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Cascao Hydropolitics Twm Mena 2008(2 November)

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Cascao Hydropolitics Twm Mena 2008(2 November)

  1. 1. Hydropolitics in the MENA Region Ana Elisa Cascão King’s College of London Presentation to TWM 2008 MENA 2nd-3rd November 2008 2nd November
  2. 2. STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION <ul><li>2nd November [13:00-14:30] </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>1 - New research/knowledge on the linkages between water and politics </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>3rd November [08:30-10:00] </li></ul><ul><li>2 - Cases from the Middle East / North Africa region where international water law has been applied </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>3 - How to resolve conflicts and promote cooperation </li></ul>EXERCISE 1: Assessing power relations in transboundary basins EXERCISE 2: IWL and the Nile Basin case EXERCISE 3: If I was a donor…
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION MENA REGION: Transboundary water resources <ul><li>SURFACE + GROUNDWATER </li></ul><ul><li>WATER RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSBOUNDARY </li></ul><ul><li>RIVERS , LAKES & AQUIFERS </li></ul>MAPS
  4. 4. North Africa Transboundary River Basins DRA BASIN Morocco Algeria DAOURA BASIN Morocco Algeria GUIR BASIN Algeria Morocco OUED BON BASIN Morocco Algeria MEDJERDA BASIN Tunisia Algeria TAFNA BASIN Algeria Morocco NIGER BASIN Algeria +10 riparians LAKE CHAD BASIN Chad Algeria Sudan Libya +5 riparians NILE BASIN Egypt Sudan Ethiopia +7 riparians 
  5. 5. Middle East Transboundary River Basins JORDAN BASIN Jordan  Israel  Syria West Bank   Lebanon TIGRIS-EUPHRATES BASIN Iraq Turkey Iran Syria CORUH BASIN Turkey  Georgia ASI/ORONTES BASIN Turkey Syria Lebanon Wadi Al Izziyah BASIN Lebanon Israel An Nahr Al Kabir BASIN Syria Lebanon Nahr Al Kabir BASIN Syria Turkey 
  6. 6. North Africa Transboundary Aquifers 
  7. 7. Middle East Transboundary Aquifers 
  8. 8. Several water bodies, but not much water quantity 
  9. 9. Fundamentals <ul><li>Complex hydrological systems </li></ul><ul><li>Limited water availability </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges in transboundary management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics/Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sovereignty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts (others) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional and legal issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of international law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydropolitical cooperation is complex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transboundary ≠ Shared </li></ul>1 NEXUS WATER AND POLITICS 2 INTERNATIONAL WATER LAW 3 HYDROPOLITICAL COOPERATION
  10. 10. 1 – Linkages Water  Politics <ul><li>Water a multifaceted resource </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency and Interdependency </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage Water and Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro-Hegemony </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining and Ideational Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Securitisation Processes </li></ul>EXERCISE 1: Assessing power relations in transboundary basins
  11. 11. WATER as a multifaceted resource <ul><li>Water is a natural, social, economic and cultural resource </li></ul><ul><li>Water is a political resource as well! </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of water bodies in the world are transboundary </li></ul><ul><li>Water is an important factor of political economy </li></ul>Global Political Economy Regional Political Economy National Political Economies TRANSBOUNDARY WATERS
  12. 12. Water – Dependency and Interdependency <ul><li>Strong dependency  Conflictive interdependency </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Conflict  Cooperation Potential </li></ul>Dependency on water resources originating outside the country  World Bank, 2007
  13. 13. Sharing transboundary water resources <ul><li>Water is a political resource </li></ul><ul><li>Power relations are a key element in transboundary water management, sharing and allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Power relations are often asymmetric </li></ul>Sovereignty Law Allocation Knowledge Information Development Agriculture Hydropower Regime Conflict Cooperation Virtual water Economy Benefits  see UNDP 2006
