The Musculo-skeletalSystemChapter 2
The Skeletal System Human adult has 206 bones    Babies have >300 bones that fuse during     developemnt Function    S...
Classification Classification of the Skeletal system     Axial Skeleton         Head         Neck         Trunk     ...
ClassificationClassification of Bones  Based on density     Spongy Bone     Compact Bone  Based on Shape     a. Long ...
Bone StructureMicrostructure of the bone   Parts of a long bone
Bone Development
Factors affecting bone development,growth and repair Vitamin A Deficiency – retards bone  development Vitamin C deficien...
The Axial Skeleton Groups of Bones    Skull        Cranial bones        Facial bones    Vertebral Column        Cerv...
THE SKULL
The Skull Bones of CRANIUM  encloses and protects the  brain    8 cranial bones    Unmovable joints (sutures)    Conta...
The Bones of the Cranium   Frontal       (1)    forms forehead   Parietal    superior and lateral walls (paired)   Temp...
The Bones of the Cranium   Frontal       (1)    forms forehead   Parietal      (2)    superior and lateral walls (paired...
The Bones of the Cranium   Frontal       (1)    forms forehead   Parietal      (2)    superior and lateral walls (paired...
The Bones of the Cranium   Frontal       (1)    forms forehead   Parietal      (2)    superior and lateral walls (paired...
The Bones of the Cranium   Frontal       (1)    forms forehead   Parietal      (2)    superior and lateral walls (paired...
The Bones of the Cranium   Frontal       (1)    forms forehead   Parietal      (2)    superior and lateral walls (paired...
The Facial Bones   Maxillae            (2)    Forms upper jaw   Palatine            (2)    Posterior to maxillae, betwee...
The Facial Bones   Maxillae            (2)    Forms upper jaw   Palatine            (2)    Posterior to maxillae, betwee...
The Facial Bones   Maxillae            (2)    Forms upper jaw   Palatine            (2)    Posterior to maxillae, betwee...
The Facial Bones   Maxillae            (2)    Forms upper jaw   Palatine            (2)    Posterior to maxillae, betwee...
The Facial Bones   Maxillae            (2)    Forms upper jaw   Palatine            (2)    Posterior to maxillae, betwee...
The Facial Bones   Maxillae            (2)    Forms upper jaw   Palatine            (2)    Posterior to maxillae, betwee...
The Facial Bones   Maxillae            (2)    Forms upper jaw   Palatine            (2)    Posterior to maxillae, betwee...
The Facial Bones   Maxillae            (2)    Forms upper jaw   Palatine            (2)    Posterior to maxillae, betwee...
Additional Bones   Hyoid Bone         (1)       Not technically part of skull       Does not articulate directly with a...
Bone MarkingsMeatus – Canal like Passageway    Process – bony prominence     Foramen – opening through bone    Condyle – r...
Bone Markings - ExamplesMeatus             Process                      Foramen                        Condyle            ...
THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
The Vertebral Column Length is 60 - 70cm Intervertebral discs contribute (1/5)th of length. Made up of 33 vertebrae. F...
Functions of the spine Protection – cord , internal organs Flexibility & locomotion – 6 degrees of  movement Posture & ...
Features of the backbone                             Curvature      Elasticity                               [Convex      ...
Regions of the spineCervical (7)      Upper Cervical (C1-C2)                  Lower Cervical (C3-C7)Thoracic (12)         ...
The Vertebral Column                           Vertebral BonesLumbar Thoracic Cervical                                    ...
The Vertebral column Sacral Vertebrae    5 vertebrae fused together    Joins to the pelvic bones on either side    For...
The Intervertebral Discs Annulus Fibrosis     Outer portion of the disc     Made of lamellae     Great tensile strengt...
THE RIB CAGE
Thoracic CageFunctions Supports pectoral girdle Protects Viscera Helps BreathingComponents Thoracic Vertebrae Ribs – ...
Rib AnatomyCommon Features Head, Neck and Tubercle articulate with the  vertebral bone Long curved shaft Ends with cost...
Sternum Also called Breast bone Shaped like a shield Attaches costal cartilages Three parts    Manubrium        Arti...
The Appendicular Skeleton Groups of Bones   Upper Limbs      Pectoral Girdle      Arm      Hand   Lower Limbs      ...
