• The middle classes became more prosperous during the 18th century.• Women obtained the comfort to read as well as the freedom to write novels• As a result of this Girl Reading - Painting by Jean Renoir (1841-1919) , experiences and By the nineteenth century , images of women problems of women were reading silently , in the privacy of the room , became common in European paintings . made public.
• As women began to write novels , it was also feared that that they would neglect their traditional duties as wives and mothers , and their homes would be in disarray . The home of a Woman author , by George Cruikshank . When women began writing many people feared that they would neglect their role as wives and mothers novels and homes would be in disorder
• Novels written by female authors were mostly about domestic lives – the only subject women could speak about freely at the time . they drew upon their experience, wrote about family life and earned public recognition• Another popular theme among female novelists was ‘rebellion’ – breaking established societal rules and regulations.• Such novels portrayed women as independent and assertive , while they were expected to be submissive and quiet . In Jane Eyre (1874) by Charlotte Bronte charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre (1874) , young Jane is shown as independent and assertive while the girls of her time were expected to be quiet and well behaved .
Charlotte Bronte• George Eliot was the pen name of Mary Ann Evans who was a very popular novelist , she believed that novels gave women a special opportunity to express their views .
Jane Austen• Novels written by Jane Austen give a perspective of the rural British society in the early 19oos.• In Austen’s society , women were encouraged to settle down quickly , marrying rich or propertied husbands. Her novels are thus a portrayal of such a society.• Austens plots are fundamentally about education; her heroines come to see themselves and their conduct more clearly, and become better, more moral people.
• Her novels highlight how some female characters take charge of their own worlds while others are confined, physically and spiritually.• Almost all of her works explore the precarious economic situation in which women of the late 18th and early 19th centuries found themselves. Pride and Prejudice (1813) Pride and Prejudice
Novels for young boys idealised anew type of man: someone whowas powerful, assertive,independent and daring. Most ofthese novels were full of adventureset in places remote from Europe.The colonisers appear heroic andhonourable – confronting ‘native’peoples and strange surroundings,adapting to native life as well aschanging it, colonising territories and Robert Louis Stevensonthen developing nations there. (1850-1894)Books like R.L. Stevenson’s Treasure Rudyard Kipling Treasure Book (1894) Jungle Island (1883)Island (1883) or Rudyard Kipling’s (1865-1936) By Rudyard Kipling By Robert Louis StevensonJungle Book (1894) became great (1865-1936) (1850-1894)hits.
G.A. Henty’s historical adventure novels for boys were also wildly popularduring the height of the British empire. They aroused the excitement andadventure of conquering strange lands. They were set in Mexico,Alexandria, Siberia and many other countries. They were always aboutyoung boys who witness grand historical events, get involved in somemilitary action and show what they called ‘English’ courage. G.A Henty (1832-1902) Novels by G.A Henty
Love stories written for adolescent girls also first became popular in thisperiod, especially in the US, notably Ramona (1884) by Helen HuntJackson and a series entitled What Katy Did (1872) by Sarah ChaunceyWoolsey, who wrote under the pen-name Susan Coolidge. Ramona (1884) by Helen Hunt Jackson What Katy Did (1872) Sarah Chauncey Helen Hunt Jackson Woolsey, who wrote under the pen-name Susan Coolidge.
The novel originated in Europe at a time when it was colonising the rest of theworld. The early novel contributed to colonialism by making the readers feelthey were part of a superior community of fellow colonialists. The hero ofDaniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (1719) is an adventurer and slave trader.Shipwrecked on an island, Crusoe treats coloured people not as human beingsequal to him, but as inferior creatures. He rescues a ‘native’ and makes himhis slave. He does not ask for his name but arrogantly gives him the nameFriday. But at the time, Crusoe’s behaviour was not seen as unacceptable orodd, for most writers of the time saw colonialism as natural . Robinson Crusoe (1719) By Daniel Defoe Daniel Defoe
Colonised people were seen as primitive and barbaric, less than human; andcolonial rule was considered necessary to civilise them, to make them fullyhuman. It was only later, in the twentieth century, that writers like JosephConrad (1857-1924) wrote novels that showed the darker side of colonialoccupation. Joseph Conrad Novels by Joseph Conrad
In India, stories were recited in form ofprose. Banabhatta’s Kadambari (writtenin Sanskrit in the 17th century) ,Panchtantra , and Dastan (a prose tales ofadventures & heroism in Persian & Urdu)are examplesThe modern novel form developed inIndia as Indians became familiar with thewestern novel . The development of thevernaculars , print and a reading publichelped in this process . The Panchatantra ( original Sanskrit work, which is believed to be composed in the 3rd century BC is attributed to Vishnu Sharma)
Some of the earliest novels werewritten in Bengali & Marathi. Theearliest novel in Marathi was BabaPadmanji’s ‘ Yamuna Paryatan’(1857) ,which used a simple style of storytelling to speak about the plight ofwidows. This was followed byLakshman Moreshwar Halbe’s‘Muktamala’ (1861) presenting animaginary romance with a moral Kadambari by banabhattapurpose. (7th century)Translations of novels into differentregional languages helped to spreadthe popularity of the novel andstimulated the growth of novels innew areas
Novels in South Indian languages startedappearing during the period of colonialrule . Most of these early novels cameout of attempts to translate Englishnovels into Indian languages.For example O.Chandu menon , a subjudge from Malabar , tried to translatean English novel ‘Henrietta Temple’ byBenjamin Disraeli into Malayalam .Buthe quickly realized that the readers werenot familiar with the English lifestyle :their clothes , ways of speaking ,manners e.t.c , thus they would find thedirect translation of an english noveldreadfully boring .
So he gave up this idea and instead wrote anovel in malayalam in the manner of englishnovels . This novel called the ‘Indulekha’ Indulekha (1889) was the first modern novel in, published in 1889 , was the first modern Malayalamnovel in Malayalam O. Chandu Menon Indulekha in(sub judge in Malabar and malayalam author of ‘Indulekha’)
The case in Andhra Pradesh was similar to Kandukurithat in Kerala . viresalingamKandukuri Viresalingam (1848-1919) triedtranslating Oliver Goldsmith ‘s Vicar ofWakefield into Telugu . He abandoned thisplan due to reasons similar to thatprevailing in Kerala and instead wrote anoriginal Telugu novel called ‘rajasekharacaritamu’ in the year 1878 Kandukuri Viresalingam (1848-1919)
Prepared By :Shyma ThanzySurbhi Pradhan & FOR WATCHINGFatma Rahman