Gender and SexGender• perception of being male or female• refers to the sense of maleness and femaleness related to our membership in a given society Sex• refers to sexual anatomy and sexual behavior
Gender and SexGender roles• set of expectations, defined by a particular society, that indicate what is appropriate behavior for men and women stereotyping • judgments about individual members of group on the basis of their membership in that group
• limits both men and women behavior• lead to unfortunate consequence ofpreferential treatment of men
Gender and Sex Sexism • negative attitudes and behavior toward a person based on that person’s gender
• Women – more suitable in “pink collar” jobs – gets low salary and status thanmen - invisible barrier within an organization
• creation of hostile or abusive environment orexplicit coercion to engage in unwanted sexualactivity • not necessarily about sexual pleasure but about power/exerting force on someone • Targets: typically in lower-status compounded with a sense of helplessness and powerlessness
1.Say ‘No’ or ‘Stop it’ firmly and loud enough for someone to hear2.Document the event/s3.Inform someone about what happened4.File a complaint
PERSONALITY and Cognitiveabilities• Men are more aggressive than women.• Women experience anxiety and guilt about their aggressiveness and concerned about its effects on their victims•Men have higher self-esteem than women• Women evaluate themselves more harshly than man do• Women’s speech are more precise• Women look at their partner significantly more while listening than while speaking• Men look at their partner at the same level while listening and speaking• Men outperformed women in spatial and quantitative abilities• Women outperformed men in verbal abilities
• suggest that sex differences are due toevolutionary factors• the source of gender differences is the difference in physical capabilities of man and woman
• process by which an individual learns the rules and norms of appropriate behavior • refers to what society considers appropriate behavior of men and women• a mental framework that organizes andguides a child’s understanding of informationrelevant to gender
• stage in development during which maturation of the sexual apparatus occurs and reproductive capacity as is attained.”• comes from the Latin word pubertas, which means “age of manhood”.• refers to the physical rather than the behavioural changes which occur when the individual becomes sexually mature and is capable of producing off – spring.
• comes from the Latin word adolescere, meaning “to grow” or “to grow to maturity”.• includes mental, emotional, and social maturity as well as physical maturity.• early Adolescence starts from 13 yrs. of old to 16 or 17 yrs. of old• late adolescence covers the period from then to 18 yrs of old, the age of legal maturity. Late adolescence is thus a very short period.
OUTSIDE:Penis – male organ of copulation.Scrotum – is a bag that hangs beneath thepenis and contains the two testicles.INSIDE :Sperm – semen or a germ cell in it ; tinycellsTesticles – are glands, which are specialparts of the body that make chemicals.Testosterone – a chemical that makes aperson grow into a man and feel like a manProstate, Seminal vesicles, Cowper’sglands.-together, these glands make a white, stickyfluid called semen that sperm float in.Vasa Deferentia-which may carry sperm out of the testicles.Urethra-carries semen through the penis and out ofthe body; also carries urine from the bladder.
OUTSIDE:Labia Majora – enclose and protects other externalreproductive organs. Known as "large lips," , relatively largeand fleshy, and are comparable to the scrotum in males,contains sweat and oil-secreting glands. After puberty, thelabia majora are covered with hair.Labia Minora – lie just inside the labia majora andsurround the openings to the vagina and urethra.Clitoris – a small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable tothe penis in males.Bartholin’s glands – located beside the vaginal openingand produce a fluid (mucus) secretionINSIDE :Vagina – is a canal that joins the cervix to the outside ofthe body.-also known as the birth canal.Uterus / womb – is a hollow, pear –shaped organ that isthe home to a developing fetusCervix – lower part that opens into the vagina.Corpus – the main body of the uterus.Ovaries – are small, oval – shaped glands that are locatedon either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones.Fallopian tubes – narrow tubes that are attached to the upper partof the uterus, serve as tunnels for the ova (egg cells) to travel fromthe ovaries to the uterus
THE BASIC BIOLOGY OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR MALES FEMALES• The testes begin to secrete • When they reach maturity androgens, male sex hormones, and puberty, the two ovaries at puberty. begin to produce estrogens• Not only do androgens produce and progesterone, female secondary sex characteristics, sex hormones. such as the growth of body hair • Follows a cyclical pattern. and a deepening of the voice, they also increase the sex drive. • The greatest output occurs• Men are capable of (and during ovulation. interested in) sexual activities without any regard to biological cycles.
