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Anatomy Final Exam Review	<br />Bio 168<br />
Anterior <br />Anterior- front or toward the front of the body<br />
Posterior<br />Posterior- back or toward the back of the body<br />
Lateral & Medial<br />Lateral- Further from the midline of the body. The arms are lateral to the spine.<br />Medial- close...
Metabolism	<br />The sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body.<br />
Catabolism<br />Catabolism provides the energy to sustain life.<br />The breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpl...
Feedback System<br />Receptor- Sensor that is sensitive to a particular stimulus<br />Control center- Receives and process...
pH<br />An acid solution (pH below 7) contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions.<br />A basic solution (pH above 7) ...
Peptide Bond<br />A peptide bond is a covalent bond between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of an...
CHONPS<br />Carbon<br />Hydrogen<br />Oxygen<br />Nitrogen<br />Phosphorus<br />Sulfur<br />These elements make up 96% of ...
Electron<br />An electron is the part of an atom that participates in a chemical reaction.<br />
Crenation of a red blood cell may occur if it is placed in a hypertonic solution.<br />
Translation begins when a mRNA strand binds to a small ribosomal sub unit.<br />
Translation stops when there is a stop codone.<br />
An isotonic solution has an osmotic pressure equal to the solution to which it is compared.<br />
4 types of tissue in the body<br />
Epithelial tissue- covers exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways and chambers, forms glands<br />
Connective tissue- fills internal spaces, provides structural support for other tissues and transports materials within th...
Muscle tissue- specialized for contraction and includes the skeletal muscles, cardiac muscle and the smooth muscle that li...
Neural tissue- carries info from one part of the body to another in the form of neural impulses.<br />
Connective tissue is where our major energy reserves are located.<br />
Connective tissue contains collagen, elastin and reticular fibers, and several kind of cells embedded in a semi fluid grou...
Skeletal muscle tissue consists of cylindrical in shape with striated fibers, and many peripheral nuclei just inside the p...
Dense regular connective tissue forms tendons and ligaments.<br />
Elastic fibers contain the protein elastin.<br />
Epithelial tissue is avascular.<br />
Simple squamous epithelium has only one layer with thin, flat, irregular shaped cells<br />
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body.<br />
The main function of sweat is to cool the surface of the skin to reduce body temperature.<br />
Melanin is a pigment in the skin which absorbs UV rays and contributes to skin color.<br />
Nails are keratinized epidermal cells.<br />
The stratum lucidum is only found in the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.<br />
The first stage in deep wound healing is a blood clot forms at the site of injury.<br />
The rule of 9’s<br />
Keratinocytes are the epidermal cells that make keratin which makes the skin waterproof.<br />
The stratum germinavatum has a single layer of cuboidal to columnar cells that are capable of continued cell division.<br />
The haversian canal or central canal within an osteon provides a pathway for the diffusion of nutrients within compact bon...
Metaphysis	<br />The metaphysis is located between the epiphysis and the diaphysis.<br />
Over secretion of growth hormone can cause an excessive growth in height.<br />
A child whose bones are not fully ossified is more likely to have a greenstick fracture.<br />
Periosteum is the dense, white, fibrous covering around a bone.<br />
Ostoeblasts are cells that form bone.<br />
Osteoclasts are cells that function in the reabsorption of bone.<br />
Oseocytes are mature bone cells.<br />
The foramen magnum is located in the occipital bone.<br />
The squamous suture is located between the parietal bone and the temporal bone.<br />
The illiac crest is a narrow ridge like projection on the hip bone.<br />
The pectoral girdle consists of the clavicles and the scapulae<br />
In a symphysis fibrous connective tissue connects the articulating bones.<br />
A symphysis is NOT a type of diarthrosis.<br />
The prominent sutures of the skull are the lambdoid suture, coronal suture, sagittal suture and the squamous suture.<br />
The lambdoid suture separates the occipital bone from the 2 parietal bones.<br />
The coronal suture separates the frontal bone from the parietal bones.<br />
