHANT MELODIC CHARACTERISTICS • REPETITION? subtle, small-scale • CONTOUR & MOTION? CONJUNCT & SMOOTH • RANGE? NARROW (narrow ambitus)
    7. 7. CHANT NEW MELODIC TERMS • MELISMA – multiple notes per syllable of text (adj. melismatic) • SYLLABIC TEXT SETTING – one note per syllable “mel” is Latin root for “honey”
    8. 8. Listening example for melisma A…….….LLE…….…..LU………..IA……... (reserve CD track 2)
    9. 9. CHANT PERFORMANCE CONTEXT • SUNG BY? MEN AND WOMEN BUT NOT TOGETHER • PERFORMED EVERY DAY IN TAVERNS? NO ON THE STREET? NO AT COURT? NO IN MONASTERIES YES AND CONVENTS?
    10. 10. CHANT PERFORMANCE CONTEXT • SUNG WHEN? • HOW OFTEN? DAILY TO OBSERVE THE HOURS
    11. 11. The Hours (approximately) Matins (3 Nocturnes) – during the night Lauds – at cockcrow Prime – 6 a.m. Terce – 9 a.m. MASS – 10 a.m. Sext – noon None – 3 p.m. Vespers – 6 p.m. Compline – at nightfall (?3 a.m.?)
    12. 12. NEUMES In the beginning was the word, but how do I remember all those tunes? Neumes – notational signs for single tones and groups of notes; about 20 symbols used
    13. 13. from NEUMES to NOTES (almost) 930 AD 930 11th c.
    14. 14. NEUMES notate CONTOUR, INTERVAL and, with a staff and clef, PITCH, suggestions for duration BUT RHYTHM comes later
    15. 15. GUIDO d’ AREZZO Around 1000, defines THE STAFF C and adds new names for the 6 notes ut re mi fa sol la
    16. 16. Part of the Culture of the Book 1615 edition BIBLE
    17. 17. Initial A
    18. 18. Part of the Culture of the Book
    19. 19. TROPES TROPE – the addition of words to extended melismas to aid in memory; melismas become syllabic Great example of Medieval mindset, layering text upon text – the Culture of the Book.
    20. 20. a troped piece Example: Kyrie from An English Ladymass sung by Anonymous 4 O gracious mistress of the singing people, who bears Christ, have mercy. Flowering vase, fashioner of him who governs, have mercy. You who cleanse us of our sins as a healer does, have mercy. Kyria christifera plebis modulantis, eley[son]. Aulula florigera, plasmata regentis, eley[son]. Nostra luens scelera, [tu] more medentis, eley[son]. Original text in bold; added text is blue
    21. 21. Hildegard of Bingen 1098-1179 Abbess, scholar, visionary, poet, musician, healer, spiritual leader One of the earliest “named” composers in the European tradition
    22. 22. Listening example Hildegard of Bingen, Columba aspexit, c.1150 • large intervals • large or wide range •this is NOT Gregorian chant • performed with a drone (REPETITIVE PART) in this realization
    23. 23. While we listen, some of Hildegard’s illuminations of her visions 9 rings of angels
    24. 24. While we listen, some of Hildegard’s illuminations of her visions giving birth
    25. 25. EARLY MEDIEVAL SUMMARY 800-1150 • POLITICS & SOCIETY – Charlemagne, Ottonian (German) emperors; FEUDALISM • ARCHITECTURE – Romanesque Style • ART – relief sculpture and a fantastic approach to human form • IDEAS – The Culture of the Book; monasteries • MUSIC – consolidation of chant; early notation neumes & staff (staff c.1000)
    26. 26. LISTEN THREE TIMES
    27. 27. Bayeux Tapestry c. 1088 Battle of Hastings 1066 FEUDALISM
    28. 28. New Anchor Dates 1000 - Musical STAFF used for - CHANT in the - EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIOD in - MONASTERIES 1066 - BATTLE OF HASTINGS depicted in the - BAYEUX TAPESTRY which we associate with - FEUDALISM
    29. 29. Up to dates? 480 BC 0 547 Start of CLASSICAL GREEK PERIOD Just after the start of the ROMAN EMPIRE; Caesar Augustus reigns SAN VITALE; sort of end of Early Christian period c.1000 Guido describes the MUSICAL STAFF

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