Urban Form and Design - Public Parks in Urban Design

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Urban Form and Design - Public Parks in Urban Design

  1. 1. PLAN 4003: Urban Form & Design Week 3: Public Parks in Urban Design Anuradha Mukherji Assistant Professor of Urban and Regional Planning
  2. 2. THE INDUSTRIAL CITY - Production centralized in cities as factories concentrated in urban areas - Factory system – needs raw materials, labor, markets - Increased mechanization - Based on intense use of resources – coal, iron ore, lumber, petroleum - City of factory, smokestacks, steam engines
  3. 3. Ohio Works of the Carnegie Steel Co., Youngstown, Ohio, 1910 These images are attributed to Haines Photo Co. @ 1919 (PD-US-1923) and Seattle Engineering Co. (PD-US-1923) Seattle Railroad, 1900
  4. 4. Pittsburg, Pennslyvania, 1902 This image is attributed to T.M. Fowler & James B. Moyer. (PD-US-1923)
  5. 5. Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, 1939 This image is attributed to BASF – The Chemical Company @ 2005 (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
  6. 6. Urban Tenements This image is in the public domain (PD-US-1923)
  7. 7. CRISES IN THE INDUSTRIAL CITY - Increased urban population & rapid urbanization - Health impacts on workers exposed to toxic metals and chemicals - Poor housing, lack of sanitation, lack of clean water, poor diet, endemic disease - Environmental crises – contamination of water, land and air - massive pollution discharge – hazardous environment
  8. 8. WATER POLLUTION - Pollution – residential waste (human & animal); commercial waste (factories & businesses) - Factories sited next to rivers or bays - textile, chemical, iron, steel need water for production process – used water put back - Meat plants flush carcasses; processing and packaging plants dump glues, gums, dyes, fertilizer, sausage casings, brushes
  9. 9. LAND POLLUTION - Factory – garbage, ashes, scrap metals, slag disposed on open lots - Household waste, urine, feces and animal carcasses dumped on streets - Horse manure and urine littered streets - Collection and disposal of solid waste uncoordinated and privatized - No public system, only wealthy could afford
  10. 10. AIR POLLUTION - Factory – smoke pollution by product of coal consumption - Factory – released chemicals: chlorine, ammonia, carbon monoxide, methane, hydrosulfuric acid - Soot from smokestacks and locomotives - Smoke equated with progress, growth, jobs and economic prosperity, science was not able to link public health to air pollution
  11. 11. PLANNING RESPONSE - County in the city / city in the country - Urban parks movement - Garden city movement - Urban renewal through urban design - Paris
  12. 12. This image is attributed to Public Domain (PD-US-1923) Frederick Law Olmstead, 1895 Portrait by John Singer Sargent (1856-1925) URBAN PARKS MOVEMENT - Urban parks formalized as public space or recreational area - Response to worsening urban conditions - Links with public health - Aligned with democratic ideals, open to all - Parks for the public - Move away from formalized, rationalized geometric designs, more organic instead - Parks as the ‘lungs of the city’, bringing clean air and sunlight into dirty grimy industrial city - Parks provided recreational opportunities and an ‘outlet’ for the stresses of city life
  13. 13. Central Park, New York City (Designed by Frederick Law Olmstead & Calvert Vaux, 1858, 843 acre) This image is attributed to H.Q. Roosevelt @ 2012 (www.rsvlts.com)
  14. 14. Central Park, New York City (Designed by Frederick Law Olmstead & Calvert Vaux, 1858, 843 acre)
  15. 15. Hester Street, New York City, 1902 This image is attributed to Snapshots of The Past @ 2008 (CC BY 2.0)
  16. 16. Central Park, New York City This image is attributed to Public Domain (PD-US-1923)
  17. 17. The Mall, Central Park, New York City, 1902 This image is attributed to Snapshots of The Past @ 2008 (CC BY 2.0) and the public domain (PD-US-1923) Central Park Map, New York City, 1870
  18. 18. This image is attributed to Landscape-Photo.net @ 2011 (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) The Mall, Central Park, New York City
  19. 19. Literary Walk, Central Park, New York City This image is attributed to Rex Boggs @ 2011 (CC BY-ND 2.0)
  20. 20. Emerald Necklace Park System Plan, Boston, (Olmstead Archives, 1894) This image is attributed to National Park Service Olmstead Archives (PD-US-1923)
  21. 21. Emerald Necklace Park System, Boston This image is attributed to Department of Conservation and Recreation
  22. 22. Riverside, Illinois, Frederick Law Olmstead & Calvert Vaux This image is attributed to Public Domain (PD-US-1923)
  23. 23. Garden City – Self sufficient unit This image is attributed to Public Domain (PD-US-1923) IDEA OF THE GARDEN CITY - Ebenezer Howard – Town-Country Magnet - Overcrowding an urban ill - Cities attractive due to higher wages and social opportunities, recreation - Hardship in cities – high rents, prices, long work hours, commuting distance, isolation and alienation, health hazards - Rural life beautiful - offers land, fresh air, water, sunshine - Rural less compelling – dull and lack of economic opportunities - Combining features of urban and country life to achieve balanced lifestyles and best of both - Self contained garden cities of 30,000 people around a larger central city - Cities with higher wages, regular jobs and healthier environments
  24. 24. Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City (Reorganization of the City) This image is attributed to Public Domain (PD-US-1923) GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT - Elements – zoning and greenbelts - Zoning – division of land for different uses - Green belts – ‘buffer’ zones between distinct land uses - Housing and community facilities away from factory and manufacturing areas
  25. 25. Green Machines – Industrial, Technical, Utopian This image is attributed to Public Domain (PD-US-1923) - Boulevards - 120 feet from center to periphery, dividing city into six parts - Central garden with civic institutions around – town hall, library, theatre, museum, hospital - Shopping area separated by green belt (central park) followed by housing - Grand avenue occupied by schools and churches - Outer ring comprised of factories, ware-houses, dairies, markets, coal yards - Circled by the railway line - Agriculture farm holdings beyond, ready market close by for the urban farmer - City managed by citizens
  26. 26. Letchworth Garden City, Hertfordshire, Great Britain This image is attributed to Public Domain (PD-US-1923)
  27. 27. Letchworth Garden City, Hertfordshire, Great Britain This image is attributed to Jonathan Billinger @ 2008 (CC BY-SA 2.0)
  28. 28. Letchworth Garden City, Hertfordshire, Great Britain This image is attributed to Toby Bradbury @ 2005 (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
  29. 29. Town Center, Letchworth, Hertfordshire, Great Britain This image is attributed to littlebitmanky @ 2005 (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
  30. 30. Townhall, Letchworth, Hertfordshire, Great Britain This image is attributed to Robin Hall @ 2006 (CC BY-SA 2.0)
  31. 31. Railway Station, Letchworth, Hertfordshire, Great Britain This image is attributed to Robin Hall @ 2006 (CC BY-SA 2.0)
  32. 32. Library & Museum, Letchworth, Hertfordshire, Great Britain This image is attributed to Robin Hall @ 2005 (CC BY-SA 2.0)
  33. 33. Letchworth, Hertfordshire, Great Britain This image is attributed to Bill Boaden @ 2011 (CC BY-SA 2.0)
  34. 34. Meadow Way, Letchworth, Hertfordshire, Great Britain This image is attributed to Christopher Hilton @ 2011 (CC BY-SA 2.0)

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