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Urban Form and Design - Urban Sustainability & Resilience


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Urban Form and Design - Urban Sustainability & Resilience

  1. 1. PLAN 4003: Urban Form & Design Week 14: Urban Sustainability & Resilience Anuradha Mukherji Assistant Professor of Urban and Regional Planning
  2. 2. STRATEGY FOR BUILDING SUSTAINABLE CITIES Compact City Forms – Urban limits, high density, infill development Low Carbon Transport/Mobility – Public transit, walking, biking Urban Greening – Creating ecological corridors Local Renewable Energy Sources – Solar panels, wind farms
  3. 3. COMPACTNESS & DENSITY Not through skyscrapers and excessive high-rise Building patterns of pre-dominantly low-rise structures at human scale History of limited land base and and compact cities Policies aimed at strengthening urban core: Industrial reuse, urban redevelopment Growth along transit corridors Limits on building outside designated development areas Strong role of municipal governments in developing new areas Investment in transport and infrastructure to support compactness
  4. 4. BUILDING PATTERN IN AMSTERDAM This image is attributed to Mi Chiel @ 2013 (CC BY-SA 2.0)
  5. 5. EASTERN DOCKLANDS, AMSTERDAM This image is attributed to Marc Rauw @ 2010 (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
  6. 6. EASTERN DOCKLANDS, AMSTERDAM This image is attributed to Marc Rauw @ 2010 (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
  7. 7. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT/MOBILITY Priority to transit on streets – protected & dedicated bus & tram lanes Reduce interference of autos with transit movement Single ticket good for all transit modes (bus, tram, underground metro) High frequency of service Integration of transit modes through coordination of routes Cross-national travel by high speed rail Investments in new routes along with new developments All part of the city no more than 600 meters from a tram station Car sharing companies and strategies
  8. 8. TRAMS IN ZURICH This image is attributed to Andreas Praefcke @ 2007 (CC BY 3.0)
  9. 9. TRAM STATION IN ZURICH This image is attributed to Ronald Zh @ 2011 (CC BY-SA 3.0)
  10. 10. ZURICH HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSIT HUB This image is attributed to Roger Price @ 2008 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
  11. 11. CAR2GO (CAR SHARING, ELECTRIC CAR CHARGING), AMSTERDAM This image is attributed to Mariordo @ 2011 (CC BY-SA 3.0)
  12. 12. BIKE SHARING, PARIS BIKE ORIENTED Commitment through modest investment, planning and design Bike lanes along all major streets Separated bike lanes with separate signaling & priority at intersections Extensive bicycling parking facilities (trains, public buildings) Minimum bicycle parking and storage standards at new developments This image is attributed to Coyau @ 2012 (CC BY-SA 3.0)
  13. 13. SOLAR POWERED BICYCLE PAY STATION, BOULDER, COLORADO AUTOMATED BIKE SHARING PAY STATION, PARIS This image is attributed to Tyree303 @ 2013 (CC BY-SA 3.0) and Mariordo @ 2012 (CC BY-SA 3.0)
  14. 14. PEDESTRIAN ORIENTED DESIGN Creating walkable cities through compact, dense and mixed-use Mixed use provides shops, services, cafes at walking distances Outdoor space – people socialize & interact, children play, democracy plays out Continued attention to the issue – expansion of pedestrian areas Gradual conversion to pedestrian uses, politically difficult to do at once Copenhagen: 2-3% of downtown parking converted each year Good public transit and alternate modes of travel a critical factor
  15. 15. PEDESTRIAN ZONE, COPENHAGEN This image is attributed to Furya @ 2010 (CC BY 2.0)
  16. 16. URBAN GREENING & RENEWABLE ENERGY Urban greening strategies – green roofs, preserving forests, ecological corridors Closed loop cities – input and output of energy cycles CHP Systems – Combined heat and power (using heat from electric generation), incentives and benefits to companies Solar energy integration in design of homes, schools, other buildings Financial & technical support for renewable energy at multiple levels
