D R . A M Y P I O T R O W S K I
A S S I S T A N T P R O F E S S O R O F S E C O N D A R Y
E D U C A T I O N A N D E N G L I S H E D U C A T I O N
U T A H S T A T E U N I V E R S I T Y - U I N T A H B A S I N
Preservice English Teachers’ Experiences
With Flipped Learning
Preservice teachers need to be introduced to
different technology tools and pedagogical
strategies for teaching their content with
Teacher education programs would do well to
equip teachers with the multiple types of
knowledge they need: content, pedagogy, and
1. How do preservice English Language Arts
teachers construct their knowledge on the
different parts of the TPACK framework?
2. How do preservice English Language Arts
teachers utilize different kinds of knowledge as
they learn to teach English with technology?
3. How does creating flipped lessons facilitate or
not facilitate preservice English Language Arts
teachers’ application of content knowledge and
pedagogical knowledge to create lessons that use
How do preservice secondary English teachers
construct their knowledge of content, pedagogy, and
technology by creating flipped lessons?
I examined a course for undergraduates seeking
licensure in secondary (grades 6-12) English. During
this course, the undergraduates learned how to use
digital technology tools to flip lessons
Term “flipped classroom” coined by Baker (2000) when
he had students review Power Point slides before coming
Sams and Bergmann (2014) say that in flipped learning,
“direct instruction is delivered individually, usually –
though not exclusively – through teacher-created videos”
It’s a “flexible technique to be used when appropriate to
maximize face-to-face time with students”
Research on the flipped classroom suggests it is effective
because it frees up time for active, hands-on learning
Research on preservice teachers and technology
integration suggests that instruction in technology
and teaching with technology benefits preservice
Previous research on preservice English teachers
found that the models of literacy presented by
teacher educators affects the way preservice teachers
think of literacy
Case study of nine undergraduate preservice
secondary English teachers who took an online
course focused on teaching English with technology
during Summer 2015
Participants were interviewed twice (before and after
course), course assignments were collected,
participants wrote three reflections during the
course, I watched flipped lesson videos participants
made for the course
There was no pattern to participant’s knowledge
development on the TPACK framework –
participants used knowledge from all parts of
TPACK framework as needed throughout the
course, not in steps or stages of development
Creating flipped lesson facilitated application of
content knowledge but not learning of new content
Participants made flipped lesson videos on:
Plot structure and elements of fiction (3 participants)
Argumentation and analyzing arguments
Rhetoric and Unwind
Bitstrips response to Smile and resume writing
Writing a biography of a historical figure
When participants created their flipped lessons, they
all used familiar content they felt comfortable
teaching. This content came from their previous
coursework, from things they had seen their own
high school teachers do, and from things they said
When learning a new teaching method, preservice
teachers may want to teach content they’re
Participants saw potential for flipped learning in
secondary English classes. They thought that flipped
learning could be used for a variety of lessons.
Participants said that flipped English lessons could
potentially free up more time for discussion of
literature and for time in class to write.
Participants saw saw potential drawbacks of
flipped learning as well. They were especially
concerned about students not all having access to
technology. This suggests that participants learned
to consider the contexts of different schools and
students that they may one day teach.
Some participants said that they found recording
themselves on video to be strange
Also, some participants said making the videos was a
challenge because it left them without students
asking questions to respond to
Participants saw technology as a necessity in the
English classroom in order for students to be
successful in the 21st century, but they did not want
to completely abandon traditional print-based
One participant said, “One goal of education is to
provide students with skills they will be using outside
of the classroom, and that includes digital literacy.”
Participants worried about keeping up with new
technologies when they became teachers – saw
technology as something they would always need to
learn more about so that their students wouldn’t fall
One participant said, “While I want my students to
try different styles/modes of reading and writing,
standardized tests and colleges do not value this type
of learning as much.”
Participants said that one of the most beneficial
parts of the course was getting hands on experience
with technology tools that enable digital literacy
Several participants said that they wanted to go on to
their fieldwork and student teaching to see how
practicing English teachers use technology in the
classroom to teach literacy to today’s students
The findings of this study suggest that preservice
teachers benefit from gaining experience with
teaching methods that integrate technology into
Flipped lessons can be one instructional tool in a
teacher’s toolbox, used when useful to the teacher
and to the students.
Preservice teachers created flipped lessons on a
young adult novel in an online YAL course
Two participants created very different lessons:
one encouraged students to make lots of personal
connections to the novel Shadow and Bone while
the other discussed types of characters and how to
write a literary analysis focusing on a character in
Flipped learning is flexible method useful for a
variety of approaches to teaching YAL
Flipping distance English education and secondary
education courses taught synchronously through
interactive video broadcast
Focus class time on having students meet in small
groups and practice teaching lessons using
methods and strategies we have learned
Goal is to make broadcast classes more interactive
and give students a chance to collaborate
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