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CA 218 – PUBLICRELATIONS    Professor: Amy L Stewart, MA
March 27 Schedule   5:30 p.m.: AP Style Quiz   6 p.m.: Chapter 4   7 p.m.: Break   7:15p.m.: Chapter 5   8 p.m.: Upco...
Choosing the Right Message and            Medium
(Cognitive)Dissonance TheoryPeople tend to seek only messages that are consonant with their attitudes; they do not seek ou...
Example of CognitiveDissonance   Consider someone who buys an expensive car but    discovers that it is not comfortable o...
Understanding CognitiveDissonance    List two things that you have cognitive dissonance     about—that is, things you don...
Elaboration Likelihood ModelPersuasive messages are transmitted and received through twodifferent routes:•The Central Rout...
Things to Note about ELM   Personally relevant issues are more likely to    be processed on the central route; issues wit...
Practical Advice for thePersuader   If listeners are motivated and able to elaborate    a message, rely on factual argume...
Persuasive Strategies   Identification   Suggestion of Action   Familiarity and Trust   Clarity
Compliance Strategies   Persuasive strategies designed to gain    agreement through techniques of persuasion    based not...
Argument Strategies   Persuasive strategies designed to oppose    another point of view and to persuade     Reasoned Arg...
Kristy W
Choosing the Appropriate Mediumor Media   Determine Target Audience   Timing   Budget   Which medium reaches the broad...
Advantages and Disadvantages ofMedia Selections   Newspapers   Magazines   Radio   Television   Direct Mail   Outdoo...
Negotiating Media Buys   Negotiate rates   Negotiate positioning   Negotiate additional opportunities   Negotiate adde...
Examples of Media Pricing   Kansas City Star   Glamour Magazine   Facebook
Choosing the Right Medium1.   Who are your target audiences here in order of     priority? Why them? Why in that order?2. ...
Media Relations and    Placement
What is news?   Consequence   Interest   Timeliness   Proximity   Prominence
Working with the Media   Get to know journalists’ jobs   Get to know journalists as people          Carolyn Long –      ...
Guidelines for Dealing with theMedia   Always be honest   Establish ground rules early on your    relationship   Always...
Guidelines for Interviews   Keep everything on the record   Provide background   Know the topic   Anticipate touchy qu...
Guidelines for Correcting Errors   Always be as diplomatic as possible   Contact the reporter immediately   Remain calm...
Judging Newsworthiness    Which of the following happenings would most likely     be considered newsworthy by your local ...
Media Directories  Bacon’s  PR and Media Information Systems  Editor & Publisher  Standard Rate and Data Services
Media Lists
Getting your Message to theMedia   Broadcast Cover Letter   Press Kits     NASA  - The Final Flight of Discovery     P...
Upcoming Assignments   Interview     Determine   interviewee and alternate     Draft 5-10 interview questions     Cont...
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CA 218 – Public Relations Class 2

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CA 218 – Public Relations Class 2

