Cascao East Anglia Cooperation Benefit Sharing

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  • Great efforts by Ana on the Nile Waters.
    I am still looking for the cureent full draft text of the CFA
    Tag Elkhazin
    elkhazin@subsaharacentre.ca
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  • Cascao East Anglia Cooperation Benefit Sharing

    1. 1. Transboundary water cooperation in the Nile Basin: generating and sharing benefits? Ana Elisa Cascão King’s College of London/ London Water Research Group DEV Seminars University of East Anglia 6th March 2009
    2. 2. Nile River Basin: Map
    3. 3. Nile River Basin: Overview
    4. 4. Nile Basin Hydropolitics SECURITISATION HYDRO-SOVEREIGNTY COOPERATION <ul><ul><li>Uneven distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequitable utilisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water = Politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water = National Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water = Sovereignty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power asymmetries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro-Hegemony ( Zeitoun and Warner 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problematic water agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past: conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water-Sharing: political priority </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Nile Basin: From conflict to cooperation?
    6. 6. Nile Basin Cooperation NILE BASIN INITIATIVE (1999) BENEFIT-SHARING PARADIGM
    7. 7. Benefit-Sharing Paradigm Benefits to the river Benefits from the river Benefits because of the river Benefits beyond the river BENEFITS OF COOPERATION Environmental Social Economic Political Sadoff and Grey 2002, 2005 “ A focus on sharing the benefits derived from the use of water, rather than the allocation of water itself, provides far greater scope for identifying mutually beneficial cooperative actions”
    8. 8. Benefit & Cost Sharing Matrix Level Types of benefits Environmental Social Economic Political Regional National Local BENEFIT & COST SHARING MATRIX Benefits Costs/Constraints
    9. 9. Hydro-Sovereignty: current scenario Aswan High Dam (Egypt) Merowe Dam (Sudan) Tekezze Dam (Ethiopia) ZERO-SUM SCENARIO
    10. 10. Unilateral projects: limited benefits & high costs <ul><li>. </li></ul>Level Types of benefits Environmental Social Economic Political Regional National Local BENEFITS: (unilateral) <ul><ul><li>National economic/social development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidated water control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political power (national and regional levels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bargaining power </li></ul></ul>COSTS/CONSTRAINTS: <ul><ul><li>Unsustainable development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequitable utilisation and allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric water control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero-sum outcomes </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Nile Basin Initiative: Joint projects with potential for benefits <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower production and trade </li></ul><ul><li>Watershed management </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation development (upstream) </li></ul>POSITIVE-SUM SCENARIO
    12. 12. 1. Hydropower Production and Trade
    13. 13. Hydropower Production and Trade Level Types of benefits Environmental Social Economic Political Regional National Local BENEFITS: <ul><ul><li>Energy supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power grid, pool and trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>River regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of water losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentation control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New water </li></ul></ul>COSTS/CONSTRAINTS: <ul><ul><li>Social and environmental externalities (regional and local levels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property rights and water allocations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water-sharing negotiations </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. 2. Watershed Management
    15. 15. Watershed Management <ul><li>. </li></ul>Level Types of benefits Environmental Social Economic Political Regional National Local !! BENEFITS: <ul><ul><li>Environmental services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem protection and conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion and sedimentation control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihoods alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved efficiency of dams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost reduction </li></ul></ul>COSTS/CONSTRAINTS: <ul><ul><li>Politically unattractive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unclear Benefit-sharing negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unclear identification of trade-offs </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 3. Irrigation Development (upstream)
    17. 17. Irrigation Development (upstream) Level Types of benefits Environmental Social Economic Political Regional National Local BENEFITS: <ul><ul><li>Suitable sites for irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased water productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient water utilisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watershed management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased food production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional food market and trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce food & poverty gaps </li></ul></ul>COSTS/CONSTRAINTS: <ul><ul><li>Water abstractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts on flows downstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politically controverse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propoperty rights and water allocations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water-Sharing negotiations </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Why the benefit-sharing paradigm did not work (so far) in the Nile Basin? CONCEPTUAL REASONS Poorly understood and not coherently developed Extremely theoretical and complex Rational and economicist model No clear rationale POLITICAL REASONS Water-Sharing is still the main political priority Self-interests and sovereignty still guides political decision Poor understanding of basin-wide management & cooperation NBI – no benefits delivered * Need to develop the concept further * Need to identify concrete development opportunities, incentives and trade-offs * Need to integrate BS and WS negotiations
    19. 19. Conclusions <ul><li>Cooperation: Potential exists! </li></ul><ul><li>But Benefits and Positive-sum outcomes still need to be materialised </li></ul><ul><li>Nile waters: Still extemely politicised </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro-Sovereignty mindsets remain </li></ul><ul><li>Water-Sharing still the priority </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit-Sharing alone is not the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiations for Benefit-sharing and Water-Sharing cannot be separated </li></ul>Transboundary water cooperation in the Nile Basin: generating and sharing benefits?
    20. 20. Thank you! [email_address]

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