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  1. 1. iPedagogy: Using Multimedia Learning Theory to iDentify Best Practices for MP3 Player Use in Higher Education<br />Amy Carter  EDET 780 Maymester 2011  Critique #1<br />
  2. 2. Downs, Edward , Boyson, Aaron R. , Alley, Hannah and Bloom, Nikki R. (2011). iPedagogy: using multimedia learning theory to iDentifybest practices for MP3 player use in higher education.Journal of Applied Communication Research, 39: 2, 184-200. Retrieved May 11, 2011 DOI: 10.1080/00909882.2011.556137 URL:<br />Article<br />
  3. 3. Study Objective<br />“To test how manipulating the affordance of modality on an MP3 player might differentially impact learning”<br />
  4. 4. Hypotheses<br />H1: Multiple modes = better for information processing<br />H2: Audio/video = best combination of modes<br />RQ1: Does size of screen impact learning?<br />RQ2: Does size of screen influence evaluation of instructor?<br />H3: Student perception of iPod = intent to take courses that use the technology<br />
  5. 5. Theoretical Framework: 2 Theories<br /><ul><li>Dual-modality: Learning occurs through two distinct channels – verbal and visual.
  6. 6. Referential Processing: Learning is maximized when channels are used simultaneously.</li></ul>Multimedia Principle: Learning occurs best words and images are combined.<br /><ul><li>Modality Principle: Certain combinations improve performance.</li></ul>Dual-coding Theory <br />Multimedia Learning Theory<br />
  7. 7. Participants and Procedure<br />119 undergraduate students <br />66 female; 52 male; 1 non-responder<br />Average age = 19.5<br />96% owned at least one MP3 player<br />Voluntary study for course credit<br />Recruited from a class in communication<br />Assessed in a 3-Part measure: control factors (ACT scores and previous experience), perceptions of iPods, retention of information<br />
  8. 8. Method (3x2 Factorial Experiment)<br />
  9. 9. Findings<br />H1: Supported<br />Dual modalities better than single modality<br />H2: Supported<br />Audio only: 56% accuracy<br />Audio/text: 60% accuracy<br />Audio/video: 71% accuracy<br />RQ1and RQ2: Form factor (size of screen) does not matter<br />H3: Supported<br />Perceptions influence technology acceptance<br />
  10. 10. Implications<br />Modality matters.<br />Two are better than one. <br />Findings are consistent with Multimedia Learning Theory.<br />Mode matters.<br />Pairing of audio and video showed the best outcome<br />Podcast vs. Vodcast?<br />Podcast = most common <br />Vodcast = most effective<br />
  11. 11. Limitations and Future Research<br />Simulated learning environment<br />What happens in the real day-to-day classroom?<br />What happens when other theoretical principals are tested?<br />Students<br />What happens when learners are more diverse? <br />Single modality<br />How do visual and aural text differ as a single modality (eBook vs. audio book)?<br />Long-term effects<br />What are the effects of iPod use over time?<br />
  12. 12. Conclusions<br />“Both the modality and mode through which information is disseminated should be considered carefully when designing instructional materials for use inside or outside the classroom.”<br />Learning improves when two sensory channels are used, and students scored best with the combination of audio and video; therefore, the use of vodcasts are more valuable than podcasts.<br />Form factor does not matter. iPods and computers are both effective content-dissemination tools.<br />