  17. 17. EUROPEAN GREEN BELT Old forest area along eastern European borders Multinational movement to conserve & protect Connects national parks, nature parks, biosphere reserves This image is attributed to Smaack @ 2011 (CC BY-SA 3.0)
  18. 18. KEY DIFFERENCES WITH UNITED STATES Economic & planning frameworks facilitate urban sustainability in EU Energy prices very high in Europe relative to US, carbon tax in Denmark Parliamentary government structure gives voice to small green parties Government role as market stimulators, innovation promoter expected Land not tied to sense of personal use (individual right) and freedom Strong desire to live within city centers, history of urban culture Importance given to the public realm & the value of public spaces
  19. 19. RESILIENT CITIES Climate change and resource degradation threatening cities Cities consume 75% of world energy, emit 80% of GHG Energy sources needed for growth, global oil supplies dwindling Need to look at alternatives – next generation of innovations needed Cities that quickly adapt to the changing dynamics of fossil based resources will prosper Reducing oil use – political necessity, environmental & health impacts, greater equity & economic gain, reducing dependence on foreign fuel Diversity of land use systems & transport, multiple sources of renewable power Reducing ecological footprint and improving quality of life
  20. 20. CLIMATE SCIENCE 1. Linked to Green House Gas (GHGs) 2. Four principle GHGs: Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxides, Fluorinated gases 3. Increased emissions since the industrial revolution 4. Agreement: Human activities changing composition of atmosphere More GHGs will change global climate 5. Disagreement: How much will it change At what rate it will change What and where the exact impacts will be
  21. 21. GLOBAL POPULATION INCREASE This image is attributed to El T (Public Domain)
  22. 22. CITIES WITH ONE MILLION INHABITANTS This image is attributed to Anwar Saadat @ 2007 (CC BY-SA 3.0)
  23. 23. THIRD REVOLUTION – HUGE URBANIZATION - 1900 – 10% of world population in cities - 1950 – 30% of world population in cities - 2010 – 51% of world population in cities - 2050 – 67% of world population in cities (projected)
  24. 24. URBANIZATION TRENDS - Urbanization and industrialization go hand in hand - Concentration in cities create market efficiency – labor, specialized firms, access - Cities generate land use change, impacts on the environment – air, land, water - Costs – congestion, pollution, migration and unemployment
  25. 25. INDUSTRIALIZATION – YANGZHOU, CHINA This image is attributed to Vmenkov @ 2012 (CC BY-SA 3.0)
  26. 26. TRAFFIC CONGESTION – HO CHI MINH, VIETNAM This image is attributed to Ngo Trung @ 2010 (CC BY 3.0)
  27. 27. URBAN POPULATION CONCENTRATION – KATHMANDU, NEPAL This image is attributed to Pavel Novak @ 2005 (CC BY-SA 2.5)
  28. 28. MEGACITIES Urban Agglomerations More Than 10 million Inhabitants Largest City – TOKYO – 34 million population Massive Environmental Footprint
  29. 29. MEGACITY – TOKYO, JAPAN This image is attributed to Lux Tonnerre @ 2008 (CC BY 2.0)
  30. 30. MEGACITY – GUANGZHOU, CHINA This image is attributed to chensiyuan @ 2011 (CC BY-SA 3.0)
  31. 31. MEGACITY – SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA This image is attributed to Patriotmissile @ 2007 (CC BY-SA 3.0)
  32. 32. MEGACITY – NEW YORK, UNITED STATES This image is attributed to Francisco Diez @ 2009 (CC BY 2.0)
  33. 33. MEGACITY – SAO PAULO, BRAZIL This image is attributed to Ana Paula Hirama @ 2011 (CC BY-SA 2.0)
  34. 34. MEGACITY – SHANGHAI, CHINA This image is attributed to Peter Morgan @ 2005 (CC BY 2.0)
  35. 35. Dhaka, Bangladesh – Urban Growth, According to UN Annual Growth Rate in Asia-Pacific is 2.3% This image is attributed to United Nations Photo @ 2010 (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
  36. 36. MEGACITY – MANILA, PHILLIPINES This image is attributed to Alex Robinson @ 2013 (CC ?)
  37. 37. MEGAPOLITAN Clustered networks of giant metropolitan regions 11 Regions Identified in US Largest Megalopolis – Washington DC to Boston – 14% of nation’s population
  38. 38. MEGALOPOLIS – WASHINGTON, DC to BOSTON This image is attributed to NASA (PD-USGov)
  39. 39. GLOBAL CARBON FOOTPRINT The biggest footprints – US & China