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HIGHWAY TO THE HABIT ZONE:
DRIVING ENGAGEMENT FOR BEHAVIOR
CHANGE
Amy Bucher, Ph.D.
Behavior Change Design Director
Mad*Pow
PARTICIPATION ≠ ENGAGEMENT
ENGAGEMENT AND HABIT FORMATION
Action
RewardInvestment
Trigger
Engagement
ENGAGEMENT AND HABIT FORMATION
Action
RewardInvestment
Trigger
THE PREREQUISITE TO ENGAGEMENT
IS
MOTIVATION
MOTIVATION:
DESIRE WITH VELOCITY
TYPES OF MOTIVATION: SELF
DETERMINATION THEORY
AutonomousControlled
Long-term change
happens here!
Sources:
Ryan & Deci (2000)
Segar & Hall (2011)
Amotivated
I have no desire
to do this.
External
Someone told
me I have to
do this.
Introjected
I’ve internalized
the nagging:
Better do this.
Identified
Doing this will
help me achieve
goals I really
value.
Integrated
Doing this is part
of who I am.
Intrinsic
I love doing
this; it feels
great!
“I can make my own meaningful
choices”
“I’m learning, growing, and
succeeding.”
“I’m part of something bigger than myself. I
belong.”
Autonomy
Competence
Relatedness
Motivation
THE LEVERS OF MOTIVATION
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist,
55, 68-78.
PERCEIVED AUTONOMY
Help people feel they have control
SHARED RULES OF ENGAGEMENT
Patients educated about
the experience via Emmi
Solutions intervention
before undergoing a
colonoscopy had better
outcomes including:
• 18% less sedation
medication
• 14% decrease in
procedure duration
• 11% more knowledgeable
MINIMIZE EXTERNAL PRESSURE
• Calibrate reward amounts
• Tie rewards to meaningful
behaviors
• Consider non-financial
rewards when possible,
preferably goal-consistent
Personal ChoiceValue Expression
THE SECRET TO
WEIGHT LOSS
CALORIES IN
CALORIES OUT
Emphasize the benefits
to the preferred choice
Show what’s missing
from the non-preferred
choice
Use design to create
visual appeal
Value-
Consistent
Framing
HOW TO SUPPORT FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS
Autonomy Support
• Establish shared rules of engagement
• Minimize external pressure
• Provide meaningful choice
Competence Support
• Make developmentally appropriate demands
• Offer relevant feedback
• Create optimal challenge
Relatedness Support
• Communicate warmth
• Create a sense of involvement
• Convey belongingness
PERCEIVED COMPETENCE
Help people feel they can do it
ENHANCE USER ABILITY
EFFECTS OF BASELINE MEASUREMENT ON
BEHAVIOR: EFFICIENT FLIGHT BEHAVIOR FOR
AIRLINE PILOTS
Gosnell, G. K., List, J. A., & Metcalfe, R. (working paper). A new approach to an age-old problem: Solving
externalities by incenting workers directly. NBER Working Paper No. 22316. June 2016. JEL No.
D01.J3,Q5,R4. Retrieved June 29, 2016 from http://papers.nber.org/tmp/821-w22316.pdf
Before After Change
Monitoring Only 31% 48% +17%
Feedback 31% 52% +21%
Personal Target 31% 53% +22%
Charity Donation 31% 51% +20%
2x weight loss in people who track
food 6+ days per week vs. people who
track less than 11
1. Hollis, J. F. et al. (2008). Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of the weight-loss maintenance trial. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 32(5),
118-126.
2. Kruger, J., Blanck, H. M., & Gillespie, C. (2006). Dietary and physical activity behaviors among adults successful at weight loss maintenance. International Journal of
Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3.
3. Bravata, D. M., et al. (2007). Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association,
298(19), 2296-2304.
18% of successful dieters kept a
calorie diary, vs. 8% of unsuccessful
dieters2
People using pedometers keep their
physical activity at 27% above
baseline levels3
THE VALUE OF FEEDBACK
Opower.com
1.4 – 3.3% energy use reduction per household (Alcott, 2011)
NORMATIVE FEEDBACK
MULTIPLE LEVELS OF FEEDBACK
YOU’VE EARNED A BADGE!
“One reported
reason for
ending these
badges is
precisely what
would be
predicted by
self-
determination
theory: users
began to ‘game’
the system,
looking to
circumvent the
health behavior
simply to get
the badge.”
Rigby, C. S. (2015). “Gamification and motivation,” in S. P. Walz & S. Deterding (eds.), The Gameful World: Approaches, Issues, Applications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
1. http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2016/01/26/just-how-big-is-starbucks-mobile-order-pay-and-wha.aspx,
retrieved May 10, 2016
2. http://www.bizjournals.com/seattle/news/2016/04/21/starbucks-posts-highest-revenue-of-any-non-
holiday.html, retrieved May 10, 2016
22%
of transactions
in
December 2015
1
8 million
mobile transactions
per month
2
WHAT IF?
TASK ORDER MATTERS
• Time-consuming, draining
tasks? Go hard to easy
• Learning, growth-oriented
tasks? Go easy to hard
1 2
3
DOES IT WORK?
http://duolingo.com/#/effectiveness-study
34 Hours of
Duolingo
1 University
Semester
(At least 105 hours for an
introductory course.)
