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Sheep nutrition

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Sheep nutrition

  1. 1. Feeding Sheep in a HighFeed Price Environment Dr. Matt Hersom Dept of Animal Sciences hersom@ufl.edu 352-392-2390
  2. 2. Critical Control Point for Profitability – Feed Cost• Feeding the flock is the largest cost area in any animal enterprise, approx. 45-50% of annual maintenance cost.• Stored or supplemental feeds constitute the largest, most variable portion.• Designing nutritional program correctly is a must.
  3. 3. Overview of Presentation• Intake• Nutrient Requirements – Stage or Level of Production – Age• Feeding and Assessing Nutrition
  4. 4. Effect of Stage of Production and Ewe Age on Intake Capacity 5.0 4.5 Mature 4.0 Ewe Lamb 3.5% of bodyweight 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Maintance Flushing Early Gest Late Gest Late Gest Early Lact Early Lact High Prod Single Twins
  5. 5. Growing Lambs and Feed Intake• The lower the body BW Intake, % of BW weight and younger Replacement 66 4.0 / 4.5 age of the lamb the Ewe / Ram greater the intake Lamb 88 3.5 / 4.0• Sex of the lamb >110 2.5 / 3.5 influences intake Market Lamb, 66 4.3 4-7 month 88 4.0 >110 3.2
  6. 6. Effect of Stage of Production on Energy Requirement 66 64 62 60% TDN 58 56 54 52 50 Maintance Flushing Early Gest Late Gest Late Gest Early Lact Early Lact High Prod Single Twins
  7. 7. Effect of Ewe Age on Energy Requirement 70 68 Mature 66 Ewe Lamb 64Diet % TDN 62 60 58 56 54 52 50 Maintance Flushing Early Gest Late Gest Late Gest Early Lact Early Lact High Prod Single Twins
  8. 8. Effect of Stage of Production on Protein Requirement 16 14 12% Crude Protein 10 8 6 4 2 0 Maintance Flushing Early Gest Late Gest Late Gest Early Lact Early Lact High Prod Single Twins
  9. 9. Effect of Ewe Age on Protein Requirement 16 Mature 14 Ewe Lamb 12Diet % Crude Protein 10 8 6 4 2 0 Maintance Flushing Early Gest Late Gest Late Gest Early Lact Early Lact High Prod Single Twins
  10. 10. Feed Amounts for Different Stages Hay Crude Protein % 16.5 15.0 12.5 10.0 Lbs of feedMaintenance Hay 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75Early Preg. Hay 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25Late Hay 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00pregnancy Corn 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 SBM -- 0.10Early Hay 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25lactation, Corn 1.90 1.80 1.50 1.15twins SBM 0.10 0.20 0.50 0.85130 lb ewe
  11. 11. Observations about Age• Differences in ewe ages within • Mature ewes generally the herd results in many have more consistent different requirements. forage and supplement intakes• Potential for DMI is a key controller for management of • Younger ewes are likely ewes with different ages. socially influenced by mature ewes• Different nutritional requirements = different • Ewe lambs have nutritional management maintenance, gestation, lactation and growth requirements.
  12. 12. Body Condition Score• BCS 1(Emaciated) No fat between skin and bone. Ewes have no fat and very limited muscle energy reserves. Appear weak and unthrifty. Wool fleeces are often tender, frowsy and lack luster.• BCS 2(Thin) Only a slight amount of fatty tissue detectable between skin and bone. Spinous processes are relatively prominent. These ewes appear thrifty but have only minimal fat reserves.• BCS 3(Average) Average flesh but do not have excess fat reserves. This condition score includes ewes in average body condition.• BCS 4(Fat) Moderately fat. Moderate fat deposits give sheep a smooth external appearance.• BCS 5(Obese) Extremely fat. Excess fat deposits can easily be seen in the breast, flank, and tailhead regions. These ewes have excess fat reserves to the point that productivity may be impaired.
