Successfully reported this slideshow.

Highway to the Habit Zone: Driving Engagement for Behavior Change

12

Share

1 of 48
1 of 48

More Related Content

Related Books

Free with a 14 day trial from Scribd

See all

Highway to the Habit Zone: Driving Engagement for Behavior Change

  1. 1. HIGHWAY TO THE HABIT ZONE: DRIVING ENGAGEMENT FOR BEHAVIOR CHANGE Amy Bucher, Ph.D. Behavior Change Design Director Mad*Pow
  2. 2. PARTICIPATION ≠ ENGAGEMENT
  3. 3. ENGAGEMENT AND HABIT FORMATION Action RewardInvestment Trigger
  4. 4. Engagement ENGAGEMENT AND HABIT FORMATION Action RewardInvestment Trigger
  5. 5. THE PREREQUISITE TO ENGAGEMENT IS MOTIVATION
  6. 6. MOTIVATION: DESIRE WITH VELOCITY
  7. 7. TYPES OF MOTIVATION: SELF DETERMINATION THEORY AutonomousControlled Long-term change happens here! Sources: Ryan & Deci (2000) Segar & Hall (2011) Amotivated I have no desire to do this. External Someone told me I have to do this. Introjected I’ve internalized the nagging: Better do this. Identified Doing this will help me achieve goals I really value. Integrated Doing this is part of who I am. Intrinsic I love doing this; it feels great!
  8. 8. “I can make my own meaningful choices” “I’m learning, growing, and succeeding.” “I’m part of something bigger than myself. I belong.” Autonomy Competence Relatedness Motivation THE LEVERS OF MOTIVATION Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
  9. 9. PERCEIVED AUTONOMY Help people feel they have control
  10. 10. SHARED RULES OF ENGAGEMENT Patients educated about the experience via Emmi Solutions intervention before undergoing a colonoscopy had better outcomes including: • 18% less sedation medication • 14% decrease in procedure duration • 11% more knowledgeable
  11. 11. MINIMIZE EXTERNAL PRESSURE • Calibrate reward amounts • Tie rewards to meaningful behaviors • Consider non-financial rewards when possible, preferably goal-consistent
  12. 12. Personal ChoiceValue Expression
  13. 13. THE SECRET TO WEIGHT LOSS CALORIES IN CALORIES OUT
  14. 14. Emphasize the benefits to the preferred choice Show what’s missing from the non-preferred choice Use design to create visual appeal
  15. 15. Value- Consistent Framing
  16. 16. HOW TO SUPPORT FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS Autonomy Support • Establish shared rules of engagement • Minimize external pressure • Provide meaningful choice Competence Support • Make developmentally appropriate demands • Offer relevant feedback • Create optimal challenge Relatedness Support • Communicate warmth • Create a sense of involvement • Convey belongingness
  17. 17. PERCEIVED COMPETENCE Help people feel they can do it
  18. 18. ENHANCE USER ABILITY
  19. 19. EFFECTS OF BASELINE MEASUREMENT ON BEHAVIOR: EFFICIENT FLIGHT BEHAVIOR FOR AIRLINE PILOTS Gosnell, G. K., List, J. A., & Metcalfe, R. (working paper). A new approach to an age-old problem: Solving externalities by incenting workers directly. NBER Working Paper No. 22316. June 2016. JEL No. D01.J3,Q5,R4. Retrieved June 29, 2016 from http://papers.nber.org/tmp/821-w22316.pdf Before After Change Monitoring Only 31% 48% +17% Feedback 31% 52% +21% Personal Target 31% 53% +22% Charity Donation 31% 51% +20%
  20. 20. 2x weight loss in people who track food 6+ days per week vs. people who track less than 11 1. Hollis, J. F. et al. (2008). Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of the weight-loss maintenance trial. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 32(5), 118-126. 2. Kruger, J., Blanck, H. M., & Gillespie, C. (2006). Dietary and physical activity behaviors among adults successful at weight loss maintenance. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3. 3. Bravata, D. M., et al. (2007). Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(19), 2296-2304. 18% of successful dieters kept a calorie diary, vs. 8% of unsuccessful dieters2 People using pedometers keep their physical activity at 27% above baseline levels3 THE VALUE OF FEEDBACK
  21. 21. Opower.com 1.4 – 3.3% energy use reduction per household (Alcott, 2011) NORMATIVE FEEDBACK
  22. 22. MULTIPLE LEVELS OF FEEDBACK
  23. 23. YOU’VE EARNED A BADGE!
  24. 24. “One reported reason for ending these badges is precisely what would be predicted by self- determination theory: users began to ‘game’ the system, looking to circumvent the health behavior simply to get the badge.” Rigby, C. S. (2015). “Gamification and motivation,” in S. P. Walz & S. Deterding (eds.), The Gameful World: Approaches, Issues, Applications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  25. 25. 1. http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2016/01/26/just-how-big-is-starbucks-mobile-order-pay-and-wha.aspx, retrieved May 10, 2016 2. http://www.bizjournals.com/seattle/news/2016/04/21/starbucks-posts-highest-revenue-of-any-non- holiday.html, retrieved May 10, 2016 22% of transactions in December 2015 1 8 million mobile transactions per month 2
  26. 26. WHAT IF?
  27. 27. TASK ORDER MATTERS • Time-consuming, draining tasks? Go hard to easy • Learning, growth-oriented tasks? Go easy to hard
  28. 28. 1 2 3
  29. 29. DOES IT WORK? http://duolingo.com/#/effectiveness-study 34 Hours of Duolingo 1 University Semester (At least 105 hours for an introductory course.)
  30. 30. HOW TO SUPPORT FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS Autonomy Support • Establish shared rules of engagement • Minimize external pressure • Provide meaningful choice Competence Support • Make developmentally appropriate demands • Offer relevant feedback • Create optimal challenge Relatedness Support • Communicate warmth • Create a sense of involvement • Convey belongingness
  31. 31. PERCEIVED RELATEDNESS Show people they’re connected
  32. 32. Harlow Maslow Williams THE “SOCIAL” IN PSYCHOLOGY
  33. 33. SOCIAL TECHNOLOGY
  34. 34. Reactive Proactive vs.
  35. 35. NORMATIVE FEEDBACK: A DELICATE BALANCE ”It’s ok . . . Everyone has trouble quitting so I don’t need to try that hard.” “I’m not alone in this struggle; other people have succeeded and I can too.” Recent research shows that many people may try to quit smoking more than thirty times before they finally succeed.
  36. 36. PERSONALIZATION CREATES A RELATIONSHIP
  37. 37. EVERYTHING IS BETTER WITH FRIENDS
  38. 38. HOW TO SUPPORT FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS Autonomy Support • Establish shared rules of engagement • Minimize external pressure • Provide meaningful choice Competence Support • Make developmentally appropriate demands • Offer relevant feedback • Create optimal challenge Relatedness Support • Communicate warmth • Create a sense of involvement • Convey belongingness
  39. 39. Engagement TO FOSTER HABITS, DESIGN FOR ENGAGEMENT Action RewardInvestment Trigger
  40. 40. THANK YOU! Amy Bucher, Ph.D. amybucherphd.com @amybphd abucher@madpow.net

