What role did the invention and development playin the development of the first civilization? Discuss how the invention of writing had an affecton various parts of civilization. Talk about how theoretical discoveries andtechnological inventions shaped their society. Discuss their religion
Math-they were the first to give a number a placevalue and recognize the concept of zero. They divided time up by 60’s including 60 sec and 60minutes; Which we still use today. They divided the circle into 360 degrees and thecircumference of a circle this helped them keep trackof records as well as building projects. They discovered the number for pi 3.14
They divided the year into 12 months.Themonth was divided up into 29-30 days andthe days into 2x12 hours. The calendar was primarily lunar Their year was about 354 days
The Sumerians developed a form of pictographic writing that used wordpictures like bird, fish, ox or grain etc., around 4000 - 3500 BC. In 3000 BC, it developed into a cursive form of cuneiform style of writingwhich was a wedge shaped linear impression on clay tablets Cuneiform symbols were made by scribes who used a stylus. Writing was the most significant invention at the time. Invention of writing become the revolution of information. Storinginformation allowed it to travel long distances without relying onsomebody elses memory. Text also become the information that was available for futuregeneration. Writing in fact, helps assure the continuity of civilization, because itcarries a tangible record of the human race from generation togeneration.
Writing is important for civilization because ithelped the scribes and artisans conduct theirdaily task. It helped the economy by creatingand recording business transactions. Writing now created a record of thelaws and gave order to create rulesand regulations. Writing poetry and fiction passed down storiesin written form instead of by memory.
The Mesopotamians recordeddirections on the maps they created. The invention of maps wasimportant because it helped people explain andfollow directions.
The Mesopotamians used the wheel to makepottery wheels, before this pottery was made outof wet clay formed by hand then laid out to dry. Goods such as tin and copper that where importedto Mesopotamia could be transported faster. They used the wheel to make war chariots. The wheel was used to gettingwater for the irrigation system
When Mesopotamians first began to make pottery it wasshaped by hand. Pottery was important in every householdin Mesopotamia because it provided cooking utensils, foodstorage containers. Pottery was used for religiouspurposes as well. Certain bowlswere used for scaring awaydemons. They made bowls forflowers which we call vases.
The Mesopotamians wereamong the first to harness the wind as anenergy source by using the sail. They used papyrus, a plant that growsthroughout theTigris and Euphrates rivers tomake the sails. The papyrus reed mats where stretchedbetween two poles making a simple yetaffective sail.
The Mesopotamians usedtheTigris and the Euphratesrivers to create theirirrigation system. They used the Euphrateswater as the supply,and theTigris channelas a drain. This was because theEuphrates river washigher than theTigris.
The seeder plow was a major technologicalachievement. It transformed agriculture by carrying out thetasks of seeding and plowing together. The Mesopotamians believed that the godEnlil created the seeder plow and that theimage of the plow could also be seen in thestars.*This demonstrates how religion/beliefs were a part their everyday lives*
The Mesopotamians had hundreds of gods. Every city had their own patron god orgoddess. People depended on a relationship with theirown personal god…sort of what we call aguardian angel.
The priest were the upper-class of society They were Inﬂuential becauseof the importance of theirreligion and their relationshipwith the gods The priest were consideredthe doctors’ of their timewhich is also importantbecause Mesopotamianswere among the first to haverecords of medicine andsurgeries The priest were sometimesthe kings
There where greater gods who the Mesopotamiansbelieved controlled major realms of the universe,such as the sky, the sun, the air These gods received attentionas major deities(Idols). Utu- was the sun godand the lord of truth and justice Nanna- was the moon god Inanna- was the goddess of love and war Ninhursag- was the goddess of earth Enki- was the god of fresh water as well as the lord ofwisdom and magic Anu- was the father of the gods he was the sky god. Enlil was the god of the air