Dr. Matt Hersom is a Beef Cattle Specialist with the UF Department of Animal Sciences but was raised on a farm in Iowa and he and his brother raised club lambs so he also is experienced with sheep. He also trained in ruminant nutrition which applies to sheep.
Dr Hersom really emphasized that this is critical part of everyday management of your flock.
Dairy One now charges $18 per analysis.
This was for feeding liquid molasses. The calculations are not applicable if you are not feeding liquid molasses.
The clarification for the second point on this slide is that it means they require the ingredients in the formulation, not the brand that is your favorite. As long as the right ingredients are in the feed, brand doesn’t matter.
Citrus pulp is high energy, but low protein. Also that degradable protein helps the rumen work while non degradable protein does not help the rumen work.
Urea is not a protein source itself, it bumps up the protein when added to other low protein feedstuffs.
Okara is a soy milk by product
Dr Hersom also suggestedEdis system and the UF system as resources for more information available online.
Feeding Sheep in a HighFeed Price Environment Dr. Matt Hersom Dept of Animal Sciences email@example.com 352-392-2390
Critical Control Point for Profitability – Feed Cost• Feeding the flock is the largest cost area in any animal enterprise, approx. 45-50% of annual maintenance cost.• Stored or supplemental feeds constitute the largest, most variable portion.• Designing nutritional program correctly is a must.
Overview of Presentation• Intake• Nutrient Requirements – Stage or Level of Production – Age• Feeding and Assessing Nutrition
Effect of Stage of Production and Ewe Age on Intake Capacity 5.0 4.5 Mature 4.0 Ewe Lamb 3.5% of bodyweight 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Maintance Flushing Early Gest Late Gest Late Gest Early Lact Early Lact High Prod Single Twins
Growing Lambs and Feed Intake• The lower the body BW Intake, % of BW weight and younger Replacement 66 4.0 / 4.5 age of the lamb the Ewe / Ram greater the intake Lamb 88 3.5 / 4.0• Sex of the lamb >110 2.5 / 3.5 influences intake Market Lamb, 66 4.3 4-7 month 88 4.0 >110 3.2
Effect of Stage of Production on Energy Requirement 66 64 62 60% TDN 58 56 54 52 50 Maintance Flushing Early Gest Late Gest Late Gest Early Lact Early Lact High Prod Single Twins
Effect of Ewe Age on Energy Requirement 70 68 Mature 66 Ewe Lamb 64Diet % TDN 62 60 58 56 54 52 50 Maintance Flushing Early Gest Late Gest Late Gest Early Lact Early Lact High Prod Single Twins
Effect of Stage of Production on Protein Requirement 16 14 12% Crude Protein 10 8 6 4 2 0 Maintance Flushing Early Gest Late Gest Late Gest Early Lact Early Lact High Prod Single Twins
Effect of Ewe Age on Protein Requirement 16 Mature 14 Ewe Lamb 12Diet % Crude Protein 10 8 6 4 2 0 Maintance Flushing Early Gest Late Gest Late Gest Early Lact Early Lact High Prod Single Twins
Feed Amounts for Different Stages Hay Crude Protein % 16.5 15.0 12.5 10.0 Lbs of feedMaintenance Hay 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75Early Preg. Hay 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25Late Hay 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00pregnancy Corn 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 SBM -- 0.10Early Hay 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25lactation, Corn 1.90 1.80 1.50 1.15twins SBM 0.10 0.20 0.50 0.85130 lb ewe
Observations about Age• Differences in ewe ages within • Mature ewes generally the herd results in many have more consistent different requirements. forage and supplement intakes• Potential for DMI is a key controller for management of • Younger ewes are likely ewes with different ages. socially influenced by mature ewes• Different nutritional requirements = different • Ewe lambs have nutritional management maintenance, gestation, lactation and growth requirements.
Body Condition Score• BCS 1(Emaciated) No fat between skin and bone. Ewes have no fat and very limited muscle energy reserves. Appear weak and unthrifty. Wool fleeces are often tender, frowsy and lack luster.• BCS 2(Thin) Only a slight amount of fatty tissue detectable between skin and bone. Spinous processes are relatively prominent. These ewes appear thrifty but have only minimal fat reserves.• BCS 3(Average) Average flesh but do not have excess fat reserves. This condition score includes ewes in average body condition.• BCS 4(Fat) Moderately fat. Moderate fat deposits give sheep a smooth external appearance.• BCS 5(Obese) Extremely fat. Excess fat deposits can easily be seen in the breast, flank, and tailhead regions. These ewes have excess fat reserves to the point that productivity may be impaired.
