PC Hardware Servicing
Chapter 4: The Motherboard
Chapter 4 Objectives
• Understand the processing subsystem
• Identify expansion buses and slots
• Differentiate between mo...
Processing Subsystem
• Motherboard
• CPU
• Memory
• Operating system
How a Motherboard Works
• Buses
– Address bus
– System bus
– Expansion buses
• Chips
– Chipset
– CPU
– RAM
Buses
• Address bus: between CPU and MCC
– MCC: Memory controller chip
– Interfaces with RAM
• System bus: between CPU and...
Expansion Buses
• AGP: Fastest, for video only
– 32-bit, 66MHz up to 533MHz
• PCI: Fast, general purpose
– 32-bit, 33MHz
–...
Expansion Slots
AGP
ISA
PCI
Motherboard Chipsets
• North/South Bridge
– Older design
– Uses PCI bus to connect North (faster) and
South (slower)
• Hub...
Jumpers
• Two pins
• When cap is placed over them, they are
bridged and electrical circuit is created
Switches
• Tiny on/off switch that opens/closes
electrical circuit
• More expensive to manufacture than
jumper
Selecting a Motherboard
• Form Factor
• Expansion Slots
• RAM slots
• CPU Slot or Socket
• Built-in components (sound, vid...
AT Motherboard
Ports connect
to case via
small ribbon
cables
Large (AT-
style)
keyboard
connector
AT-style
power
connector...
ATX Motherboard
ATX-style
power
supply
connector
Ports built
into side of
board
Expansion
slots
parallel to
narrow
edge
Sm...
Motherboard Expansion Slots
• ISA: 16-bit, 8MHz
– Very old technology
– Slots are usually black
– Useful for compatibility...
Motherboard Expansion Slots
• PCI: 32-bit, 33MHz
– General-purpose expansion slots
– Slots are usually white
– Useful for ...
Motherboard Expansion Slots
• AGP: 32-bit, 66MHz to 533MHz
– Only one per motherboard in most cases
– Slots are usually br...
CPU Slot or Socket
• Sockets for PGA CPUs
– Many styles of sockets with different number
and arrangement of pins
CPU Slot or Socket
• Slots for cartridge-type (SECC) CPUs
– SECC Slot 1, Slot 2, Slot A
Built-in Components
• Sound
• Network
• Video
• Modem
Battery
• Why a battery?
– CMOS
– Real-time clock
• Styles of battery
– Barrel
– Coin
I/O Ports in Motherboard
• Mouse
• Keyboard
• COM (Legacy
Serial)
 USB
 LPT (Legacy
Parallel)
 FireWire – less
common
Drive Connectors on Motherboard
• Floppy
– 34-pin
– Ribbon cable
• IDE
– 40-pin
– Ribbon cable
– New type just introduced:...
Troubleshooting Motherboards
• Dead Motherboard:
– Correct CPU installed?
– Correct type of RAM?
– Power supply working?
–...
Troubleshooting Motherboards
• Beeping
– RAM, CPU, video card:
• Installed correctly?
• Appropriate for this motherboard?
...
Troubleshooting Motherboards
• Dead Battery
– Real-time clock is losing time
– PC forgets its configuration settings when
...
Troubleshooting Motherboards
• Dead built-in components
• Malfunctioning expansion slots
• Bad jumper settings
• Bent pins...
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The Motherboard

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The Motherboard

  1. 1. PC Hardware Servicing Chapter 4: The Motherboard
  2. 2. Chapter 4 Objectives • Understand the processing subsystem • Identify expansion buses and slots • Differentiate between motherboard form factors and feature sets • Identify parts of a motherboard • Change the battery in a motherboard • Troubleshoot motherboard problems
  3. 3. Processing Subsystem • Motherboard • CPU • Memory • Operating system
  4. 4. How a Motherboard Works • Buses – Address bus – System bus – Expansion buses • Chips – Chipset – CPU – RAM
  5. 5. Buses • Address bus: between CPU and MCC – MCC: Memory controller chip – Interfaces with RAM • System bus: between CPU and chipset – Chipset: controller chip(s) on motherboard • Expansion buses: between chipset and expansion slots
  6. 6. Expansion Buses • AGP: Fastest, for video only – 32-bit, 66MHz up to 533MHz • PCI: Fast, general purpose – 32-bit, 33MHz – New PCIe (PCI Express) is faster, will replace AGP soon • ISA: Slow, general purpose – 16-bit, 8MHz
  7. 7. Expansion Slots AGP ISA PCI
  8. 8. Motherboard Chipsets • North/South Bridge – Older design – Uses PCI bus to connect North (faster) and South (slower) • Hub – Newer design – PCI bus is separate, not used for north/south traffic – Newer designs do not include ISA support
  9. 9. Jumpers • Two pins • When cap is placed over them, they are bridged and electrical circuit is created
  10. 10. Switches • Tiny on/off switch that opens/closes electrical circuit • More expensive to manufacture than jumper
  11. 11. Selecting a Motherboard • Form Factor • Expansion Slots • RAM slots • CPU Slot or Socket • Built-in components (sound, video, network) • I/O ports (USB, FireWire, serial, parallel, PS/2 mouse)
  12. 12. AT Motherboard Ports connect to case via small ribbon cables Large (AT- style) keyboard connector AT-style power connector Expansion slots parallel to wide edge
  13. 13. ATX Motherboard ATX-style power supply connector Ports built into side of board Expansion slots parallel to narrow edge Small (PS/2) style keyboard connector
  14. 14. Motherboard Expansion Slots • ISA: 16-bit, 8MHz – Very old technology – Slots are usually black – Useful for compatibility with old devices
  15. 15. Motherboard Expansion Slots • PCI: 32-bit, 33MHz – General-purpose expansion slots – Slots are usually white – Useful for a variety of cards including NICs, modems, sound cards
  16. 16. Motherboard Expansion Slots • AGP: 32-bit, 66MHz to 533MHz – Only one per motherboard in most cases – Slots are usually brown – High speed for video card – “X” ratings of speed, from 1X (66MHz) to 8X (533MHz)
  17. 17. CPU Slot or Socket • Sockets for PGA CPUs – Many styles of sockets with different number and arrangement of pins
  18. 18. CPU Slot or Socket • Slots for cartridge-type (SECC) CPUs – SECC Slot 1, Slot 2, Slot A
  19. 19. Built-in Components • Sound • Network • Video • Modem
  20. 20. Battery • Why a battery? – CMOS – Real-time clock • Styles of battery – Barrel – Coin
  21. 21. I/O Ports in Motherboard • Mouse • Keyboard • COM (Legacy Serial)  USB  LPT (Legacy Parallel)  FireWire – less common
  22. 22. Drive Connectors on Motherboard • Floppy – 34-pin – Ribbon cable • IDE – 40-pin – Ribbon cable – New type just introduced: Serial IDE
  23. 23. Troubleshooting Motherboards • Dead Motherboard: – Correct CPU installed? – Correct type of RAM? – Power supply working? – Video card installed? – Power turned on?
  24. 24. Troubleshooting Motherboards • Beeping – RAM, CPU, video card: • Installed correctly? • Appropriate for this motherboard? • Malfunctioning? – Look up beep code in BIOS reference
  25. 25. Troubleshooting Motherboards • Dead Battery – Real-time clock is losing time – PC forgets its configuration settings when powered off
  26. 26. Troubleshooting Motherboards • Dead built-in components • Malfunctioning expansion slots • Bad jumper settings • Bent pins • Leaky battery • Broken connection (poor soldering) • Short circuiting

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