HOW TO SUPPORT FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS
Autonomy Support
• Establish shared rules of engagement
• Minimize external pressure
• Provide meaningful choice
Competence Support
• Make developmentally appropriate demands
• Offer relevant feedback
• Create optimal challenge
Relatedness Support
• Communicate warmth
• Create a sense of involvement
• Convey belongingness
PERCEIVED RELATEDNESS
Show people they’re connected
Harlow Maslow
Williams
THE “SOCIAL” IN PSYCHOLOGY
SOCIAL TECHNOLOGY
Reactive
Proactive
vs.
NORMATIVE FEEDBACK: A DELICATE
BALANCE
”It’s ok . . . Everyone has
trouble quitting so I
don’t need to try that
hard.”
“I’m not alone in this
struggle; other people
have succeeded and I
can too.”
Recent research shows that many people may try
to quit smoking more than thirty times before they
finally succeed.
PERSONALIZATION CREATES A
RELATIONSHIP
EVERYTHING IS BETTER WITH FRIENDS
HOW TO SUPPORT FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS
Autonomy Support
• Establish shared rules of engagement
• Minimize external pressure
• Provide meaningful choice
Competence Support
• Make developmentally appropriate demands
• Offer relevant feedback
• Create optimal challenge
Relatedness Support
• Communicate warmth
• Create a sense of involvement
• Convey belongingness
Engagement
TO FOSTER HABITS, DESIGN FOR
ENGAGEMENT
Action
RewardInvestment
Trigger
THANK YOU!
Amy Bucher, Ph.D.
amybucherphd.com
@amybphd
abucher@madpow.net

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Highway to the Habit Zone: Driving Engagement for Behavior Change

  • 1. HIGHWAY TO THE HABIT ZONE: DRIVING ENGAGEMENT FOR BEHAVIOR CHANGE Amy Bucher, Ph.D. Behavior Change Design Director Mad*Pow
  • 3. ENGAGEMENT AND HABIT FORMATION Action RewardInvestment Trigger
  • 4. Engagement ENGAGEMENT AND HABIT FORMATION Action RewardInvestment Trigger
  • 5. THE PREREQUISITE TO ENGAGEMENT IS MOTIVATION
  • 7. TYPES OF MOTIVATION: SELF DETERMINATION THEORY AutonomousControlled Long-term change happens here! Sources: Ryan & Deci (2000) Segar & Hall (2011) Amotivated I have no desire to do this. External Someone told me I have to do this. Introjected I’ve internalized the nagging: Better do this. Identified Doing this will help me achieve goals I really value. Integrated Doing this is part of who I am. Intrinsic I love doing this; it feels great!
  • 8. “I can make my own meaningful choices” “I’m learning, growing, and succeeding.” “I’m part of something bigger than myself. I belong.” Autonomy Competence Relatedness Motivation THE LEVERS OF MOTIVATION Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
  • 9. PERCEIVED AUTONOMY Help people feel they have control
  • 10. SHARED RULES OF ENGAGEMENT Patients educated about the experience via Emmi Solutions intervention before undergoing a colonoscopy had better outcomes including: • 18% less sedation medication • 14% decrease in procedure duration • 11% more knowledgeable
  • 11. MINIMIZE EXTERNAL PRESSURE • Calibrate reward amounts • Tie rewards to meaningful behaviors • Consider non-financial rewards when possible, preferably goal-consistent
  • 13. THE SECRET TO WEIGHT LOSS CALORIES IN CALORIES OUT
  • 14. Emphasize the benefits to the preferred choice Show what’s missing from the non-preferred choice Use design to create visual appeal
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22. HOW TO SUPPORT FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS Autonomy Support • Establish shared rules of engagement • Minimize external pressure • Provide meaningful choice Competence Support • Make developmentally appropriate demands • Offer relevant feedback • Create optimal challenge Relatedness Support • Communicate warmth • Create a sense of involvement • Convey belongingness
  • 23. PERCEIVED COMPETENCE Help people feel they can do it
  • 25. EFFECTS OF BASELINE MEASUREMENT ON BEHAVIOR: EFFICIENT FLIGHT BEHAVIOR FOR AIRLINE PILOTS Gosnell, G. K., List, J. A., & Metcalfe, R. (working paper). A new approach to an age-old problem: Solving externalities by incenting workers directly. NBER Working Paper No. 22316. June 2016. JEL No. D01.J3,Q5,R4. Retrieved June 29, 2016 from http://papers.nber.org/tmp/821-w22316.pdf Before After Change Monitoring Only 31% 48% +17% Feedback 31% 52% +21% Personal Target 31% 53% +22% Charity Donation 31% 51% +20%
  • 26. 2x weight loss in people who track food 6+ days per week vs. people who track less than 11 1. Hollis, J. F. et al. (2008). Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of the weight-loss maintenance trial. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 32(5), 118-126. 2. Kruger, J., Blanck, H. M., & Gillespie, C. (2006). Dietary and physical activity behaviors among adults successful at weight loss maintenance. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3. 3. Bravata, D. M., et al. (2007). Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(19), 2296-2304. 18% of successful dieters kept a calorie diary, vs. 8% of unsuccessful dieters2 People using pedometers keep their physical activity at 27% above baseline levels3 THE VALUE OF FEEDBACK
  • 27. Opower.com 1.4 – 3.3% energy use reduction per household (Alcott, 2011) NORMATIVE FEEDBACK
  • 28. MULTIPLE LEVELS OF FEEDBACK
  • 29.