Upper Limbs Shoulder Joint – Pectoral Girdle – 3 bones    Collar bone – Clavicle    Shoulder Blade – Scapula    Humeru...
Lower Limbs Hip Joint – Pelvic Girdle – 2 bones    Pelvic Bones Leg – 4 bones    Femur – Longest Bone    Tibia    Fi...
Joints
Classification of Joints                     Structural                                  Functional                       ...
Classification of JointsFibrous                                          Fibula Sheet bundle of fibres                   ...
Costal cartilageClassification of JointsCartilaginous Bands of hyaline cartilage unite  bones     Ribs and sternum     ...
Classification of Joints                                   Spongy Bone        Synovial         Freely Movable            ...
Synovial Joints - Examples
Lifespan Changes Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging Fibrous joints first to change; can strengthen however over a...
The Muscular SystemSpecialized tissue that enable the body and its parts to move.
Overview of Muscular System
The Muscular System Consists of 640 Muscle (40% body          Functions of Muscles  mass)                               ...
Classification of Muscles Functional    Voluntary – can be moved at will    Involuntary – cant‟ be moved     intentiona...
Straited                  Cardiac                     Smooth Fibers are long and      Cells branched and         Fibers...
Classification of muscles           Voluntary                         InvoluntarySkeletal                   Cardiac       ...
Muscle Control Type of Muscle   Nervous control   Type of Control     Example    Skeletal      CNS controlled      Volunta...
Movement Muscle moves bones always by pulling and never by pushing Synergy – Movement always due to more than one muscle...
Posture Maintaining body position - tonic  contractions Don‟t produce movement but hold  up positionHeat Production Mus...
Muscle                  Muscle Fibre MicrostructureSkeletal Muscle                                          Myofibril     ...
Skeletal Muscle Microstructure
Smooth Muscle Blood vessel Lining - Helps blood  Circulation Esophagus, stomach, intestine -  Controls digestion Respir...
Smooth Muscle Cells have dense bodies that anchor fibrin Contracts on ANS stimulus Causes wave like movement along the ...
Cardiac Muscle Forms the chambers of the heart Atrial and Ventricular Contractions Signal by ANS through cardiac nerves...
Muscle Contraction    • Electrical impulse travels down a motor neuron. When it reaches      the end, acetylcholine (chemi...
Muscle Fatigue Nervous Fatigue    Nerves responsible for muscle contraction        sequence and force        Number of...
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002 musculoskeletal

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Topics Covered
1. Classification of Skeleton
2. Bone Structure
3. Axial skeleton - Cranium, Face, Vertebral Column, Ribs
4. Appendicular Skeleton - Arms, Legs
5. Joints - Classification
6. Muscular System
7. Classification of Muscle
8. Functions of Muscles
9. Muscle Miscro-structure
10. Muscle Contraction and Fatigue

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002 musculoskeletal

  1. 1. The Musculo-skeletalSystemChapter 2
  2. 2. The Skeletal System Human adult has 206 bones  Babies have >300 bones that fuse during developemnt Function  Support and Shape  Protection  Blood Cell Formation (hematopoiesis)  Leverage for locomotion (along with muscles)  Inorganic salt storage (Ca, PO4, Mg, Na, K) The study of bones “osteology”
  3. 3. Classification Classification of the Skeletal system  Axial Skeleton  Head  Neck  Trunk  Appendicular Skeleton  Upper Limbs  Lower Limbs  Pectoral Girdle  Pelvic Girdle
  4. 4. ClassificationClassification of Bones Based on density Spongy Bone Compact Bone Based on Shape a. Long Bone b. Short Bone c. Flat Bone d. Irregular Bone e. Sesamoid (Round) Bone
  5. 5. Bone StructureMicrostructure of the bone Parts of a long bone
  6. 6. Bone Development