Effect of Growing Lamb BW on Energy Requirement 1600 44 lb 1400 66 lb Net Energy, kcal / day 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Maint. 0.22 0.33 0.44 0.55 0.66 0.77 0.88 Desired ADG, lb/dMedium Mature Weight
Effect of Growing Lamb BW on Protein Requirement 250 44 lb 200 66 lb Protein, g / day 150 100 50 0 0.22 0.33 0.44 0.55 0.66 0.77 0.88 Desired ADG, lb/dMedium Mature Weight
Mineral Nutrition• Copper levels in • Magnesium special mineral are important consideration for to know. nursing ewes – High Cu levels are toxic – grass tetany• Calcium:Phosphorus • Selenium – 2:1is optimum – White muscle disease – Pasture can be low in – Inorganic vs organic Ca – Concentrates generally high in P – Urinary calculi – Limestone
Forage-Based Nutrition• Perennial Pastures• Legumes Pasture• Complementing Forages – How cool-season and warm-season grasses can work together• Conserved Forages – Grass hay – Legume hay
60504030 Bahia20 growth10 0 Jan Mar May July Sept Nov Month4540353025 Rye-2015 ryegrass10 5 growth 0 ec ct n pr b y ov ug ar ay ne pt l Fe Ja O Ju M Se A D M N Ju A
Adding Rye-Ryegrass to Bahia: Forage Production (lb/acre/day) Bahia Rye Ryegrass706050403020100 ec ct n pr b y ov ug ar ay e pt l n Fe Ja O Ju M Se A D M N Ju A
Forage Testing - Why• So you know what you are working with! – What is the supply of nutrients – Which nutrients are deficient/excess – How big is the deficiency – What kind of supplementation is needed – Make better decisions
Forage Testing – So What• Assessment of the concentration of important nutrients – Dry matter – Energy : TDN or NE – Protein : Crude protein, degradable protein – Minerals – Others • Fiber fractions • VFA score • Mycotoxins
Here’s Your Analysis, Now What?Matt Hersom, 2008
Forage Testing – So What• What do you do with the numbers? – Use to calculate DM lbs of TDN or CP – Consult Sheep Nutrient Requirements • How do they compare – Determine limiting nutrient(s) – Put into ration balancing software • Formulate diets or intake potential – Calculate cost of TDN and CP coming from forage • Compare to supplemental sources of TDN and/or CP – Determine supplementation needs
Calculations• $/CWT feed = $ per ton / 20 $9.00=$180/20• $/CWT feed DM = $/cwt / (%DM/100) $9.78=$9.00/(92%/100)• $/CWT Nutrient (TDN or CP) = $/cwt / (%Nutrient /100) $12.86=$9.00/(70%/100)
Supplemental Feeds• No one feed alternative is perfect – Energy: fiber vs starch – Protein: degradable vs undegradable vs NPN – Mineral: Excess vs deficiency, balance – Byproducts - Concentrated source of some characteristic • Fat, sulfur, mycotoxins• Ruminants do not have a nutritional requirement for any feedstuff
Energy Supplementation Considerations• Likely most expensive• Affects animal production• Feed amount generally more than protein• Reasons for use: – Meet energy demands – Reduce forage consumption – Diet selection allows
Energy Supplementation Considerations• Begin feeding before it is too late• Response improves with long term low level supplementation• Feeding energy (w/out natural protein) decreases overall energy intake of low quality forage• Usually contain < 20% CP
Energy Supplementation Considerations• Do not feed when high CP supp. will improve performance• Grain is a substitute for forage• High starch supp. decreases fiber digestibility (Negative Associative Effects)• High starch supp. work best with moderate to high quality forage
Protein Supplementation• Increases forage dry matter intake and digestibility• Critical level: forage CP < 7% or when TDN:CP is >7 (51% TDN: 5% CP)• Lower amount of supplement relative to energy• High-CP supplement = less feed amount• Low-CP supplement = greater feed amount
Protein Supplementation• Correct protein type is essential – Non-protein nitrogen • 50% utilization rate on low-quality forage • Needs to be coupled with energy – Natural protein • Ruminal Degradable Protein • Ruminal Undegradable Protein • Young ruminants perform better with natural protein
Alternative Feedstuff Options Feed DM, % TDN Fat CP Diet Limit Bread/Bakery 91 89 10.0 11.7 <10% Candy 94 +90 22.4 5.2 <10% Okara 23 69 8-15 24 <15% Perennial 90 68 2.5 16 $$ Peanut Alfalfa cubes 91 57 2.0 18 $$• Nothing is cheap anymore.• Consider what you are getting for the “good deal”• Feed to meet requirements and production goals
Supplementation Frequency• Does not need to be a daily occurrence• 2-3 times/week adequate• High concentrate supplementation requires more management• Reduce disruption of grazing• Allow timid ewes access
Supplementation Management• Start feeding before the grass runs out• Supplement only those animals where there is an economic return• Feed supplement where/how all ewes have access to the supplement• Monitor ewe body condition score• Consider all alternatives