  13. 13. Effect of Growing Lamb BW on Energy Requirement 1600 44 lb 1400 66 lb Net Energy, kcal / day 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Maint. 0.22 0.33 0.44 0.55 0.66 0.77 0.88 Desired ADG, lb/dMedium Mature Weight
  14. 14. Effect of Growing Lamb BW on Protein Requirement 250 44 lb 200 66 lb Protein, g / day 150 100 50 0 0.22 0.33 0.44 0.55 0.66 0.77 0.88 Desired ADG, lb/dMedium Mature Weight
  15. 15. Mineral Nutrition• Copper levels in • Magnesium special mineral are important consideration for to know. nursing ewes – High Cu levels are toxic – grass tetany• Calcium:Phosphorus • Selenium – 2:1is optimum – White muscle disease – Pasture can be low in – Inorganic vs organic Ca – Concentrates generally high in P – Urinary calculi – Limestone
  16. 16. Forage-Based Nutrition• Perennial Pastures• Legumes Pasture• Complementing Forages – How cool-season and warm-season grasses can work together• Conserved Forages – Grass hay – Legume hay
  17. 17. 60504030 Bahia20 growth10 0 Jan Mar May July Sept Nov Month4540353025 Rye-2015 ryegrass10 5 growth 0 ec ct n pr b y ov ug ar ay ne pt l Fe Ja O Ju M Se A D M N Ju A
  18. 18. Adding Rye-Ryegrass to Bahia: Forage Production (lb/acre/day) Bahia Rye Ryegrass706050403020100 ec ct n pr b y ov ug ar ay e pt l n Fe Ja O Ju M Se A D M N Ju A
  19. 19. Forage Testing - Why• So you know what you are working with! – What is the supply of nutrients – Which nutrients are deficient/excess – How big is the deficiency – What kind of supplementation is needed – Make better decisions
  20. 20. Forage Testing – So What• Assessment of the concentration of important nutrients – Dry matter – Energy : TDN or NE – Protein : Crude protein, degradable protein – Minerals – Others • Fiber fractions • VFA score • Mycotoxins
  21. 21. Here’s Your Analysis, Now What?Matt Hersom, 2008
  22. 22. Forage Testing – So What• What do you do with the numbers? – Use to calculate DM lbs of TDN or CP – Consult Sheep Nutrient Requirements • How do they compare – Determine limiting nutrient(s) – Put into ration balancing software • Formulate diets or intake potential – Calculate cost of TDN and CP coming from forage • Compare to supplemental sources of TDN and/or CP – Determine supplementation needs
  23. 23. Calculations• $/CWT feed = $ per ton / 20 $9.00=$180/20• $/CWT feed DM = $/cwt / (%DM/100) $9.78=$9.00/(92%/100)• $/CWT Nutrient (TDN or CP) = $/cwt / (%Nutrient /100) $12.86=$9.00/(70%/100)
  24. 24. Supplemental Feeds• No one feed alternative is perfect – Energy: fiber vs starch – Protein: degradable vs undegradable vs NPN – Mineral: Excess vs deficiency, balance – Byproducts - Concentrated source of some characteristic • Fat, sulfur, mycotoxins• Ruminants do not have a nutritional requirement for any feedstuff
  25. 25. Energy Supplementation Considerations• Likely most expensive• Affects animal production• Feed amount generally more than protein• Reasons for use: – Meet energy demands – Reduce forage consumption – Diet selection allows
  26. 26. Energy Supplementation Considerations• Begin feeding before it is too late• Response improves with long term low level supplementation• Feeding energy (w/out natural protein) decreases overall energy intake of low quality forage• Usually contain < 20% CP
