Media A2 Advanced Portfolio Evaluation Amy Potts
In what way does your media project use, develop or challenge forms and conventions of real media products?
<ul><li>My chosen band is Coldplay, this was decided after researching through various existing bands and artists working within the modern music industry. Currently the music industry is dynamic and globalising and therefore it can be difficult to replicate music videos of that of a foreign nature as the environment and climatic aspects are vital. Coldplay is a British band attaining the opportunities for it to reflect the actual original video. Each music video owns its own genre, whether pop, indie rock or rap. Without a genre, the music video will give the impression of being misplaced without a clear plot line. Audiences respond to genres of music and immediately whilst planning for example a pop video, there is a presupposed audience. The location of the music video is essential of what meanings and messages it portrays, a video filmed in the summer will often be used to represent happiness. The video I completed is based on the song ‘Fix You’ uses conventions in the video by myself making clear links between the lyrics and the video settings, common intertextuality is used which I learnt from my research on existing conventions. The poster and CD cover which I have designed uses conventions by using aspects which are common across all posters and CDs for example the usage of dates for tours and release dates. The poster and CD cover which I have designed uses conventions by using aspects which are common across all posters and CDs for example the usage of dates for tours and release dates. This project does not just use conventions however, it develops on them, I have used my existing knowledge of conventions and then I have built on this bringing in my own personal aspects and effects which I believe are suitable. By bringing in new fonts and locally filming, it is challenge also against the typical conventions for mainstream bands where making music videos is a costly process. By being required to use primary footage and photography, the majority is local and therefore the challenge is whether the music video can be as successful. Therefore it challenges these conventions based upon financing a music video. As well, I am developing the conventions by manipulating many of the images and much of the footage showing how manipulation can simply influence the way the video and the products are perceived and it challenges whether money is needed if the effects allow the video to appear professional and effective. Again, my media product develops conventions by using sites such as for downloading fonts and how this can be used successfully to promote a band showing how internet access can provide for the video. </li></ul>
Andrew Goodwin’s Music Video Theory <ul><li>Andrew Goodwin completed a theory based on the typical conventions of a music video. He currently the professor of media studies at the university of San Francisco where he currently resides. His music theory consists of conventions which I have tried to meet, for example, he proposed that there must be a relationship between the video and the lyrics in which the video must either illustrate or amplify the lyrics. However, it may also contradict the lyrics which would be an unusual outcome. As part of my own music video, I attempted to create this relationship, for example when there are references to ‘light’ in the lyrics many scenes are then shown of different locations where the sun is the main focus or where the camera tilts up to show the sun. This relationship is likely to engage the audience by emphasising the importance of certain words in the lyrics. As well, supporting this suggesting is the convention that there must be a relationship between the music and visuals. I have conformed to these conventions in my own music video hoping the audience will relate to their own expectations of what a music video should be like. As well, close ups of the main artist, I have challenged this convention by not using as many close ups or focusing on the facial expressions of the person. This is to create a distance between the audience and the person in the video reinforcing the negative atmosphere. It often known that the record companies will demand close ups so they are not just selling the song but also the artist who is presumably famous and well known within the music industry. Goodwin is suggesting that for the music video to be successful and professional, relationships must be developed including various factors and aspects including the artist and visuals. Voyeurism is present in many music videos which often means the systems of looking and is especially important in terms of female artists. It also can be unique if intertextuality references to other music videos and films etc providing further gratification for the viewers. I have challenged these conventions by focusing on other characteristics more than others. </li></ul>
These are screen shots from the original Fix You video by Coldplay featuring Chris Martin, the lead singer mainly throughout the video in the inner city of London. I challenged this presumption of city by choosing the film in more rural areas suggesting the loneliness, however, I could not access an area such as London to film, but an empty rural place uses the lyrics and represents the connotations well. I also challenged the stereotypical video aspects where there has to be a singer shown singing to the words. I challenged this by focusing more on the portrayal of the lyrics and therefore I avoided face contact with the camera and the person in my music video to create a distance, again reinforcing the theme of negativity. However, I did use some conventions of this media product by looking closely at the mise en scene, much of this is very dark and ominous until the change in the music and therefore it becomes much lighter. I used this convention in my own approach of a music video, I videoed many clips and attempted to create a less inviting atmosphere. Once the filming was complete, I edited many clips ensuring the colours and colour schemes overall were darkened and less positive but more sinister. The screen shots on the left show colours such as greys and browns, many of the clips I have filmed are in settings such as the woods, I purposely chose to film here not just due to the connotations and portrayal but also the colour schemes which also represent certain human emotions.