  7. 7. Factors affecting bone development,growth and repair Vitamin A Deficiency – retards bone development Vitamin C deficiency – fragile bones Vitamin D Deficiency – Rickets, osteomalcia Growth hormone imbalance – dwarfism / gigantism Hypothyroidism – delay in bone growth Sex Hormones - promotes bone formation early ossification Physical stress – stimulates bone growth
  8. 8. The Axial Skeleton Groups of Bones  Skull  Cranial bones  Facial bones  Vertebral Column  Cervical  Thoracic  Lumbar  Pelvic  Thoracic Cage  True Ribs  False ribs  Sternum
  9. 9. THE SKULL
  10. 10. The Skull Bones of CRANIUM encloses and protects the brain  8 cranial bones  Unmovable joints (sutures)  Contain holes (foramen) for VAN Bones of the FACE holds eyes and shape of the face  14 facial bones  One movable joint  Foramen for VAN
  11. 11. The Bones of the Cranium Frontal (1) forms forehead Parietal superior and lateral walls (paired) Temporal inferior to parietal, at temples (paired) Occipital posterior wall of the orbit Sphenoid deep to the anterior of skull, forms floor of cranial cavity Ethmoid forms roof of nasal cavity, medial walls of orbits
  12. 12. The Bones of the Cranium Frontal (1) forms forehead Parietal (2) superior and lateral walls (paired) Temporal inferior to parietal, at temples (paired) Occipital posterior wall of the orbit Sphenoid deep to the anterior of skull, forms floor of cranial cavity Ethmoid forms roof of nasal cavity, medial walls of orbits
  13. 13. The Bones of the Cranium Frontal (1) forms forehead Parietal (2) superior and lateral walls (paired) Temporal (2) inferior to parietal, at temples (paired) Occipital posterior wall of the orbit Sphenoid deep to the anterior of skull, forms floor of cranial cavity Ethmoid forms roof of nasal cavity, medial walls of orbits
  14. 14. The Bones of the Cranium Frontal (1) forms forehead Parietal (2) superior and lateral walls (paired) Temporal (2) inferior to parietal, at temples (paired) Occipital (1) posterior wall of the orbit Sphenoid deep to the anterior of skull, forms floor of cranial cavity Ethmoid forms roof of nasal cavity, medial walls of orbits
  15. 15. The Bones of the Cranium Frontal (1) forms forehead Parietal (2) superior and lateral walls (paired) Temporal (2) inferior to parietal, at temples (paired) Occipital (1) posterior wall of the orbit Sphenoid (1) deep to the anterior of skull, forms floor of cranial cavity Ethmoid forms roof of nasal cavity, medial walls of orbits
  16. 16. The Bones of the Cranium Frontal (1) forms forehead Parietal (2) superior and lateral walls (paired) Temporal (2) inferior to parietal, at temples (paired) Occipital (1) posterior wall of the orbit Sphenoid (2) deep to the anterior of skull, forms floor of cranial cavity Ethmoid (1) forms roof of nasal cavity, medial walls of orbits
  17. 17. The Facial Bones Maxillae (2) Forms upper jaw Palatine (2) Posterior to maxillae, between back Zygomatic (2) Cheekbones, lateral walls of orbits Lacrimal (2) Part of medial walls of orbits, between ethmoid bones and maxillae Nasal (2) Bridge of nose Vomer (1) Median line of nasal cavity Inferior conchae (2) Bone projections from lateral wall of nasal cavity Mandible (1) Lower jaw, connected by only freely movable joint of face
  18. 18. The Facial Bones Maxillae (2) Forms upper jaw Palatine (2) Posterior to maxillae, between back Zygomatic (2) Cheekbones, lateral walls of orbits Lacrimal (2) Part of medial walls of orbits, between ethmoid bones and maxillae Nasal (2) Bridge of nose Vomer (1) Median line of nasal cavity Inferior conchae (2) Bone projections from lateral wall of nasal cavity Mandible (1) Lower jaw, connected by only freely movable joint of face
  19. 19. The Facial Bones Maxillae (2) Forms upper jaw Palatine (2) Posterior to maxillae, between back Zygomatic (2) Cheekbones, lateral walls of orbits Lacrimal (2) Part of medial walls of orbits, between ethmoid bones and maxillae Nasal (2) Bridge of nose Vomer (1) Median line of nasal cavity Inferior conchae (2) Bone projections from lateral wall of nasal cavity Mandible (1) Lower jaw, connected by only freely movable joint of face
