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  1. 1. Ecosystem Concepts By : Meenal Mathur
  2. 2. EcologyThe study of interrelations betweenliving organisms and their environment.Ecology proceeds at three levels : – Individual organism – Population (individuals of same species) – Community (no. of populations)
  3. 3. Aspects of Ecology • Autecology : study particular species behaviour & adoptation to the environment • Synecology : study of communities, behaviour & relation to environment.- population ecology- community ecology- ecosystem ecology
  4. 4. Ecology • Aquatic Ecology- Marine Ecology- Freshwater Ecology- Stream Ecology • Terrestrial Ecology- Grassland Ecology- Forest Ecology- Desert Ecology
  5. 5. ECOSYSTEMEcosystem is a natural functionalecological unit comprising of livingorganisms and their non-livingenvironment that interact to form a stableself-supporting system like a pond, lake,desert, forest, grassland etc.
  6. 6. Components of Ecosysytem • Abiotic Components – have strong influence on the structure, distribution, behaviour & interrelationship of organisms.a) Climatic Factors- rain, temp., light, humidity, rainb) Edaphic Factors- soil, pH, minerals • Biotic Componentsa) Producersb) Consumers–primary, secondary, tertiary,Quaternaryc) Decomposers or reducers
  7. 7. • Concept of food chain• Concept of food web• Energy Flow• Biogeochemical Cycles (Material Cycles)1) Water Cycle2) Carbon Cycle3) Nitrogen Cycle4) Oxygen Cycle