Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Using Gamified Design to Amplify Outcomes: The Psychology of Badges

913 views

Published on

If you work in design for behavior change programs, you’ve undoubtedly had a client request “gamification” as a way to jazz up their deliverables. Unfortunately, there often isn’t a deep understanding of what gamification is, why it can be effective, and why it might not always be the right choice. In this presentation, I take a step back to consider “gamified design” and the psychology behind how it can more effectively engage users and help them change behaviors. I then focus specifically on badges, one of the more popular game elements that is increasingly used in digital experiences as diverse as the Starbucks app (commerce), Duolingo (education), and Fitbit (fitness). New badge applications are being introduced all the time, but many of them won’t achieve their intended goals of changing behaviors because they were not designed in concordance with the underlying psychology.

I provide a brief overview of self-determination theory, a unified theory of motivation that includes the universal psychological needs an engaging experience helps fulfill, and talk about how badges can fulfill each of these needs. Drawing on this theory as well as lessons from neuropsychology, universal design for learning, and behaviorism, I then talk about how badges can reinforce desired behaviors and discourage non-desired behaviors when applied thoughtfully. We look at common pitfalls in the application of badges in behavior change programs, and strategies to avoid those. Then we discuss best practices, rooted in psychology, for maximizing the efficacy of badges. Throughout, I’ll draw on case studies showing badges used well and poorly, highlighting the specific reasons why they work (or not). The content interweaves psychological theory and research with real-world examples to reinforce not just what works, but why.