  20. 20. The Facial Bones Maxillae (2) Forms upper jaw Palatine (2) Posterior to maxillae, between back Zygomatic (2) Cheekbones, lateral walls of orbits Lacrimal (2) Part of medial walls of orbits, between ethmoid bones and maxillae Nasal (2) Bridge of nose Vomer (1) Median line of nasal cavity Inferior conchae (2) Bone projections from lateral wall of nasal cavity Mandible (1) Lower jaw, connected by only freely movable joint of face
  21. 21. The Facial Bones Maxillae (2) Forms upper jaw Palatine (2) Posterior to maxillae, between back Zygomatic (2) Cheekbones, lateral walls of orbits Lacrimal (2) Part of medial walls of orbits, between ethmoid bones and maxillae Nasal (2) Bridge of nose Vomer (1) Median line of nasal cavity Inferior conchae (2) Bone projections from lateral wall of nasal cavity Mandible (1) Lower jaw, connected by only freely movable joint of face
  22. 22. The Facial Bones Maxillae (2) Forms upper jaw Palatine (2) Posterior to maxillae, between back Zygomatic (2) Cheekbones, lateral walls of orbits Lacrimal (2) Part of medial walls of orbits, between ethmoid bones and maxillae Nasal (2) Bridge of nose Vomer (1) Median line of nasal cavity Inferior conchae (2) Bone projections from lateral wall of nasal cavity Mandible (1) Lower jaw, connected by only freely movable joint of face
  23. 23. The Facial Bones Maxillae (2) Forms upper jaw Palatine (2) Posterior to maxillae, between back Zygomatic (2) Cheekbones, lateral walls of orbits Lacrimal (2) Part of medial walls of orbits, between ethmoid bones and maxillae Nasal (2) Bridge of nose Vomer (1) Median line of nasal cavity Inferior conchae (2) Bone projections from lateral wall of nasal cavity Mandible (1) Lower jaw, connected by only freely movable joint of face
  24. 24. The Facial Bones Maxillae (2) Forms upper jaw Palatine (2) Posterior to maxillae, between back Zygomatic (2) Cheekbones, lateral walls of orbits Lacrimal (2) Part of medial walls of orbits, between ethmoid bones and maxillae Nasal (2) Bridge of nose Vomer (1) Median line of nasal cavity Inferior conchae (2) Bone projections from lateral wall of nasal cavity Mandible (1) Lower jaw, connected by only freely movable joint of face
  25. 25. Additional Bones Hyoid Bone (1)  Not technically part of skull  Does not articulate directly with any other bone  Anchored to temporal bones by ligaments  Movable base for tongue  Attachment point for neck muscles
  26. 26. Bone MarkingsMeatus – Canal like Passageway Process – bony prominence Foramen – opening through bone Condyle – rounded articular projections (involved with joints)Sinuses – cavities in bone filled with air
  27. 27. Bone Markings - ExamplesMeatus Process Foramen Condyle SinusesExternal Styloid Process – inferior Jugular Magnum – at Occipital Paranasal Sinuses –Auditory Meatus to auditory meatus junction of occipital & Condyles – rest on found in different– canal leads to (temporal) temporal bones, opening for the first vertebra bones surroundingeardrum and jugular vein (temporal) of the spinal nasal cavitymiddle ear Zygomatic Process – column (occipital) (frontal, ethmoid,(temporal) anterior to cheek bone Carotid Canal – anterior to sphenoid, (temporal) jugular foramen, opening for maxillae) carotid artery (temporal) Mastoid Process – posterior and inferior to Foramen Magnum – auditory meatus opening for spinal cord to (temporal) connect to brain (occipital) Palatine Processes – Foramen Ovale – opening extensions of maxillae for nerve fibers to pass to that form the anterior jaw muscles (sphenoid) part of the mouth (maxillae)
  28. 28. THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
  29. 29. The Vertebral Column Length is 60 - 70cm Intervertebral discs contribute (1/5)th of length. Made up of 33 vertebrae. Five(5) different regions are identified:  Cervical vertebrae - 7  Thoracic vertebrae - 12  Lumber vertebrae - 5  Sacral vertebrae - 5  Coccygeal vertebrae - 4 Vertebrae in sacrum and coccyx are fused together (false vertebrae), while others are discrete (true vertebrae).