The screen shots on the left is where the song begins to change and become more upbeat, it depicts Chris Martin walking through a busier area in London and the colours in the settings begin the change for example there is a building in the background which becomes multicoloured as a prediction of the positivity to soon arise in the song. Much of the filming I have completed uses these conventions in a similar way but I have also developed on them. I filmed on a train, from this I have slowed the footage down to suit with the lyrics of the song but also I have changed the colours to black and white colour schemes. However, before the drastic change in the song I increased the amount of colour in the clips gradually building up to the chorus. Many scenes also depict light as there are references to this in the lyrics, and in the original video there are sources of light which suggests this intertextuality. In my video, there also is suggestions of light but they more directly link to the lyrics due to the way in which the video was edited so direct links could be made by the audience. Again, I challenged the conventions as the majority of the clips from the original video depict Chris Martin showing his facial emotions, in my own video the persons face is not shown but his back is to again create more of a sinister impression. However, Martin is on his own in the majority of the clips, an aspect I strongly used.
These screen shots show the video where there is a change in the dynamics of the song, Chris Martin begins to run and this is depicted in different locations of London. He then is shown running on stage finishing the song live. Due to my situation, this could not be filmed, however the running is a conventional aspect which I strongly used. I also changed the locations in which the person was running in to increase the speed of the video as well as maintaining the attention from the audience. This is simply using the conventions by creating a change in the music video which interlinks with the change in the sound of music. One aspect which I developed on however was this change in the song, instead of just changing the pace in the music video I also changed the colours. From completing scenes which are dark on the train, the mood emitted changed to much lighter and brighter colours. Prior to this effects such as dream glow were placed to create a dream like/ nightmare experience, however when the change in the song took place I increased the level of vividness in the footage developing the conventions. Various camera shots are used in this finale of the video to again speed up the pace of the song and therefore towards the end of my music video more camera shots and angles are used than before using this convention.
How effective is the combination of your main product and ancillary texts?
<ul><li>Intertextuality is crucial when promoting a music video, there needs to be clear effective links between the products promoting the song. This is so that the audience will be able to instanteously recognise what the products are promoting and to what music video they belong to, it is an effective selling tool. Looking at the history of music videos and the beginning music video directors, many used the cinema for intertextuality links. This aspects refers back to Andrew Goodwin’s theory where this type of intertextuality can draw the audience in further. This type of intertextuality can reinforce stereotypes, for example, Britney spears in the music video for ‘hit me baby one more time’ reinforces the idea of blonde women being seen as sex symbols and therefore education is less of a matter to them. Since this, video games have become incredibly popular in youth culture in today’s society and this technology is influencing music videos. For example, the techniques and effects commonly used in music videos are becoming visualised in music videos for example by Robbie Williams for the song ‘Let love be your energy’. Due to our global society consistently changing, so does the technology around us and therefore the common expectations of music videos are consistently being reconstructed. </li></ul>
These three products show my CD cover. Inside CD cover and the back CD cover. There is clear intertextuality showing how all three products work well together, this will portray to the audience how they are promoting the same song, this is an effective aspect conveying how crucial a digipack and how the products must work together. Each product was designed using a programme called Macromedia Fireworks, prior to using this technology I also used a programme for photograph manipulation in turn that the photographs would reinforce the intertextuality of these products and generate links between the CD design and also the video and the other product, the poster. I have edited the photographs so that they are symbolic for what they represent and portray. This is so that they clearly convey the meanings of the song ‘Fix You’ and overall there is an atmosphere. Using photograph manipulation tools, I decreased the level of vivid colours so that the impression is less positive but more negative. The location of these photographs are in the woods, a rural place where there are not many inhabitants unlike the common typical urban city. This contrasts against the original video where Chris Martin is seen walking through urban back streets until reaching a very crowded stadium where the song ends with him singing live and being cheered on by the public. However, I have conformed to the typical conventions and expectations by ensuring the message of the song is given directly through camera, editing and the mise en scene aspects and this is similar to the original video. As well, Martin is depicted in a lonely state of mind until the dynamics of the song changes, this again is similar trait to my own video.