MEN THINKABOUT SEX MORE THAN WOMEN:WHILE 54 % OF ME REPORTTHINKING ABOUT SEX EVERY DAY, ONLY 19% OF WOMEN REPORTTHINKING ABOUT IT ON A DAILY
IT TAKES MORE THANHORMONES TO MOTIVATE & PRODUCE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR Humans are considerably more versatile; not only other people but nearly any object, sight, smell, sound, or other stimulus can lead to sexual excitement.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SEXUAL EXCITEMENT: WHAT Erogeneous zones PEOPLE ON? TURNS Sexual fantasies
Genitals- The male and female sex organsAndrogens-Male sex hormones secreted by testesEstrogen-Class of female sex hormonesProgesterones-Female sex hormone secreted by the ovariesOvulation-The point at which an egg is released from the ovariesErogenous zones- Areas of the body that are particularly of an unusually rich array ofnerve receptors
THE PHASES OF SEXUAL RESPONSE: THE UPS AND DOWNS OF SEX
Last from just a few minutes toover an hour, an arousing stimulusbegins a sequence that prepares thegenitals for sexual intercourse.
The period in which the maximumlevel of arousal is attained, the penisand clitoris swell with blood, and thebody prepares for orgasm
• ORGASM The peak of sexual excitement, during which rhythmic muscular contractions occur in the genitals.
The interval after orgasm in whichthe body returns to its unarousedstate, reversing the changes broughtabout arousal.
A temporary period that followsthe resolution stage and duringwhich the male can not develop anerection again.
• deviation from the average• comparison of sexual behavior withsome standard and ideal• consideration of the psychological andphysical consequences of the behavior tothe person and to others
sexualattraction and behavior directed toopposite sex sexualactivity practiced by people who wereunmarried
view that premarital sex is permissible for malesbut not for females MANY SAYS THAT IT IS NOTWRONG TO HAVE SEX BEFORE MARRIAGE
sexual activity practiced by people who weremarried sexualactivity practiced by people who weremarried and someone who is not his/her spouse
persons who are attracted of their same gender E.g. lesbian , gay personswho are attracted to both their samegender and opposite gender
Researchers, particularly Kinsey, believed that reasons behindhomosexuality and bisexuality are that it depends on a person’ssexual feelings and behaviors and romantic feeling.Some researchers also includes reasons like because of theirenvironment or nature, genetics/hereditary, drugs during laborand differences in brain structures.Parent-child relationship, according to some psychologist, plays abig part in producing Homosexuals and bisexuals, thou thisevidence are not supported. Some also theorizes that homosexuality and bisexuality arelearned or achieve through reward and punishment procedures.This is called learning-theory explanation.
people who believe they were born with the bodyof the other genderE.g. sex exchange operation one person forces another person to submit tosexual activity crime most frequently appears in society
a kind of rape where the rapist is either a date ora romantic acquaintance frequently occurs in the teenage years with theirboyfriends
for pleasure to demonstrate power to control their victim personal experience angerRapists aremasochist!
commonly done by relatives thanstrangers victims aged 7-13; while abuserstend to be 20 years older than thevictims not only occur physically but alsothrough web
fear anxiety depression, feeling of isolation anger hostility poor self-esteem self- destructive behavior they also become the abusers
•A disease acquired through sexualcontact. The united states highestrate of social issues.
• inability of male to achieve or maintain anerection• could be cured by a drug called Viagra• rare case: a male who has never been able tohave an erection• common case: male who had an erection inthe past at least one, but is now unable to doso.
• inability of a male to delay orgasms as long ashe wishes• a psychological problem that maybe causedby early sexual learning• could be cured by redefining how long hewants to delay his ejaculation.
• inability of a male to ejaculate when he wantsto• could be cured by relaxation techniques• when a motivation for sexual activity isrestrained or lacking entirely.
• lack of orgasm in a woman• sometimes caused by insufficient stimulationduring intercourse• rare case: a woman who has never experienceorgasm• common case: a woman who once had anorgasm and no longer does now