  30. 30. Functions of the spine Protection – cord , internal organs Flexibility & locomotion – 6 degrees of movement Posture & support – upright, balance Attributes to achieve function (resistance & elasticity)  Curvature  Progressive ↑ vertebral mass  Motion segments
  31. 31. Features of the backbone Curvature Elasticity [Convex 1 (Lordosis), Concave Resistance Dynamic Center of (Kyphosis)] gravityIncreased vertebral Primary Secondary mass from C1 to S1 Forms a firm base Mass 2 Functional unit 3 Motion Segments 2 vertebrae + intervertebral discs + connecting ligaments
  32. 32. Regions of the spineCervical (7) Upper Cervical (C1-C2) Lower Cervical (C3-C7)Thoracic (12) (T1-T12)Lumbar (5) (L1-L5)Coccygeal (9)
  33. 33. The Vertebral Column Vertebral BonesLumbar Thoracic Cervical Vertebral Body Transverse Process Vertebral foramen Superior Articular Process Facet Joint Spinous Process
  34. 34. The Vertebral column Sacral Vertebrae  5 vertebrae fused together  Joins to the pelvic bones on either side  Forms the posterior of the pelvic girdle Coccygeal Vertebrae  4 vertebrae fused together  Vestigial in humans
  35. 35. The Intervertebral Discs Annulus Fibrosis  Outer portion of the disc  Made of lamellae  Great tensile strength Nucleus Pulposus  Inner structure  Gelatinous  High water content  Resists axial forces* Slip Disc
  36. 36. THE RIB CAGE
  37. 37. Thoracic CageFunctions Supports pectoral girdle Protects Viscera Helps BreathingComponents Thoracic Vertebrae Ribs – 24 ribs  True – 7 pairs  False – 5 pairs Sternum Costal cartilages
  38. 38. Rib AnatomyCommon Features Head, Neck and Tubercle articulate with the vertebral bone Long curved shaft Ends with costal cartilage Contains groove for VANTrue Ribs – 7 pairs Connect to vertebrae and sternum directlyFalse Ribs – 5 pairs 3 connect to sternum with 7th costal cartilage Last 2 „float‟ without connection to sternum
  39. 39. Sternum Also called Breast bone Shaped like a shield Attaches costal cartilages Three parts  Manubrium  Articulates with pectoral girdle  Body  Attaches costal cartilages  Xiphoid Process
  40. 40. The Appendicular Skeleton Groups of Bones  Upper Limbs  Pectoral Girdle  Arm  Hand  Lower Limbs  Pelvic Giidle  Leg  Foot
  41. 41. Upper Limbs Shoulder Joint – Pectoral Girdle – 3 bones  Collar bone – Clavicle  Shoulder Blade – Scapula  Humerus Arm – 3 bones  Humerus  Radius - outer  Ulna – inner Hand – 27 bones  Carpels - 8  Metacarpels - 5  Phalanges - 14
  42. 42. Lower Limbs Hip Joint – Pelvic Girdle – 2 bones  Pelvic Bones Leg – 4 bones  Femur – Longest Bone  Tibia  Fibula – Shin  Patella – Knee cap Foot – 26 bones  Tarsals - 7  Metatarsals - 5  Phalanges - 14
  43. 43. Joints
  44. 44. Classification of Joints Structural Functional Synoarthr Amphi- Di- Cartilagin Fibrous Joints Synovial Joints otic arthrotic arthrotic ous Joints Joints Joints Joints Hyaline or Between Dense fibro close Most Allow free Slightly Freelyconnective cartilage Immovable contact complex movement movable Movable tissue connects bones bones
  45. 45. Classification of JointsFibrous Fibula Sheet bundle of fibres Tibia  Parallel bones  Syndesmosis Margin of Very thin layer of connective tissue suture  Cranial plates  Suture Cony Process of connective tissue  tooth and jaw Periodontal  Gomphosis ligament
  46. 46. Costal cartilageClassification of JointsCartilaginous Bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones  Ribs and sternum  Synchondrosis Intervertebral discs Pad of fibrocartilage between bones Symphysis pubis  Vertebrae, pubic bones  Symphasis
  47. 47. Classification of Joints Spongy Bone Synovial  Freely Movable Synovial membrane  Complex structure enables free movement Joint Cavity Synovial Fluid  6 types of joints - based on movement Articular CartilageUni-axial Bi-axial Multi-axial Joint capsule BallHinge Pivot Saddle Condylar Gliding Socket
  48. 48. Synovial Joints - Examples
  49. 49. Lifespan Changes Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging Fibrous joints first to change; can strengthen however over a lifetime Changes in joints of vertebral column diminish flexibility and decrease height Synovial joints lose elasticity Disuse hampers the blood supply Activity and exercise can keep joints functional longer
  50. 50. The Muscular SystemSpecialized tissue that enable the body and its parts to move.
