Attitude measurement and scales amiya 26 th march 2012
Attitude Measurement and ScalesPRESENTED BY Amiya Kumar Sahoo 1ST Year PGDM student Innovation-The Business School Muktapur,Khurdha
Attitude• Attitude may be defined as "Degree of positive or negative affect associated with some psychological object”.
AttitudesAttitudes Cognitive component A Person’s belief or informationEvaluative about the objectstatements orjudgments Affective Componentconcerning The emotional or feeling about theobjects, people, product such as like or dislike, good oror events. bad Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
MeasurementAssignment of numbers to objects or persons to represent quantities of their attributesThe assignment of number is done according to some rulesThe attribute of person would include his income,preference,religion,social class,attidues etcAttributes of product would be speed,size,price,flavoour,quantity etc.
ScaleThe ratio between the size of something and a representation of itA measuring instrument for weighing; shows amount of massA topic which can create a great deal of confusion in social and educational research is that of types of scales used in measuring behaviour
Attitude Measurement and Scales The study and measurement of attitude is important It is assumed that there is a relationship between attitude and behavior For marketing decision the attitude behavior relationship helps to study customer thinking and like and dislikeness. And with the help of this he predicts the future. Action/ Attitude Behavior
Types of scales used in measurementScales used for Market research have been divided in to 4 partsThey are1. Nominal Scales2. Ordinal scale3. Interval scale4. Ratio scale
Nominal Scale Numbers are used to label persons, events or objects It is the least powerful level of measurement It shows difference between things assigning them in to categories It is the counted data Statistics used-Mode,Contigency of co-efficient
Examples of nominal scalePlayers in a football teamColors of traffic lightGender (female= 1; male = 2)Sales Zone A = Islamabad, Sales Zone B = RawalpindiDrink A = Pepsi Cola, Drink B = 7-Up, Drink C = Miranda
Ordinal Scale An ordinal scale is one that arranges objects or alternatives according to their magnitude Objects are ranked in order with regard to some common variable. It tells us whether an event has more or less of characteristics than others. Numbers indicate the relative position of objects but not the magnitude of difference Statistics Used-Median,Percentile,Rank order co- relation
Examples Career Opportunities = Moderate, Good, Excellent Investment Climate = Bad, inadequate, fair, good, very good Merit = A grade, B grade, C grade, D gradeMONTHLY INCOME(RS) NO OF CONSUMERSLess than 5000 205001-8000 308001-11000 2511001-13000 2013001 and above 12Total 107
Interval Scale More powerful than ordinal and nominal scale Object is measured on a continuum Arbitrary zero point Differences between objects can be compared Interval scales allow comparisons of the differences of magnitude (e.g. of attitudes) but do not allow determinations of the actual strength of the magnitudeStatistics Used-Mean, Standard Deviation, Average Deviation, Product moment Co-relation,T-test,F-TEST
Ratio Scale Most powerful measurement It have an absolute or true zero measurement Interval scale with fixed zero point Possible to say how may times greater or smaller one object is than another. Comparison of absolute magnitudes is possible Statistics used-Geometric mean, Harmonic mean, Coefficient of variations
ExamplesIncomeDistance travelled from home to workplaceHeight,weight,densityMarket Share(1million in 2002and 1.5 million in 2003)