  • 31. “One reported reason for ending these badges is precisely what would be predicted by self- determination theory: users began to ‘game’ the system, looking to circumvent the health behavior simply to get the badge.” Rigby, C. S. (2015). “Gamification and motivation,” in S. P. Walz & S. Deterding (eds.), The Gameful World: Approaches, Issues, Applications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • 32. 1. http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2016/01/26/just-how-big-is-starbucks-mobile-order-pay-and-wha.aspx, retrieved May 10, 2016 2. http://www.bizjournals.com/seattle/news/2016/04/21/starbucks-posts-highest-revenue-of-any-non- holiday.html, retrieved May 10, 2016 22% of transactions in December 2015 1 8 million mobile transactions per month 2
  • 34. TASK ORDER MATTERS • Time-consuming, draining tasks? Go hard to easy • Learning, growth-oriented tasks? Go easy to hard
  • 35. 1 2 3
  • 36. DOES IT WORK? http://duolingo.com/#/effectiveness-study 34 Hours of Duolingo 1 University Semester (At least 105 hours for an introductory course.)
  • 37. HOW TO SUPPORT FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS Autonomy Support • Establish shared rules of engagement • Minimize external pressure • Provide meaningful choice Competence Support • Make developmentally appropriate demands • Offer relevant feedback • Create optimal challenge Relatedness Support • Communicate warmth • Create a sense of involvement • Convey belongingness
  • 38. PERCEIVED RELATEDNESS Show people they’re connected
  • 42. NORMATIVE FEEDBACK: A DELICATE BALANCE ”It’s ok . . . Everyone has trouble quitting so I don’t need to try that hard.” “I’m not alone in this struggle; other people have succeeded and I can too.” Recent research shows that many people may try to quit smoking more than thirty times before they finally succeed.
  • 44.
  • 45. EVERYTHING IS BETTER WITH FRIENDS
  • 46. HOW TO SUPPORT FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS Autonomy Support • Establish shared rules of engagement • Minimize external pressure • Provide meaningful choice Competence Support • Make developmentally appropriate demands • Offer relevant feedback • Create optimal challenge Relatedness Support • Communicate warmth • Create a sense of involvement • Convey belongingness
  • 47. Engagement TO FOSTER HABITS, DESIGN FOR ENGAGEMENT Action RewardInvestment Trigger
  • 48. THANK YOU! Amy Bucher, Ph.D. amybucherphd.com @amybphd abucher@madpow.net

Editor's Notes

  1. Habits result from a repeated pattern of stimulus and response. Over time, we learn to repeat favorable behaviors when presented with a cue. As you all know, habits can be beneficial if they make positive behaviors easier and more automatic. They can free our cognitive capacity to focus on more difficult issues while our routines become automated.
  2. Engagement—getting a person to participate repeatedly in an experience—is crucial for successful habit formation. Without some reason to repeatedly experience the habit cycle, people won’t have the opportunity to create that habit. In my work designing interventions for health behavior change, one of my goals is to build experiences that keep people engaged long enough that those positive habits have the opportunity to solidigy.
  3. Emmi Solutions case study: https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/491490/Case_Studies/Dartmouth_Colonoscopy_Case_Study.pdf?t=1470326721747
  4. Discuss ABILITY Function of scarcest resource: Time, energy, money, information, tools
  5. The Results The EmmiPrevent campaign successfully reached 47% of the targeted population. Of the women reached, 21% reported they already had a received a mammogram. 30% of the identified women reached reported they had not had a mammogram and asked to connect to their doctor’s office to schedule an appointment. And, of the women who transferred to scheduling, 43% went on to complete their mammogram.
  6. Another way to create a sense of ability or competence is through normative feedback—what others like you are doing. Opower launched a normative feedback program for energy consumption. People participating in the program got a neighborhood report showing how much energy others in the area were using. People who participated ended up using significantly less energy than people who didn’t get the comparison report—about 1.4-3.3% less per measurement period. That may not seem like a lot for any one individual, but when you think about the energy savings across a neighborhood or city, it starts to really add up. We also use normative feedback a lot with health related behaviors. For example, did you know that most people who successfully quit smoking have failed about 7 times before? Use of positive/hopeful feedback vs. unrealistic or lofty feedback
  7. The granularity of feedback also matters. Ideally, you want to give a few levels of feedback. Here in Guitar Hero, you see both feedback on each individual action, and cumulative feedback on overall performance over the course of the game
  8. Used in Europe to reduce messes in men’s restrooms
  9. BMJ Open 2016;6:e011045 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011045
  10. Amazon—recommends products both based on what you purchased, and on what people like you have bought