<ul><li>The woods is a location symbolic of loneliness, it is a common place for walking, however it is extremely desolate and isolated in comparison to more populous places in a country. It represents the typical rural life where there are no signs of technology, pollution or industrial sites, it instead portrays a way of life different from the ordinary life where we depend on technology. This therefore is the perfect location to convey loneliness where there is no sign of life nor emotion, it is simply blank and empty. Therefore, the woods has been a common feature throughout all of my products as the song ‘Fix You’ clearly represents emotions such as depression where loneliness is a key feature of everyday life. The woods sets an eerie atmosphere where there is no happiness nor joy, the song ‘Fix You’ discusses feeling lonely and empty and also worthless. Walking through the woods alone is a sign of thinking deeply about life and being devoured by negative emotions. In contrast to the original video, my video is similar as when the song changes to become more positive the person depicted in the video runs and becomes more confident, this is similar to the actions of Chris Martin. Overall, there are many contrasts and similarities to the original video where the audience can make links but as well, it reinforces my own digipack with common aspects seen in music videos and their products as I have taken inspiration from them. The front cover of the CD shows the woods in the snow, snow can be a representation of many emotions, it can represent joy however without children playing in the snow and the snow simply being a characteristic of the lonely woods, it is less joyful. The colour white is often renowned for being a representation of death and the winter which is often seen as a joyless cold month, therefore instantly the audience has a negative impression simply from the portrayal given from the media products. However, there again is intertextuality between the photographs and the song as there is a contrast between colours: white and black which could also mean positive and negative which are two key components in the song- Fix You. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The location depicted on this CD design is also the same location which is depicted throughout the music video, therefore there is clear intertextuality between the products where the audience can recognise similarities which shows how the digipack is effective. The same font is used throughout all the products, it is an uncommon font which needed to be downloaded suggesting to the audience that the song is also unique and unusual in comparison to the typical mainstream songs. I have placed the text on the front of the CD cover at the side which is unusual but again it allows the photograph to be the main focus for the audience. The back design CD cover uses the same photograph as used on the front cover, this shows intertextuality within the same product. I zoomed in on a section of the photograph and then edited it to create a unique design. I inverted the colours using photograph manipulation techniques. It is an innovative approach but remains within the digipack as it shows intertextuality. The zoomed in picture shows in clear detail the branches of a tree and with the same font as usual the songs from the original X&Y album are there. The inside CD cover strongly links with the back CD cover however a different colour scheme is used and much darker shades are conveyed. The lyrics of ‘Fix You’ are shown on this inside cover, this is a common characteristic of CD designs. When completing and designing these products, I have consistently referred back to my research on existing products, this is so that my products meet the general expectations of what music products should be like. Coldplay’s original CD covers and album covers rarely feature the singers, this shows how the main focus of their covers is to represent the song which has been my main objective throughout. Rather than focusing on the person in the video, it also greatly involves the song and locations and the mise en scene to accurately convey the lyrics of the song and the meanings. Throughout the video, the camera work is very still creating an ominous effect of loneliness, this again gives a significant message of loneliness as well, the camera movement itself is slow in rhythm with the song. Gentle transitions are used as well throughout the music video fitting well with the other products to create this silent lonely feel reinforcing the idea of being in an empty isolated place rather than somewhere crowded. </li></ul>
This is another media product as part of the digipack, this is the poster. This product works well with the other media products but it is vital that it is also distinguishable from them as well. This shows how these products have intertextuality which is vital for the audience to recognise. The photograph used in the background interlinks to the other two media products as again it represents a rural places which is isolated, no people are shown in the photograph, it is simply a representation of a location. The photograph is in black and white and is quite dark creating a negative theme, however, the bright light in the background which is a natural source of light represents hope and positivity which represents the more positive side to the song showing how there are various themes and emotions to the song. A black border is used on the outside of the photograph and the same font is used, this links to some of the characteristics of the CD cover designs. At the bottom of the poster, there is a section devoted to various companies which sell or promote music for example Amazon which sells Coldplay’s music, this creates intertextuality to other products but again keeping in with the theme of music. This product conforms to the general expectations with this simple characteristic and therefore the audience are more likely to recognise it as a poster. The combination of these products are successful and effective because they emit a similar portrayal reinforcing intertextuality and each product clearly conveys the song fix you faithfully.
What have you learned from your audience feedback?