  51. 51. Overview of Muscular System
  52. 52. The Muscular System Consists of 640 Muscle (40% body  Functions of Muscles mass)  Movement The Sartorious – The longest muscle in the body  Posture and muscle tone The Stapedius – Shortest muscle in the  Heat production body  Protection of bones and organs Gluteus Maximus – Biggest muscle in the body
  53. 53. Classification of Muscles Functional  Voluntary – can be moved at will  Involuntary – cant‟ be moved intentionally Striated Smooth Structural  Striated – have stripes  Non-Straited – no striations Cardiac
  54. 54. Straited Cardiac Smooth Fibers are long and  Cells branched and  Fibers are thin and cylindrical appear fused with one spindle shaped. another Has many nuclei  No striations  Has striations Has striations  Single nuclei  One central nuclei/cell Have alternating dark  Slow contractions and light bands  Contractions pump  Muscles fatigue very blood through body Attached to bones by slowly tendons  Muscles never fatigue  Lining of tube inside Muscles fatigue body
  55. 55. Classification of muscles Voluntary InvoluntarySkeletal Cardiac Smooth Limbs Heart Viscera Striated Non-Striated
  56. 56. Muscle Control Type of Muscle Nervous control Type of Control Example Skeletal CNS controlled Voluntary Lifting a glass Cardiac ANS Regulated Involuntary Heart Beating Smooth ANS Controlled Involuntary Peristalsis
  57. 57. Movement Muscle moves bones always by pulling and never by pushing Synergy – Movement always due to more than one muscle working together  All muscles responsible – Synergists Prime Muscle – One muscle most important for movement  Most important muscle – agonist Paired functionality – every agonists must have an antagonist  Prime Mover opposite to agonist – antagonist  When one contract, the other has to relax
  58. 58. Posture Maintaining body position - tonic contractions Don‟t produce movement but hold up positionHeat Production Muscles contraction produces heat Maintains / Increases Body temperature
  59. 59. Muscle Muscle Fibre MicrostructureSkeletal Muscle Myofibril Sarcomere Filament Organization Thin Filament Thin Filament
  60. 60. Skeletal Muscle Microstructure
  61. 61. Smooth Muscle Blood vessel Lining - Helps blood Circulation Esophagus, stomach, intestine - Controls digestion Respiratory system - Controls breathing Urinary bladder - Controls urination Two Distinct Layers  Longitudinal  Circular Helps Peristalsis
  62. 62. Smooth Muscle Cells have dense bodies that anchor fibrin Contracts on ANS stimulus Causes wave like movement along the tube
  63. 63. Cardiac Muscle Forms the chambers of the heart Atrial and Ventricular Contractions Signal by ANS through cardiac nerves and Sino-atrial nodes Left ventricle has strongest cardiac muscles Microstructure similar to striated muscle
  64. 64. Muscle Contraction • Electrical impulse travels down a motor neuron. When it reaches the end, acetylcholine (chemical) is released into the synapse • Acetylcholine bind to special receptors on the muscle cell and causes an electrical impulse to spread over the cell • The sarcomeres shorten and the muscle cell contracts
  65. 65. Muscle Fatigue Nervous Fatigue  Nerves responsible for muscle contraction  sequence and force  Number of muscles  Regular movements require far less force than maximum  During weight training – maximum nerve signal  Diminishes in time – muscle stop listening – returns to original state  Strength training – sustained signal – sustained threshold signal results in hypertrophy Metabolic Fatigue  Energy used for contraction – buildup of waste products (metabolites) cause fatigue/cramps  Metabolites include ADP, Chloride, K, Lactic Acid

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