Published in: Design
  • Be the first to comment

Using Gamified Design to Amplify Outcomes: The Psychology of Badges

  1. 1. USING GAMIFIED DESIGN TO AMPLIFY OUTCOMES: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF BADGES Amy Bucher, Ph.D. Director, Behavior Change Design Mad*Pow @amybphd, abucher@madpow.net
  2. 2. Welcome to UXPA!
  3. 3. ENGAGEMENT, MOTIVATION, & GAMIFICATION The Science Behind
  4. 4. PARTICIPATION ≠ ENGAGEMENT
  5. 5. ENGAGEMENT
  6. 6. MOTIVATION DESIREWITHVELOCITY
  7. 7. Types of Motivation: Self Determination Theory AutonomousControlled Long-term change happens here! Amotivated I have no desire to do this. External Someone told me I have to do this. Introjected I’ve internalized the nagging: Better do this. Identified Doing this will help me achieve goals I really value. Integrated Doing this is part of who I am. Intrinsic I love doing this; it feels great! Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
  8. 8. Wrzesniewski, A., Schwartz, B., Cong, X., Kane, M., Omar, A., & Kolditz, T. (2014). Multiple types of motives don’t multiply the motivation of West Point cadets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(30), 10990-10995. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1405298111 Effects of Multiple Motives in the Military Mostly Intrinsic Mostly Extrinsic Mixed Motives Outcomes: • More likely to become an officer • More likely to be considered for early promotion • More likely to stay in the military after mandatory service Outcomes: • Less likely to become an officer • Less likely to be considered for early promotion • Less likely to stay in the military after mandatory service
  9. 9. “I can make my own meaningful choices” “I’m learning, growing, and succeeding.” “I’m part of something bigger than myself. I belong.” Autonomy Competence Relatedness Motivation The Levers of Motivation Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
  10. 10. Engaging experiences support psychological needs.
  11. 11. Gamification The use of game elements and game- design techniques in non-game contexts. Werbach, K., & Hunter, D. (2012). For the Win: How Game Thinking Can Revolutionize Your Business. Wharton Digital Press.
  12. 12. Gamification • Points • Leaderboards • Competition • Challenges • Unlocking • Quests • Levels and leveling up • Boss battles • AND SO MUCH MORE!
  13. 13. So why the focus on badges?
  14. 14. They’re Easy to Understand and See SO MANY LOGINS!!
  15. 15. Badges Have Their Fans
  16. 16. • They show achievement • They provide a sense of progress • They communicate status to others • They help facilitate conversation about shared or complementary qualities What Good Badges Do (Psychologically)
  17. 17. • They show achievement • They provide a sense of progress • They communicate status to others • They help facilitate conversation about shared or complementary qualities Competence support Relatedness support What Good Badges Do (Psychologically)
  18. 18. Badges are not new.
  19. 19. A Brief History of Badges
  20. 20. A Brief History of Badges
  21. 21. A Brief History of Badges
  22. 22. A Brief History of Badges
  23. 23. A Brief History of Badges
  24. 24. A Brief History of Badges
  25. 25. A Brief History of Badges
  26. 26. A Brief History of Badges
  27. 27. But do they work?
  28. 28. The Case Against Badges
  29. 29. We Game the System “One reported reason for ending these badges is precisely what would be predicted by self-determination theory: users began to ‘game’ the system, looking to circumvent the health behavior simply to get the badge.” Rigby,C. S. (2015). “Gamification and motivation,” in S. P. Walz & S. Deterding (eds.), The GamefulWorld: Approaches, Issues, Applications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  30. 30. We Focus on Clicks, Not Engagemen tPARTICIPATION “CLICKS” BEHAVIOR CHANGE & SELF-CARE MEDICAL UTILIZATION + COSTS HEALTH (BIOMETRICS) & PRODUCTIVITY RETURN ON INVESTMENT TIMEFRAME FOR IMPACT Leading Lagging RISK BASELINE
  31. 31. We don’t align badges with behaviors that matter.
  32. 32. We Reward Behaviors That Don’t Need Rewarding
  33. 33. And That Can De-Motivate
  34. 34. Some Badges Are Just Meaningless
  35. 35. Best Practices For Badges that Work
  36. 36. DEFINE & REWARD THE RIGHT BEHAVIOR Step 1
  37. 37. Defining Target Behaviors New behavior Familiar behavior Increase behavior Decrease behavior Stop behavior One time Enroll in health plan Call doctor for appointment Sleep an extra hour when sick Limit liquids the night before a scan Don’t eat dessert tonight Period of time Log symptoms and triggers to help with diagnosis Take medication for an acute condition Drink more water during hot weather periods Limit activity while recovering from injury Stop drinking while on antibiotics From now on Check blood sugar five or more times a day Take medication for a chronic condition Get regular exercise Limit saturated fats in diet Quit smoking Adapted from B.J. Fogg, Ph.D.
  38. 38. The Cobra Effect
  39. 39. Behavior Champs: Airlines
  40. 40. 1. http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2016/01/26/just-how-big-is-starbucks-mobile-order-pay-and-wha.aspx, retrieved May 10, 2016 2. http://www.bizjournals.com/seattle/news/2016/04/21/starbucks-posts-highest-revenue-of-any-non-holiday.html, retrieved May 10, 2016 22% of transactions in December 2015 1 8 million mobile transactions per month 2
  41. 41. Self- Perpetuatin g Rewards
  42. 42. Make Badges Possible to Earn!
  43. 43. Withering Can Encourage Repeat Behaviors
  44. 44. Tie Badges to Meaningful Rewards “Hitting a milestone like walking 100.00 kilometers may be a massive accomplishment for some people, but all they get is a lousy badge in their trainer profile. Users who earn the most badges are the most loyal players (or at least those who play the most), so rewarding such milestones with items, Pokécoins, or at very least experience points, seems like a no-brainer.” -BrianTroyer https://medium.com/mobile-lifestyle/https-medium-com-brianjtroyer-8-changes-that-would-improve- pokemon-go-5476a9524bc8
  45. 45. The Role of Verification
  46. 46. On behalf of Amy Bucher and CommendableKids.com,the Driver'sLicense badgehas been awarded to Pete Bucher on October 14th,2016
  47. 47. BUILD ON PROGRESS Step 2
  48. 48. Progressive Difficulty
  49. 49. Status Levels
  50. 50. Scaffolding = Structured Goal Sequences Starting State SubGoal SubGoal SubGoal End Goal
  51. 51. Goal Scaffolding
  52. 52. Goal Scaffolding
  53. 53. Goal Scaffolding Works! http://duolingo.com/#/effectiveness-study 34 Hours of Duolingo 1 University Semester
  54. 54. CALIBRATE THE REWARD AMOUNT Step 3
  55. 55. The Undermining Effect Murayama, K., Matsumoto, M., Izuma, K., & Matsumoto, K. (2010). Neural basis of the undermining effect of monetary reward on intrinsic motivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(49), 20911–20916. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1013305107
  56. 56. Rewarding Behaviors That Don’t Require A Reward
  57. 57. Rewarding Behaviors That Don’t Require A Reward
  58. 58. Badge Fatigue 4809 total badges?!?!
  59. 59. TIME IT RIGHT Step 4
  60. 60. Timing Is Everything
  61. 61. Predictable Plus Surprise
  62. 62. TIE BADGES TO OTHER MOTIVATIONS Step 5
  63. 63. Relatedness : Connect Me With Others
  64. 64. Competence: Signal My Worth
  65. 65. Autonomy: Express My Values
  66. 66. New York City Marathon
  67. 67. Badges for Vets
  68. 68. Open IDEO Challenges
  69. 69. Books @ Work
  70. 70. Academic Badges
  71. 71. Academic Badges
  72. 72. Best Practices: Badge With Caution 1. Clearly define behavior goals and key milestones 2. Use badges to encourage growth and progress 3. Don’t try to over-reward 4. Make badges unpredictable (variable- ratio schedule) for simple tasks; set reliable expectations for higher effort tasks 5. Connect badges to other motivational sources
  73. 73. Questions? Amy Bucher, Ph.D. Director, Behavior Change Design Mad*Pow @amybphd, abucher@madpow.net

×