Industrial Revolution

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Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. Industrial Revolution Western Europe & United States 1800-1900
  2. 2. Innovations of the Era <ul><li>Steam Engine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trains = Every city has a port! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ships = World trade explodes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Combustion Engine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile, reliable power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a huge demand for oil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refrigeration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transforms the way we shop & eat. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stronger & more flexible than iron. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Innovations Continued. <ul><li>Telegraph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News telegrams now faster than people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telephone (1890 onward) </li></ul><ul><li>Rotary Press </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass newspapers now available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth of modern media – World news available at your door! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News, art for home, family memories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People can see the news! </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Innovations Continued <ul><li>Agricultural Machines (tractors,etc) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge increase in food production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food surpluses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows population to move to cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1800 10% of Europe lived in Cities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1900 60% of Europe lived in Cities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Textile Machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing affordable for first time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorful, rich patterned material available. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moving Assembly Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatically reduces cost of everything </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Innovations Continued. <ul><li>Interchangeable parts </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity / Electric Light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factories now run 24 hours a day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brightens our world. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elevators? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall buildings transform cities & real-estate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automobile (After 1900) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transforms the way we live. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Airplane (After 1900) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transforms the way we travel. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Growth of Industry <ul><li>Industrial Capitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ever expanding businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Division of Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monkey work radically reduces cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assembly Lines – (already mentioned) </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations & Partnerships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockholders & Dividends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of big business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business Cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business expansion & decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bull vs. Bear market </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. New Society - Positives <ul><li>Rise of the Middle Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisure time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposable income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer goods available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New technologies make life at home easier </li></ul><ul><li>Government expands responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>public health (FDA), roads, bridges, dams, public schools, Labor laws, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creation of unions to protect workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Bargaining </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. New Society - Negatives <ul><li>Life as a worker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitive work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dangerous conditions at work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very long work day & work week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor wages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Huge population increases in cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrible sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Child Labor - A Photo Essay 9 year old working in a textile mill
  10. 10. A ten year old girl at a textile mill. Children made up 25% of the work force at this mill.
  11. 11. Lost Youth – These 12 year olds can’t read because they work 12 hour days at a factory. 1890
  12. 12. Machines weren’t turned off when the children had to fix broken bobbins.
  13. 13. Young boy in a glass factory. He is 13 years old and has worked here for 5 years.
  14. 14. Boys separate coal from rock . The overseer beats the boys into compliance. Black lung was a serious problem here.
  15. 15. 12 year old coal miner. Works deep underground in very dangerous conditions.
  16. 16. These boys report for work at the mine at 10:00 pm. They are waiting in the elevator shaft to be taken below. Notice there is no gate or fence to keep the children from falling below!
  17. 17. This 5 year old must separate the oysters from their shells. You can see by the huge pile behind him that his work never ends.
  18. 18. What sort of future does our society have if our children can’t get an education?
  19. 19. That’s it! Now for a few Slides! Who is a good clicker?
  20. 20. Societal Changes <ul><li>Growth of the cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1800 11 cities of 100,000 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1900 100 cities of 100,000 people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Populations now well fed </li></ul><ul><li>Populations now well informed </li></ul>
  21. 21. Steam Engine
  22. 22. Steam Ship
  23. 23. Telegraph
  24. 24. Refrigeration
  25. 25. Child Labor
  26. 26. Child Labor
  27. 27. Child Labor
  28. 28. Worker Families

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