Catholic• hierarchical, monarchy, absolutism, democrat• popes: greatest authority• bishops: authority over priests and laypeople• priests: guide believers and administer the sacraments (baptism, marriage ceremonies)• church members/laypeople
Power within Catholic ChurchCopy this diagram Pope Bishops Priests Nuns Church members/laypeople
How is the structure of the Catholic Church like the structure of monarchies?
Absolutism• monarchy claimed “divine right” to rule• a system of government in which the ruler claimed sole power• France: fear of chaos, loss of royal power, so king allied with the Catholic Church• bureaucracy: censorship of press, non- elected ofﬁcials, rules/regulations/laws
Power within Monarchies Monarchs: kings, queens Nobles (wealthy land owners) Knights (served noble lords; vassals:knights that protected nobles in exchange for land) Peasants
Religious controversies combined with dynastic rivalries (1648 map)
Unpopular Catholic Practices• Protestants do not believe priests need to be middlemen between Christians and God• Clergy did not know church teachings• Jesus drove money lenders out of the temple; the pope sold indulgences in the church• Protestants do not believe in purgatory, a pre-heaven• Protestants do not believe charity/good works are necessary for salvation; they believe faithing in God alone saves souls
Luther, Calvin, Tyndale, and Henry VIII (8th) Started New Protestant Denominations (Churches) Currency denominations: 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, etc.Christian Church Denominations
Protestant• federalism, republican, congregational, priesthood of all believers, constitutionalism• liberty, equality of worth, personal responsibility• compacts: etymology-- “agreements” (1590s Latin), guidelines, looser than a contract
Power withinProtestant ChurchesCopy this diagram Church members/laypeople Church elders, deacons, elected board members Ministers/Pastors/Reverends
Constitutionalism • England: Civil War (1642-1646) • Abolished total power of monarchs (now ﬁgureheads) • Declared England a "Commonwealth": etymology- "common well-being" (15th century/1400s) • Protestants helped replace with republican form of government
How was the American republicstructured like Protestant churches? “We hold these truths to be self- evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights”, Declaration of Independence. “The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government”, United States Constitution.
Inﬂuences of Republican Self-GovernmentCopy this diagram Moses’s republic Roman republicProtestant churches American republic
Protestant Model for Self-GovernmentCopy this diagram God Constitution Citizens Representatives