(Cognitive)Dissonance TheoryPeople tend to seek only messages that are consonant with their attitudes; they do not seek out dissonant messages.Four rings of defense Selective exposure Selective attention Selective perception Selective retention
Example of CognitiveDissonance Consider someone who buys an expensive car but discovers that it is not comfortable on long drives. Dissonance exists between their beliefs that they have bought a good car and that a good car should be comfortable. Dissonance could be eliminated by deciding that it does not matter since the car is mainly used for short trips (reducing the importance of the dissonant belief) or focusing on the cars strengths such as safety, appearance, handling (thereby adding more consonant beliefs). The dissonance could also be eliminated by getting rid of the car, but this behavior is a lot harder to achieve than changing beliefs.
Understanding CognitiveDissonance List two things that you have cognitive dissonance about—that is, things you don’t wish to know anything about—and explain why. These things could be anything at all—horror movies, toothpaste commercials, a type of music, a political candidate, someone else’s problems, the state of the ozone layer, etc.1. What is the most common technique you use to avoid information about these things?2. If you were trying to reach someone like yourself with information on these things, what approach would you try?
Elaboration Likelihood ModelPersuasive messages are transmitted and received through twodifferent routes:•The Central Route – Used by people who think about messagesextensively before becoming persuaded•The Peripheral Route – Used by those who are unable or unwillingto spend time thinking about a message.
Things to Note about ELM Personally relevant issues are more likely to be processed on the central route; issues with little relevance take the peripheral route Certain individuals have a need for cognitive clarity, regardless of the issue; these people will work through many of the ideas and arguments they hear and will generally use the central route. Distraction disrupts elaboration Repetition may increase the possibility of elaboration.
Practical Advice for thePersuader If listeners are motivated and able to elaborate a message, rely on factual arguments Weak arguments can backfire If listeners are unwilling to elaborate a message you should favor the peripheral route with packaging rather than content When using the peripheral route remember that the effects will probably be fragile
Persuasive Strategies Identification Suggestion of Action Familiarity and Trust Clarity
Compliance Strategies Persuasive strategies designed to gain agreement through techniques of persuasion based not on reasoned argument but on some other method of enticement. Sanction strategies – use rewards and punishments controlled by either audience members themselves or as a result of the situation. Appeal strategies – call upon the audience to help or come to the aid of the communicator or a third party. Command Strategies – Direct requests, Explanation, Hints
Argument Strategies Persuasive strategies designed to oppose another point of view and to persuade Reasoned Argument – logical argument MotivatedSequence Imagined Q&A Message aimed at attitude change Appeal – Using emotion techniques to Emotional persuade an audience Symbols,emotive language and entertainment Dear Sophie Video
Choosing the Appropriate Mediumor Media Determine Target Audience Timing Budget Which medium reaches the broadest segment of your target audience at the lowest cost? Which medium has the highest credibility and what does it cost? Which medium will deliver your message within the time constraints necessary for it to be effective? Should a single medium be used or a combination of complementary media?
Advantages and Disadvantages ofMedia Selections Newspapers Magazines Radio Television Direct Mail Outdoor The Internet
Negotiating Media Buys Negotiate rates Negotiate positioning Negotiate additional opportunities Negotiate added value
Examples of Media Pricing Kansas City Star Glamour Magazine Facebook
Choosing the Right Medium1. Who are your target audiences here in order of priority? Why them? Why in that order?2. What would you like to say to them? Would you be informative? Persuasive? Combination?3. In what form do you think they would be most likely to ―listen‖ to what you have to say? That is to say, do you think they’re basically newspaper readers? TV watchers? Telephone chatters?4. What medium, or combination of media, would you use to get your message out to your targets? Why these media?5. Are there any media you wouldn’t use? Why wouldn’t you?
What is news? Consequence Interest Timeliness Proximity Prominence
Working with the Media Get to know journalists’ jobs Get to know journalists as people Carolyn Long – Julius Karash – KC KCTV5 Business Journal
Guidelines for Dealing with theMedia Always be honest Establish ground rules early on your relationship Always answer a reporter’s phone calls Give media people what they want, not what you want Don’t bombard journalists Don’t assume reporters are out to get you Don’t try to intimidate reporters Don’t plead your case or follow up on stories
Guidelines for Interviews Keep everything on the record Provide background Know the topic Anticipate touchy questions Answer questions that are already a matter of public record Be completely honest Answer questions directly If you don’t know the answer say so Keep it cordial, no matter what happens Look professional Offer help later if needed, and give it
Guidelines for Correcting Errors Always be as diplomatic as possible Contact the reporter immediately Remain calm and courteous If the story has already been run, ask for a correction Ask if there’s anything you can do in the future to prevent this sort of thing from happening again
Judging Newsworthiness Which of the following happenings would most likely be considered newsworthy by your local newspaper? Explain why or why not. If it’s not already, how could you make each happening more newsworthy?1. Your company’s annual picnic (date and place, etc.)2. The promotion of your company’s vice president of engineering to senior vice president of research and development.3. The death of one of your company’s longtime employees.4. Your company’s quarterly earnings statement.5. The wedding of your corporate CEO.6. The latest information on your company’s newest product.
Media Directories Bacon’s PR and Media Information Systems Editor & Publisher Standard Rate and Data Services
Getting your Message to theMedia Broadcast Cover Letter Press Kits NASA - The Final Flight of Discovery PPG Aerospace What items might you include in a press kit for an announcement of a new product?
Upcoming Assignments Interview Determine interviewee and alternate Draft 5-10 interview questions Contact interviewee and set-up time for interview Conduct a 15-20 minute interview Write 2 page summary of interview. Include quotes. Read through Chapter 6