Editor's Notes

  • Habits result from a repeated pattern of stimulus and response. Over time, we learn to repeat favorable behaviors when presented with a cue. As you all know, habits can be beneficial if they make positive behaviors easier and more automatic. They can free our cognitive capacity to focus on more difficult issues while our routines become automated.
  • Engagement—getting a person to participate repeatedly in an experience—is crucial for successful habit formation. Without some reason to repeatedly experience the habit cycle, people won’t have the opportunity to create that habit. In my work designing interventions for health behavior change, one of my goals is to build experiences that keep people engaged long enough that those positive habits have the opportunity to solidigy.
  • Emmi Solutions case study: https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/491490/Case_Studies/Dartmouth_Colonoscopy_Case_Study.pdf?t=1470326721747
  • Discuss ABILITY
    Function of scarcest resource: Time, energy, money, information, tools
  • The Results The EmmiPrevent campaign successfully reached 47% of the targeted population. Of the women reached, 21% reported they already had a received a mammogram. 30% of the identified women reached reported they had not had a mammogram and asked to connect to their doctor’s office to schedule an appointment. And, of the women who transferred to scheduling, 43% went on to complete their mammogram.
  • Another way to create a sense of ability or competence is through normative feedback—what others like you are doing.

    Opower launched a normative feedback program for energy consumption. People participating in the program got a neighborhood report showing how much energy others in the area were using. People who participated ended up using significantly less energy than people who didn’t get the comparison report—about 1.4-3.3% less per measurement period. That may not seem like a lot for any one individual, but when you think about the energy savings across a neighborhood or city, it starts to really add up.

    We also use normative feedback a lot with health related behaviors. For example, did you know that most people who successfully quit smoking have failed about 7 times before?

    Use of positive/hopeful feedback vs. unrealistic or lofty feedback
  • The granularity of feedback also matters. Ideally, you want to give a few levels of feedback. Here in Guitar Hero, you see both feedback on each individual action, and cumulative feedback on overall performance over the course of the game
  • Used in Europe to reduce messes in men’s restrooms
  • BMJ Open 2016;6:e011045 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011045
  • Amazon—recommends products both based on what you purchased, and on what people like you have bought
  • ×