I gained audience feedback from all of my products, this was mainly verbally asking people what they thought of my products and how they could be improved if possible to become more professional and successful products. I also gained audience feedback early in the processes of this coursework project and I asked people about the research I was completing and what particular characteristics they admired in music videos which could be influenced into my own. For example, I analysed a video by Madonna and also the Arctic Monkeys, then I asked a few other people to comment on what they thought about the video, what they liked and disliked and also what aspects make each video individual. I took this knowledge in the production of my own video understanding what key characteristics allow the video to be very successful. Audience feedback is extremely important as part of evaluating your products, when designing and making products yourself it can be difficult to criticise them and feel the motivation to improve it and therefore an audience can pick up on factors which are bad which would otherwise go unnoticed. For example, once the first draft was created and uploaded on Blogger, people criticised it as not being in beat to the music enough times and therefore once this was complete I understood the vitality of ensuring the transitions were inserted to the correct timing of the song. Once the public had analysed my products I then adapted to their feedback and manipulated them so that they are more successful meeting the expectations of the public to a higher extent. Audience feedback strongly helps if there is a lack of knowledge on how to improve or what factors are in need of manipulation.
<ul><li>When reflecting back on the construction of the products, I can see simply how the audience feedback helped to consistently improve each product for example the poster changed drastically, more so than the other products such as the CD cover designs which were only improved slightly from the first draft. The first draft poster has a sharp contrasting colours in comparison to the final design poster. The first draft has more brown shades within rather than black and there is a lack of logos which sell or promote music and music videos and therefore the poster in the beginning of the designing process was less intriguing, attractive, appealing and convincing. As each poster was improved the font changed until the final completed poster, when I was satisfied with the font as it strongly reflects that of the actual products by Coldplay. This reflects intertextuality from using inspiration from existing products which the public can also relate to and make links. I also added a border and more logos for professionalism. As well I continued to add more characteristics such as the information based upon the song and the album it derives from and therefore the audience can also make the links between many products between the CD cover designs and also the poster. The colours also gradually changed over time, this is so that they portray the song more accurately and also it can be linked to the video and the colour schemes conveyed through the variety of settings filmed. The final poster is more effective as from my audience feedback, I was able to manipulate the design so that there was not such as stark difference in colours on the poster. Instead I used colours such as black and dark grey so that it would fit well with the photograph as the main background. This is so that it appears more professional as the colour scheme is more appropriate to the song. In terms of the other products, I used audience feedback also on what approach I should take when improving them. I consistently improved the photographs by manipulating them further and also using different coloured borders on the front cover of the CD. From my audience feedback it was clear that black again would be appropriate for the border as this fits well with the poster. As well, from existing products analysis and also audience feedback, I discovered that using the same photograph in different ways is an innovative approach which is also modern and creative. Therefore I used techniques such as cropping and zooming in on sections and manipulating the colours such as inverting them or editing the levels of colour and contrast. </li></ul>
<ul><li>How did you use media technologies in the construction and research, planning and evaluation stages? </li></ul>
Research <ul><li>In preparation for this project, I have completed a section based on ‘research and planning’ preparing myself to create a digi pack. An essential aspect integrated in this section was based on looking at existing products, this entailed focusing on different genres of music and examining various music videos and the contrasting characteristics between them and how each song linked to the video. By analysing these videos for the camera, editing, mise en scene and sound aspects, it gave me the opportunity to understand intertextuality and how every feature interlinked with other promotional products as well as the great impact the genre itself has. Through analysing various existing artists, it enabled me to develop a strategy in preparation for filming as I developed ideas and mind maps based on my chosen song as I continuously researched videos from websites such as yahoo music videos for inspiration. One website which is an internet website based on mind mapping called Wordle allowed me to express my different ideas from the song I chose, from this point I then worked on how to express these trigger words visually in a music video. </li></ul>
These are print screens from the website of yahoo music videos, here it shows how the website has specifically designated music videos to certain genres, this is a different method in which the audience can navigate around the website. The below print screen shows an example of the genre rock and how the audience can search further for more music specifically rock genre based. I did not choose to specify in a certain genre in the beginning stages but instead I chose an artist/ band which was Coldplay, this is an alternative method of researching and preparing for a music video. This website also allows viewers to view videos specific to one certain artist, from the point in which Coldplay was the main focus I could then as part of research look at various existing videos in which they completed.
Much of the work completed for research and planning was shown on Power Point Presentations, these are easily viewable presentations. As much information as possible can be posted as well as videos and songs which are easily accessible, this means that power point presentations can be dynamic and creative. Much of the power points completed in my own research section consist of lyrics being analysed, PowerPoint allows each chorus to be analysed separately simply, with the tools available mind maps can be made easily on these programmes allowing the analysis to be reviewed over again, whilst easily being understood.
