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IOA 2008 - (New!) Media and the Olympic Movement


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This is the presentation I delivered at the Postgraduate Session of the International Olympic Academy in Olympia, Greece in July 2008

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IOA 2008 - (New!) Media and the Olympic Movement

  1. 1. (New!) Media and the Olympic Movement
  2. 2. <ul><li>What is media? </li></ul><ul><li>Media @ the Games </li></ul><ul><li>“ New!” media? </li></ul><ul><li>2008, Beijing and beyond </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Media? <ul><li>media 1 | ˈ m ē d ēə | </li></ul><ul><li>noun </li></ul><ul><li>1 plural form of medium . </li></ul><ul><li>2 (usu. the media) [treated as sing. or pl. ] the main means of mass communication (esp. television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet) regarded collectively : [as adj.] the campaign won media attention. </li></ul>
  4. 4. A timely coincidence…at first <ul><li>1887 - invention of radio </li></ul><ul><li>1895 - invention of cinematography </li></ul><ul><li>1936 - first uses of photojournalism as a new independent genre (during the Spanish Civil War) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Experimentation ground…after <ul><li>live broadcast (Cortina,1956) </li></ul><ul><li>live multi-national simultaneous broadcast, instant replays (Rome, 1960) </li></ul><ul><li>satellite broadcast, freeze-frame (Tokyo, 1964) </li></ul><ul><li>color live broadcast and slow-motion footage (Mexico, 1968) </li></ul><ul><li>video-on-demand, 3-D high-definition, “webcasting” (Nagano, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>online television (Athens, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Video coverage for mobile phones; Olympic news and images shared online (Turin, 2006) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The competition <ul><li>London, 1929 - first radio presence (with restrictions imposed by the Newspaper Proprietors’ Association) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The BBC still had to take news bulletins exclusively from the press agencies (the Newspaper Society, Reuters Limited, the Press Association, the Exchange Telegraph Company and the Central News); could not edit its own news (this remained in force until 1930); and could not broadcast a news bulletin until 6 p.m”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McCoy, 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Berlin, 1936 - the first media regulations (&quot;General Rules and Regulations for the Printed Press and Radio”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;announcers and reporters to restrict their comments to the Olympic events and travel appreciation, with no mention of the political, and especially religious, issues in Germany” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McCoy, 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>London, 1948 - BBC offers IOC money for the exclusivity of broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Helsinki, 1952 - the first official TV rights negotiations </li></ul>
  7. 7. Television: the new era <ul><li>1958 - Article 49 (Media Coverage of the Olympic Games) being incorporated in the Olympic Charter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ 1. IOC takes all necessary steps in order to ensure the fullest coverage by the different media and the widest possible audience in the world for the Olympic Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. All decisions concerning the coverage of the Olympic Games by the media rest within the competence of the IOC. “ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olympic Charter, 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From commissioning the TV services in the 60s to having a single Olympic broadcaster in the 70s and later </li></ul>
  8. 8. Berlin, 1936 London, 1948 Athens, 2004
  9. 10. The New! Medium <ul><li>ARPANET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 (1962) => 40 (1970) => 376.000 (1991) => 13M (1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial exchange, daily management of personal information, business information management, institutional promotion, journalistic information and entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fears: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet will lead to the collapse of broadcast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers will destroy the mass culture </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Internet users in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Asia - 530 mil </li></ul><ul><li>Europe - 382 mil </li></ul><ul><li>North America - 246 mil </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America/ Caribbean - 137 mil </li></ul><ul><li>Africa - 51 mil </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East - 42 mil </li></ul><ul><li>Oceania/ Australia - 19 mil </li></ul>
  11. 13. The Olympic Movement Online <ul><li>A not-to-be missed opportunity for the Olympic Movement’s information policies </li></ul><ul><li>1996, Atlanta - the first OCOG website </li></ul><ul><ul><li>online Olympic multimedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TV’s main competitor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of the International Olympic Federations and 18% of the National Olympic Committees were present online having their own website </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. “ The plurality of contents and the large dimension of the audience reached in Nagano, increased still further in Sydney 2000, present new problems for Olympic communication policy and, more specifically, for its policies regulating rights and cessation of exclusives. The first and main battle will be fought within the Olympic system itself. Especially significant was the competitiveness established between the site of the Sydney 2000 Organising Committee ( www. olympics .com ) and the web site of NBC ( )” Miguel de Moragas, 1999
  13. 15. The even newer Internet: Convergence & Web 2.0 <ul><li>2005 - Convergence media culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the collision of old and new media, along with the intersection of grassroots and corporate media and the unpredictable interaction between media producers and media consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2007 - Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a new challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a paradigmatic shift from the media hegemony thesis to one of conversational content or presenting content, as the connection among dispersed media content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media genres boundaries blurred </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Beijing 2008 <ul><li>Beijing 2008 - The Hi-Tech Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>221 million Internet users in China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15% increase compared to 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surpassed the US before the 2009 projection date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most active blogospheres (20 million active bloggers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 media centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IOC accredited media centre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beijing International Media Centre (also known as “non-accredited media”) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. What to expect? <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamism </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplicity of close-by unique angles </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>video on mobile phones, news alerts on email, RSS on the blogs, 3D and HDTV television and maybe even parallel Olympics in Second Life inspired by the competitions happening in the stadia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More attempts of information control </li></ul>
  16. 19. What next? <ul><li>Old media are not being displaced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather, their functions and status are shifted by the introduction of new technologies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More convergence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A further blurring of media genres boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Separation of new media rights from broadcasting rights </li></ul><ul><li>Tighter media rules and brand protection measures </li></ul>
  17. 20. So what do we do? <ul><li>Go to lunch and think about it! </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul>Ana ADI -