The sagittal suture divides the parietal bones.<br />
The pelvic girdle consists of the paired hip bones.<br />
The squamous suture separates the temporal bone from the parietal bone.<br />
There are 5 metatarsals on each foot.<br />
The sphenoid bone is part of the cranial floor.<br />
Myoblasts are embryonic cells that develop into muscles.<br />
Cardiac fibers connect to each other at intercalculated discs.<br />
The origin of a muscle is the place where the fixed end attaches to a bone, cartilage, or connective tissue.<br />
An adductor causes movement towards the midline of the body.<br />
The gracilis muscle is located in the deep muscles of the inner thigh.<br />
A motor unit is all muscle fibers controlled by a single motor unit.<br />
Acetocholine (Ach) is the neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction of a skeletal muscle.<br />
The cytoplasm of a muscle cell is called the sarcoplasm.<br />
Oligodendrocytes are neuroglia in the CNS that produce a myelin sheath.<br />
The nucleus of a neuron is located in the perikyron of the cell body.<br />
The myelin sheath functions to speed up neural impulses.<br />
The axon of the neuron carries impulses away from the cell body.<br />
The neuron is the most abundant cell within nervous tissue.<br />
The duramater is the outermost layer of the meninges.<br />
The piamater is the innermost layer of the meninges.<br />
The spinal cord in an adult extends from the base of the brain to vertebra L1 or L2.<br />
The dorsal root of the spinal nerve contains only sensory fibers.<br />
The ventral root of the spinal nerve contains only efferent (motor) fibers.<br />
The brachial plexus is where the nerves to and from the upper limbs arise.<br />
A dermatome is a specific bilateral region of skin that is monitored by a single pair of spinal nerves.<br />
Cavities within the brain are called ventricals.<br />
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced in the choroid plexus.<br />
The medulla oblongata is the main relay center for conducting sensory information between the spinal cord and the cerebrum...
The hypothalamus is the part of the brain especially involved with emotions.<br />
The arachnoid villi help to circulate cerebrospinal fluid.<br />
The mamillary bodies of the hypothalamus contain the centers that coordinate swallowing, vomiting, coughing, and hiccuppin...
The primary motor area of the cerebral cortex is in the precentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex.<br />
Most conscious sensations and perceptions occur in the primary sensory cortex on the postcentral gyrus.<br />
The special senses are olfaction, vision, gustastion, equilibrium and hearing.<br />
The third order of neurons connects the thalamus to the somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex.<br />
The somotosensory area of the cerebral cortex is located in the parietal lobe.<br />
The anterior gray horns of the spinal cord contain somatic motor nuclei which control the muscles of the upper limbs.<br />
Photoreceptors are found in the outermost layer of the retina.<br />
Conjuctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the eyelids.<br />
Ceruminous glands are located in the external acoustic meatus.<br />
The Eustachian tubes connect the middle ear to the nasopharynx. <br />
The circumvallate and fungiform papillae are involved with the sense of gustastion. <br />
The highest area of visual acuity on the retina is on the fovea centralis. <br />
All preganglionic fibers in the ANS release acytocholine (Ach).<br />
Most sympathetic postganglionic fibers in the ANS release norepinephrine.<br />
Adrenergic neurons release norepinephrine.<br />
Sympathetic and parasympathetic are the 2 principle divisions of the efferent part of the ANS.<br />
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Anatomy Final Exam Review

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Anatomy Final Exam Review

  1. 1. Anatomy Final Exam Review <br />Bio 168<br />
  2. 2. Anterior <br />Anterior- front or toward the front of the body<br />
  3. 3. Posterior<br />Posterior- back or toward the back of the body<br />
  4. 4. Lateral & Medial<br />Lateral- Further from the midline of the body. The arms are lateral to the spine.<br />Medial- closer to the midline of the body. The spine is medial to the arms.<br />
  5. 5. Metabolism <br />The sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body.<br />
  6. 6. Catabolism<br />Catabolism provides the energy to sustain life.<br />The breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpler components, accompanied by the release of energy.<br />