  27. 27. Energy Supplementation Considerations• Do not feed when high CP supp. will improve performance• Grain is a substitute for forage• High starch supp. decreases fiber digestibility (Negative Associative Effects)• High starch supp. work best with moderate to high quality forage
  28. 28. Feedstuff OptionsFeed TDN,%Whole Cottonseed 95Hominy 91Corn 88Dried Distillers Grains 90Soybean Meal 87Wheat Middlings 83Citrus Pulp 82Corn Gluten Feed 80Soybean Hulls 80Cottonseed Meal 75Molasses 72Wet Brewers Grains 70Peanut Skins 65Peanut Hulls 22Urea 0
  29. 29. Protein Supplementation• Increases forage dry matter intake and digestibility• Critical level: forage CP < 7% or when TDN:CP is >7 (51% TDN: 5% CP)• Lower amount of supplement relative to energy• High-CP supplement = less feed amount• Low-CP supplement = greater feed amount
  30. 30. Protein Supplementation• Correct protein type is essential – Non-protein nitrogen • 50% utilization rate on low-quality forage • Needs to be coupled with energy – Natural protein • Ruminal Degradable Protein • Ruminal Undegradable Protein • Young ruminants perform better with natural protein
  31. 31. Feedstuff OptionsFeed Crude Degradable Undegradable Protein, % Protein ProteinUrea 281 100 0Cottonseed Meal 49 70 30Soybean Meal 49 65 35Dried Distillers Grains 30 30 70Wet Brewers Grains 24 41 59Corn Gluten Feed 24 75 25Whole Cottonseed 23 69 30Wheat Middlings 18 77 23Peanut Skins 17Soybean Hulls 12 58 42Hominy 12 47 53Corn 9 45 55Citrus Pulp 9 43 57Peanut Hulls 8 75 25Molasses 5 100 0
  32. 32. Feedstuff OptionsFeed Fiber, NDF%Peanut Hulls 74Soybean Hulls 67Corn Gluten Feed 45Whole Cottonseed 44Dried Distillers Grains 44Wet Brewers Grains 42Wheat Middlings 37Peanut Skins 28Cottonseed Meal 26Hominy 25Citrus Pulp 24Corn 9Soybean Meal 8Molasses -Urea -
  33. 33. Feedstuff options $/CWT $/CWT $/CWT TDN $/CWT CP Feed $ / Ton % DM % TDN % CP (as fed) (DM) (DM) (DM)Blackstrap Molasses 170 74 72 5 8.50 11.49 15.95 229.73Corn 322 88 88 9 16.10 18.30 20.79 203.28Citrus Pulp 335 91 82 9 16.75 18.41 22.45 204.52 †Hay 100 92 54 10 5.00 5.43 10.06 54.35Soybean Hull, pellet 255 91 80 12 12.75 14.01 17.51 116.76Soybean Hulls, loose 250 91 80 12 12.50 13.74 17.17 114.47SBH/CGF 50/50 263 91 75 15 13.15 14.45 19.27 96.34Corn Gluten Feed 298 91 80 24 14.90 16.37 20.47 68.22Whole Cottonseed 260 92 95 24 13.00 14.13 14.87 58.88Dried Distillers Grains 342 91 88 30 17.10 18.79 21.35 62.64Cottonseed Meal 325 92 75 49 16.25 17.66 23.55 36.05Peanut Hull Pellet 135 91 22 7 6.75 7.42 33.72 105.97† $40/800 lb roll
  34. 34. Alternative Feedstuff Options Feed DM, % TDN Fat CP Diet Limit Bread/Bakery 91 89 10.0 11.7 <10% Candy 94 +90 22.4 5.2 <10% Okara 23 69 8-15 24 <15% Perennial 90 68 2.5 16 $$ Peanut Alfalfa cubes 91 57 2.0 18 $$• Nothing is cheap anymore.• Consider what you are getting for the “good deal”• Feed to meet requirements and production goals
  35. 35. Supplementation Frequency• Does not need to be a daily occurrence• 2-3 times/week adequate• High concentrate supplementation requires more management• Reduce disruption of grazing• Allow timid ewes access
  36. 36. Supplementation Management• Start feeding before the grass runs out• Supplement only those animals where there is an economic return• Feed supplement where/how all ewes have access to the supplement• Monitor ewe body condition score• Consider all alternatives
  37. 37. Questions

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