  1. 1. CA 218 – PUBLICRELATIONS Professor: Amy L Stewart, MA
  2. 2. March 27 Schedule 5:30 p.m.: AP Style Quiz 6 p.m.: Chapter 4 7 p.m.: Break 7:15p.m.: Chapter 5 8 p.m.: Upcoming assignments  Interview
  3. 3. Choosing the Right Message and Medium
  4. 4. (Cognitive)Dissonance TheoryPeople tend to seek only messages that are consonant with their attitudes; they do not seek out dissonant messages.Four rings of defense Selective exposure Selective attention Selective perception Selective retention
  5. 5. Example of CognitiveDissonance Consider someone who buys an expensive car but discovers that it is not comfortable on long drives. Dissonance exists between their beliefs that they have bought a good car and that a good car should be comfortable. Dissonance could be eliminated by deciding that it does not matter since the car is mainly used for short trips (reducing the importance of the dissonant belief) or focusing on the cars strengths such as safety, appearance, handling (thereby adding more consonant beliefs). The dissonance could also be eliminated by getting rid of the car, but this behavior is a lot harder to achieve than changing beliefs.
  6. 6. Understanding CognitiveDissonance List two things that you have cognitive dissonance about—that is, things you don’t wish to know anything about—and explain why.  These things could be anything at all—horror movies, toothpaste commercials, a type of music, a political candidate, someone else’s problems, the state of the ozone layer, etc.1. What is the most common technique you use to avoid information about these things?2. If you were trying to reach someone like yourself with information on these things, what approach would you try?
  7. 7. Elaboration Likelihood ModelPersuasive messages are transmitted and received through twodifferent routes:•The Central Route – Used by people who think about messagesextensively before becoming persuaded•The Peripheral Route – Used by those who are unable or unwillingto spend time thinking about a message.
  8. 8. Things to Note about ELM Personally relevant issues are more likely to be processed on the central route; issues with little relevance take the peripheral route Certain individuals have a need for cognitive clarity, regardless of the issue; these people will work through many of the ideas and arguments they hear and will generally use the central route. Distraction disrupts elaboration Repetition may increase the possibility of elaboration.
  9. 9. Practical Advice for thePersuader If listeners are motivated and able to elaborate a message, rely on factual arguments Weak arguments can backfire If listeners are unwilling to elaborate a message you should favor the peripheral route with packaging rather than content When using the peripheral route remember that the effects will probably be fragile
  10. 10. Persuasive Strategies Identification Suggestion of Action Familiarity and Trust Clarity
  11. 11. Compliance Strategies Persuasive strategies designed to gain agreement through techniques of persuasion based not on reasoned argument but on some other method of enticement.  Sanction strategies – use rewards and punishments controlled by either audience members themselves or as a result of the situation.  Appeal strategies – call upon the audience to help or come to the aid of the communicator or a third party.  Command Strategies – Direct requests, Explanation, Hints
  12. 12. Argument Strategies Persuasive strategies designed to oppose another point of view and to persuade  Reasoned Argument – logical argument  MotivatedSequence  Imagined Q&A  Message aimed at attitude change Appeal – Using emotion techniques to  Emotional persuade an audience  Symbols,emotive language and entertainment  Dear Sophie Video
  13. 13. Kristy W
  14. 14. Choosing the Appropriate Mediumor Media Determine Target Audience Timing Budget Which medium reaches the broadest segment of your target audience at the lowest cost? Which medium has the highest credibility and what does it cost? Which medium will deliver your message within the time constraints necessary for it to be effective? Should a single medium be used or a combination of complementary media?
  15. 15. Advantages and Disadvantages ofMedia Selections Newspapers Magazines Radio Television Direct Mail Outdoor The Internet
  16. 16. Negotiating Media Buys Negotiate rates Negotiate positioning Negotiate additional opportunities Negotiate added value
  17. 17. Examples of Media Pricing Kansas City Star Glamour Magazine Facebook
  18. 18. Choosing the Right Medium1. Who are your target audiences here in order of priority? Why them? Why in that order?2. What would you like to say to them? Would you be informative? Persuasive? Combination?3. In what form do you think they would be most likely to ―listen‖ to what you have to say? That is to say, do you think they’re basically newspaper readers? TV watchers? Telephone chatters?4. What medium, or combination of media, would you use to get your message out to your targets? Why these media?5. Are there any media you wouldn’t use? Why wouldn’t you?
  19. 19. Media Relations and Placement
  20. 20. What is news? Consequence Interest Timeliness Proximity Prominence
  21. 21. Working with the Media Get to know journalists’ jobs Get to know journalists as people Carolyn Long – Julius Karash – KC KCTV5 Business Journal
  22. 22. Guidelines for Dealing with theMedia Always be honest Establish ground rules early on your relationship Always answer a reporter’s phone calls Give media people what they want, not what you want Don’t bombard journalists Don’t assume reporters are out to get you Don’t try to intimidate reporters Don’t plead your case or follow up on stories
  23. 23. Guidelines for Interviews Keep everything on the record Provide background Know the topic Anticipate touchy questions Answer questions that are already a matter of public record Be completely honest Answer questions directly If you don’t know the answer say so Keep it cordial, no matter what happens Look professional Offer help later if needed, and give it
  24. 24. Guidelines for Correcting Errors Always be as diplomatic as possible Contact the reporter immediately Remain calm and courteous If the story has already been run, ask for a correction Ask if there’s anything you can do in the future to prevent this sort of thing from happening again
  25. 25. Judging Newsworthiness Which of the following happenings would most likely be considered newsworthy by your local newspaper? Explain why or why not. If it’s not already, how could you make each happening more newsworthy?1. Your company’s annual picnic (date and place, etc.)2. The promotion of your company’s vice president of engineering to senior vice president of research and development.3. The death of one of your company’s longtime employees.4. Your company’s quarterly earnings statement.5. The wedding of your corporate CEO.6. The latest information on your company’s newest product.
  26. 26. Media Directories  Bacon’s PR and Media Information Systems  Editor & Publisher  Standard Rate and Data Services
  27. 27. Media Lists
  28. 28. Getting your Message to theMedia Broadcast Cover Letter Press Kits  NASA - The Final Flight of Discovery  PPG Aerospace  What items might you include in a press kit for an announcement of a new product?
  29. 29. Upcoming Assignments Interview  Determine interviewee and alternate  Draft 5-10 interview questions  Contact interviewee and set-up time for interview  Conduct a 15-20 minute interview  Write 2 page summary of interview. Include quotes. Read through Chapter 6

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