  14. 14. WATER AND POLITICS – Framework of Hydro-Hegemony ( Zeitoun and Warner 2006 ) Often asymmetric Geography Material power Bargaining power Ideational power 4 PILLARS OF POWER 
  15. 15. <ul><li>Select a MENA transboundary basin and assess the four dimensions of power for each of the riparians </li></ul><ul><li>Power dimensions to take into account: </li></ul><ul><li>Classify it as Strong , Middle , or Weak for each riparian </li></ul>EXERCISE 1: Assessing power relations in transboundary basins <ul><li>Geography: </li></ul><ul><li>Riparian position </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to water </li></ul><ul><li>availability in the Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Suitability for hydraulic </li></ul><ul><li>projects </li></ul><ul><li>Material </li></ul><ul><li>Power: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Military power </li></ul><ul><li>Political stability </li></ul><ul><li>Political influence </li></ul><ul><li>in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>power: </li></ul><ul><li>Water “numbers” </li></ul><ul><li>and information available </li></ul><ul><li>Power to influence agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Power to set what </li></ul><ul><li>can or cannot be negotiated </li></ul><ul><li>Power to claim legitimacy </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. prior use) </li></ul><ul><li>Position concerning </li></ul><ul><li>international water law </li></ul><ul><li>Access to international funding </li></ul><ul><li>Ideational </li></ul><ul><li>Power: </li></ul><ul><li>Power to influence knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>production and sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Power to influence discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Available incentives to </li></ul><ul><li>influence neighbouring countries </li></ul><ul><li>Time factors (it can wait) </li></ul><ul><li>Silence factors (it can be hidden) </li></ul><ul><li>Power to play with ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Power to influence cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>process and agenda </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>At the end, we must be able to visualise Power Asymmetries between different riparians, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>How much asymmetric power relations are? </li></ul><ul><li>How influential is that in the management, sharing and allocation in your particular basin? </li></ul>EXERCISE 1: Assessing power relations in transboundary basins RIPARIAN A RIPARIAN B RIPARIAN C Geography Geography Geography Material power Material power Material power Bargaining power Bargaining power Bargaining power Ideational power Ideational power Ideational power
  17. 17. EGYPT (HH) SUDAN ETHIOPIA Geography Geography Geography Material power Material power Material power Bargaining power Bargaining power Bargaining power Ideational power Ideational power Ideational power Adapted from Zeitoun and Warner, 2006 TURKEY (HH) Bargaining power Ideational power SYRIA Geography Material power Bargaining power Ideational power IRAQ Geography Material power Bargaining power Ideational power Nile Basin Tigris-Euphrates Basin Geography Material power Some examples of HYDRO-HEGEMONY in the MENA region
  19. 19. IDEATIONAL POWER - Power to influence perceptions Asymmetric Knowledge Sanctioned Discourse Incentives Playing with time Silent Co-option Ambiguity Diplomacy/ Cooperation
  20. 20. POWER RELATIONS, CONFLICT & COOPERATION CO-EXIST Wolf et al 2003 Hydropolitical Power Relations are hidden 3 HYDROPOLITICAL COOPERATION Hydropolitical Power Relations must be unravelled Cascão 2007  
  21. 21. WATER SECURITISATION <ul><li>MENA region – water is a POLITICAL issue, but is as well a SECURITY issue </li></ul><ul><li>Securitisation processes ( Turton 2003, Phillips et al 2006 ) </li></ul>Water elevated to an issue of high politics Power asymmetries = Hydropolitical asymmetries Water as a national security issue Difficulties on Institutional/legal developments & cooperation  
  22. 22. By the end of the 1st session, participants should be aware : * Existing transboundary water resources in the MENA region and * Linkages between water, politics, power and security
  23. 23. <ul><li>Tomorrow morning – 2nd Session: </li></ul><ul><li>* International Water Law and the MENA region </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>* Conflict Resolution and Hydropolitical Cooperation in the region </li></ul>