This print screen shows YouTube, YouTube has many advantages such as it being widely accessible and containing many music videos with a wide array of choice. As well, I could also view amateur videos from previous media studies students and analyse their approach, I then discussed and described these videos for tips in preparation for making my own video. By focusing on how other students have improvised showed me that high standard professional music videos can be generated when planned well which led me to create hand written plans and storyboards breaking the song down into sections in which I would then film to. Another form of technology which was integrated within this project was Wikipedia helping me to learn more about the chosen band Coldplay and their musical style which represents them. Through learning their different music albums they released it is the base for expanding on this knowledge and generating a music video from this. From researching about the band Coldplay, I ensured that this band was suitable for the video I planned to produce. I learnt that they are not the stereotypical band where they act as a ‘democracy’ and are heavily involved with charity activism. This allows the audience to understand that this is a band which does not conform but is individual and this needs to be applied to their music videos as these are unique also. Through reading and researching on Coldplay, their musical style can become more understood whilst preparing for the music video and what settings and mise en scene should be used, their style has often been defined as alternative rock. From this characteristic of them, I could then compare their music videos to other bands such as Oasis and Radiohead to analyse what similarities there are. Coldplay's musical style has been described as ‘artistically abrasive’ suggesting the meaningful lyrics and how despite them being mainstream, this was not intentional. Due to reading through the autobiographies of these music artists, the expectations from the audience and media become understood better.
<ul><li>The images on the left show the two different technologies which I used to analyse lyrics of two different songs. One is foundations by Kate Nash and the other is for Coldplay Fix You, the final chosen song. The song by Kate Nash has been analysed through a hand written sense on paper, where I have highlighted key words where there is a possible change in the dynamics of the song. As well, I have made many annotations discussing the various connotations and what the portrayal of the lyrics are. A similar approach has been taken with Coldplay apart from the technology being Power Point which allows the lyrics to be split more understandably. I am pleased with these analyses of lyrics because a wide range of technologies have been used. I have also completed wordles and then further completed lyric analysis by discussing what I believe certain lyric lines mean and suggest and what I could film for them. This links to the storyboards which I have completed, this was completed by hand on paper as I split the page into sections and drew small pictures of the scenes in which I would shoot, and this was in relation to different time periods in the song. This portrays how various technologies have been working together to form this digi pack plan. </li></ul>
<ul><li>One technique in which I used for the poster, CD cover and the inside CD cover was photography with a camera to depict the correct themes associated with that depicted in the song ‘Fix You’. This technology then links to Macromedia Fireworks as I then edited these photographs to influence the messages and meanings of the song further into the images, this is so that they could depict similar to that of what the song portrays. </li></ul>
This photograph was the image I used for the poster. Prior to this image, it was much more like day light and the overall theme depicted was more upbeat and happier. However, this would not represent the song ‘Fix You’ well nor the genre of this type of music. Coldplay’s songs such as ‘Fix You’ and ‘The Scientist’ are very meaningful songs and emit highly negative connotations, which much of their target audience can relate to, these photographs allow intertextuality and form the digi pack well where people can make associations between these products and the lyrics. I have reduced the amount of light in this picture and also reduced the backlighting in return that the image is much darker and therefore more sinister, the trees represent nature which is a theme that is represented a lot through the final video. This is due to the fact that many scenes are shot in the woods, this is so that the whole theme of the video represents loneliness and supports the genre of the song, there is only one person that is shown in the final video showing how these lyrics are targeted at individuals. Again this photograph does not show any emotions of people but instead it is suggestive so that people (the target audience) can relate it to themselves easily. The sun in the background slightly showing through suggests hope and happiness, this links to the song as there is a drastic change in the song towards the end. Many of these characteristics were edited on purpose so that they could easily be related back to the video and the lyrics reinforcing this idea of intertextuality and a digi pack.
One technology which I have greatly used combining photography is photograph manipulation, this has allowed myself to manipulate the photographs so that they portray messages which the song portrays. This programme which I have been using throughout this project and experimenting with to create the products of poster, CD cover and the inside cover is Corel Photo Album. This offers a wide range of experimental techniques allowing the photographs to be manipulated and edited for a wide range of possible outcomes. The top image shows the before and then the below image shows after, this image has been used in the CD cover and also for the inside CD cover. The top image is before the manipulation took place, it is not as striking, however it is beautiful with the snow reflecting the sunlight to viewers. Again however, I have ensured that the photograph is metaphorical to the audience so that they can relate it to the song reinforcing intertextuality. The below image is fairly dark representing an ominous theme and therefore a sinister impression is emitted. The pathway represents life and the light at the end of the tunnel also representing the sharp change in the song from negativity to positivity and therefore this CD cover represents clearly the extent to which the lyrics can be influence into the products visually.