  7. 7. Feedback System<br />Receptor- Sensor that is sensitive to a particular stimulus<br />Control center- Receives and processes the info supplied by a receptor and sends out commands to an effector.<br />Effector- Cell or organ that responds to the commands from the control center and effects an activity to enhance or oppose the stimulus.<br />
  8. 8. pH<br />An acid solution (pH below 7) contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions.<br />A basic solution (pH above 7) contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions.<br />
  9. 9. Peptide Bond<br />A peptide bond is a covalent bond between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another.<br />
  10. 10. CHONPS<br />Carbon<br />Hydrogen<br />Oxygen<br />Nitrogen<br />Phosphorus<br />Sulfur<br />These elements make up 96% of the bodies mass<br />
  11. 11. Electron<br />An electron is the part of an atom that participates in a chemical reaction.<br />
  12. 12. Crenation of a red blood cell may occur if it is placed in a hypertonic solution.<br />
  13. 13. Translation begins when a mRNA strand binds to a small ribosomal sub unit.<br />
  14. 14. Translation stops when there is a stop codone.<br />
  15. 15. An isotonic solution has an osmotic pressure equal to the solution to which it is compared.<br />
  16. 16. 4 types of tissue in the body<br />
  17. 17. Epithelial tissue- covers exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways and chambers, forms glands<br />
  18. 18. Connective tissue- fills internal spaces, provides structural support for other tissues and transports materials within the body, and stores energy reserves.<br />
  19. 19. Muscle tissue- specialized for contraction and includes the skeletal muscles, cardiac muscle and the smooth muscle that lines hollow organs.<br />
  20. 20. Neural tissue- carries info from one part of the body to another in the form of neural impulses.<br />
  21. 21. Connective tissue is where our major energy reserves are located.<br />
  22. 22. Connective tissue contains collagen, elastin and reticular fibers, and several kind of cells embedded in a semi fluid ground substance.<br />
  23. 23. Skeletal muscle tissue consists of cylindrical in shape with striated fibers, and many peripheral nuclei just inside the plasma membrane.<br />
  24. 24. Dense regular connective tissue forms tendons and ligaments.<br />
  25. 25. Elastic fibers contain the protein elastin.<br />
  26. 26. Epithelial tissue is avascular.<br />
  27. 27. Simple squamous epithelium has only one layer with thin, flat, irregular shaped cells<br />
  28. 28. Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body.<br />
  29. 29. The main function of sweat is to cool the surface of the skin to reduce body temperature.<br />
  30. 30. Melanin is a pigment in the skin which absorbs UV rays and contributes to skin color.<br />
  31. 31. Nails are keratinized epidermal cells.<br />
  32. 32. The stratum lucidum is only found in the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.<br />
  33. 33. The first stage in deep wound healing is a blood clot forms at the site of injury.<br />
  34. 34.
  35. 35. The rule of 9’s<br />
  36. 36. Keratinocytes are the epidermal cells that make keratin which makes the skin waterproof.<br />
  37. 37. The stratum germinavatum has a single layer of cuboidal to columnar cells that are capable of continued cell division.<br />
  38. 38. The haversian canal or central canal within an osteon provides a pathway for the diffusion of nutrients within compact bone.<br />
  39. 39. Metaphysis <br />The metaphysis is located between the epiphysis and the diaphysis.<br />
  40. 40. Over secretion of growth hormone can cause an excessive growth in height.<br />
  41. 41. A child whose bones are not fully ossified is more likely to have a greenstick fracture.<br />
  42. 42. Periosteum is the dense, white, fibrous covering around a bone.<br />
  43. 43. Ostoeblasts are cells that form bone.<br />
  44. 44. Osteoclasts are cells that function in the reabsorption of bone.<br />
  45. 45. Oseocytes are mature bone cells.<br />
  46. 46. The foramen magnum is located in the occipital bone.<br />
  47. 47. The squamous suture is located between the parietal bone and the temporal bone.<br />
  48. 48. The illiac crest is a narrow ridge like projection on the hip bone.<br />
  49. 49. The pectoral girdle consists of the clavicles and the scapulae<br />
  50. 50. In a symphysis fibrous connective tissue connects the articulating bones.<br />
  51. 51. A symphysis is NOT a type of diarthrosis.<br />