These are print screens again from Corel Album where I have been manipulating but this time for the inside CD cover. This shows the early stages in the processes of developing the products. I initially analysed various existing products of Coldplay and their products for inspiration. From the original image, I continued to edit it however taking a different approach where I zoomed in to almost allow the inside cover to become abstract. Through researching on the internet and using the internet as a technology, it was a tool allowing me to understand conventions and what the target audience would expect. The inner cover from looking at existing CDs must be less attention grabbing than the front cover but they must link together suggesting the importance of intertextuality.
This specifically shows how editing takes place on this Corel Photo Album and what processes are involved in generating the final outcome. The above screen shot gives various opportunities to edit the image, On this image I reduced the backlighting yet increased the contrast between the colours so that overall the colour scheme is darker yet still noticeable. As well, I reduced the brightness to fit with the song and the level of saturation which reduces the amount of colour within the picture. Overall this allows the image to give the correct portrayal fitting with the overall intertextuality. The below screen shot shows a different method of editing the image where it edits the colours, the level of exposure to light including the contrast of colours, the levels of vividness and also the sharpness within the image based upon the amount of detail. This attempt at editing can create quite drastic changes which was an aim of mine as I immediately intended for the image to portray negativity. In these photographs, there are suggestions that there are aspects of positivity for example of natural light sources in the background.
These screen shots show the processes needed to generate the products as part of the digipack including the inside CD cover and the music video. This shots are from the programme Macromedia Fireworks, I have prior to using this programme edited the photographs in another programme, however once they are on Fireworks if needed they can be edited further. For the poster I was inspired by my research I had previously completed to influence certain characteristics I had already analysed of Coldplay posters. For example, I researched common mainstream logos such as MTV and Amazon which are companies associated with music either selling or promoting it. Various layers of objects can be applied onto the image such as more images and fonts. This poster and CD cover on these shots have not been finished but show how different stages can be met when improvements are made. Both products show the obvious use of photography, however, the further editing has been completed on this programme. More techniques can be used, such as photograph editing which can not be used on other programmes, for example transparency when overlapping images. As well, the images can be edited with tools such as cropping or inserting new shapes. This technology has allowed different methods to take place which could not otherwise take place through using other pieces of technology. Through a lot of research as part of the planning section, I have been able to create a simple and effective CD cover without confusing the audience, one characteristic which Coldplay reinforce is their simple yet effective designs which remain professional.
These print screens show the programme Pinnacle studio 12, this programme is devoted to the making of the music video, it is where the editing takes place and where all the scenes are placed together and can be edited further through manipulation and various effects. The left print screen shows no editing but clearly shows the footage in which I have uploaded, from here you drag in the clips below where they can be shortened and cut, the clips can also be edited in terms of their speed. There is one clip which shows a train travelling past the video camera, this is put on slow motion which creates an artistic innovative effect, slow motion can fit well with areas of the song which are slower also and can create a dreamlike approach. The song also can be uploaded so the editing can become more successful as the clips will be carefully edited to the music. Through faithfully produces a music video to the song on this programme it will be more effective. One aspect of my music video which is professional is the clear amount of intertexuality within the music video, there are many links between the song and video for example when the lyrics mention ‘light’ there are many clips of light and when there are church bells in the backing music, the audience will visualise a church. When editing the video, the video clips can then be manipulated and effects can be added again to reinforce intertextuality, when the lyrics are sad then a black and white colour scheme can be used to reinforce the emotions through the mise en scene aspects.
In this programme, effects include the speed change to either create a rapid effect where the clip becomes sped up or turned into a slower clip with slow motion, the direction of the clip can also be reversed, in the song fix you, when Martin sings ‘stuck in reverse’, a few clips have this effect intact. The transitions allow the editing to become more natural as though the clips were designed to blend into one video rather than cuts which create an uncreative video. The colour schemes of the clips can also be edited, black and white is common but also sepia creates a gloomy impression. The colours can also be manipulated with changes in the contras and brightness of the colours. This allows the colour schemes to be edited to the emotions represented through the song, other effects also include a glow effect which gives the impression as though the audience is dreaming, this interlinks to some of lyrics which mentions sleep. Overall, these effects allow there to be increased intertextuality and therefore the products work together better conforming to the general expectations of how the music video and products should work together and link together.