  52. 52. The prominent sutures of the skull are the lambdoid suture, coronal suture, sagittal suture and the squamous suture.<br />
  53. 53. The lambdoid suture separates the occipital bone from the 2 parietal bones.<br />
  54. 54. The coronal suture separates the frontal bone from the parietal bones.<br />
  55. 55. The sagittal suture divides the parietal bones.<br />
  56. 56. The pelvic girdle consists of the paired hip bones.<br />
  57. 57. The squamous suture separates the temporal bone from the parietal bone.<br />
  58. 58. There are 5 metatarsals on each foot.<br />
  59. 59. The sphenoid bone is part of the cranial floor.<br />
  60. 60. Myoblasts are embryonic cells that develop into muscles.<br />
  61. 61. Cardiac fibers connect to each other at intercalculated discs.<br />
  62. 62. The origin of a muscle is the place where the fixed end attaches to a bone, cartilage, or connective tissue.<br />
  63. 63. An adductor causes movement towards the midline of the body.<br />
  64. 64. The gracilis muscle is located in the deep muscles of the inner thigh.<br />
  65. 65. A motor unit is all muscle fibers controlled by a single motor unit.<br />
  66. 66. Acetocholine (Ach) is the neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction of a skeletal muscle.<br />
  67. 67. The cytoplasm of a muscle cell is called the sarcoplasm.<br />
  68. 68. Oligodendrocytes are neuroglia in the CNS that produce a myelin sheath.<br />
  69. 69. The nucleus of a neuron is located in the perikyron of the cell body.<br />
  70. 70. The myelin sheath functions to speed up neural impulses.<br />
  71. 71. The axon of the neuron carries impulses away from the cell body.<br />
  72. 72. The neuron is the most abundant cell within nervous tissue.<br />
  73. 73. The duramater is the outermost layer of the meninges.<br />
  74. 74. The piamater is the innermost layer of the meninges.<br />
  75. 75. The spinal cord in an adult extends from the base of the brain to vertebra L1 or L2.<br />
  76. 76. The dorsal root of the spinal nerve contains only sensory fibers.<br />
  77. 77. The ventral root of the spinal nerve contains only efferent (motor) fibers.<br />
  78. 78. The brachial plexus is where the nerves to and from the upper limbs arise.<br />
  79. 79. A dermatome is a specific bilateral region of skin that is monitored by a single pair of spinal nerves.<br />
  80. 80. Cavities within the brain are called ventricals.<br />
  81. 81. Cerebrospinal fluid is produced in the choroid plexus.<br />
  82. 82. The medulla oblongata is the main relay center for conducting sensory information between the spinal cord and the cerebrum.<br />
  83. 83. The hypothalamus is the part of the brain especially involved with emotions.<br />
  84. 84. The arachnoid villi help to circulate cerebrospinal fluid.<br />
  85. 85. The mamillary bodies of the hypothalamus contain the centers that coordinate swallowing, vomiting, coughing, and hiccupping.<br />
  86. 86. The primary motor area of the cerebral cortex is in the precentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex.<br />
  87. 87. Most conscious sensations and perceptions occur in the primary sensory cortex on the postcentral gyrus.<br />
  88. 88. The special senses are olfaction, vision, gustastion, equilibrium and hearing.<br />
  89. 89. The third order of neurons connects the thalamus to the somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex.<br />
  90. 90. The somotosensory area of the cerebral cortex is located in the parietal lobe.<br />
  91. 91. The anterior gray horns of the spinal cord contain somatic motor nuclei which control the muscles of the upper limbs.<br />
  92. 92. Photoreceptors are found in the outermost layer of the retina.<br />
  93. 93. Conjuctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the eyelids.<br />
  94. 94. Ceruminous glands are located in the external acoustic meatus.<br />
  95. 95. The Eustachian tubes connect the middle ear to the nasopharynx. <br />
  96. 96. The circumvallate and fungiform papillae are involved with the sense of gustastion. <br />
  97. 97. The highest area of visual acuity on the retina is on the fovea centralis. <br />
  98. 98. All preganglionic fibers in the ANS release acytocholine (Ach).<br />
  99. 99. Most sympathetic postganglionic fibers in the ANS release norepinephrine.<br />
  100. 100. Adrenergic neurons release norepinephrine.<br />
  101. 101. Sympathetic and parasympathetic are the 2 principle divisions of the efferent part of the ANS.<br />

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