DISHAA                                                                                      En route to a better world…   ...
Your kind attention plz !                                   UNHEALTHY HEALTH SECTOR IN INDIA                              ...
partnership in the health sector. PHFI seeks to establish   partnerships’ and private medical insurance being services for...
Feminism: Lessons for Social Work Practice                                     (Samsheer, S4 MSW)            “One is not b...
Interview with a professional Social Worker :                                       DR. R. PARTHASARATHYDR. R. PARTHASARAT...
My health problems have come in the way of my doing social work. Bi-pass surgery, chronic diabetes, andchronic kidney dise...
Field Work news:                Fieldwork and Women’s Day celebration at Govt. Mahila Mandiram, Kollam                    ...
Agency News:                    ASTITVA                    ( Sukanya Vijayan, S2MSW)Astitva is a non- profit community bas...
Social Work Research @ Amrita          Research Paper:          Stigma and Insecurity of HIV Positive People in Kerala    ...
Dishaa Vol 2, issue 1,they very much require to continue to live as purposeful           level of stigma on HIV. It is hig...
Dishaa Vol 2, issue 2,ConclusionAll over the world HIV/AIDS is causing devastation by destroying individuals, families and...
Dishaa Vol 2, issue 1,       RTE mainly focuses on providing education            According to this act, education is a fu...
TITLE OF THE BOOK: NNANGA Book Review                                                        IPPIMALENA MAKKA            (...
Activities of Department of Social Work                                                            Feb 2, 2012       Jan...
Dis h a a V ol 2 , is s u e 1           Feb 8-9, 2012                                             Mar 2, 2012 Conducted ...
   Mar 7, 2012                                 Corporation) formally inaugurated the function and                        ...
Dishaa Vol 2, issue 1It would also be useful to include a contact name for readers who want more information about the org...
Dis h a a V ol 2 , is s u e 1      Mar 29, 2012Amrita Santhvanam programme was conducted at Govt. Old ageHome, KollamSoci...
The Song of Sparrows (2008) is an Iranian movie directed by Majid Majidi. Thestory revolves around Karim whose life takes ...
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  1. 1. DISHAA En route to a better world… Quarterly newsletter by ASWAS, Department of Social Work, Amritapuri campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Jan-Mar, 2012 Volume 2, Issue 1 Contents: Editorial  Editorial   Your kind attention plz! The Department of Social Work, Amritapuri had a Unhealthy health sector bunch of activities during the period January-March, 2012. The staff-student editors have tried their level  Feminism: Lessons for best to reflect them in this issue of the newsletter. Social Work Ms. Arathy Aravind had tried to portray the practice turbulence in the health sector in the contemporary  Picasso. MSW India. Mr. Samseer talks about “feminism” while Mr. Vishnu is addressing “Corruption” through his  Interview with a artistic skills. The editorial team expresses its Professional Social Worker heartfelt gratitude to Dr. R. Parthasarathy, Professor & Head Department of Social Work for his  Fieldwork news participation in DISHAA through the section, “This attitude of mutual  Agency news “Interview with a Professional Social Worker”. understanding and respect between humans and nature  “Women’s Day celebrations” at various places is Social Work must be incorporated into Research @ comprehensively covered in this issue. DISHAA society.” Amrita introduces “Astitva” - a nonprofit community based — Amma organization working for the development of sexual  Introduction to Policies/Acts minorities. The report of the World Social Workers Day & Blood Donation Camp is documented. AMC  Book review – the movie club of the Department of Social Work  Activities of was active in the period, screening 5 movies of Department of social relevance. I thank all the well-wishers and Social Work contributors who are helping us in this venture, to  AMC news move ahead successfully. -Dr. Renjith R. Pillai  (Chief Editor)    1  Note: Views expressed by the students and other contributors are not necessarily the official view of the Department of Social Work, Amrita University or MA Math.  
  2. 2. Your kind attention plz ! UNHEALTHY HEALTH SECTOR IN INDIA (Arathy Aravind, S2MSW) In India today, the health sector is 20-30 million episodes of malaria occur insimultaneously an area of deep crisis as well as of India each year; mortality on account oftremendous opportunity for positive change. malaria is the highest in India. Profit-orientedGovernment, Private medical sector, and Community curative care is therefore on the rise, 80 perhealth activists seek to massively reorganize health cent of which is in the private sphere. Thiscare services, but each with a different vision and has resulted in spiraling medical care costsperspective. and rural indebtedness. All over the world Indias health care system, there is a tendency to move towards morecomprising government and private sectors, barely organized national health systems and ancovers half its population. China, with which India is increased share of public finance in healthoften compared, spends 2 per cent of its GDP on care. Of the 400 million employed people inhealth; even Nepal (1.5 per cent), Bangladesh (1.6 per the country, hardly 28 million are in thecent) and Pakistan (1 per cent) spend more on public organized sector and covered byhealth than India in percentage point terms. In the comprehensive social security legislation,matter of basic health care infrastructure and facilities, including social health insurance. The largestthe country is far behind international standards. The of this is the Employees State Insurancedemand-supply gap for public health care delivery is Scheme (ESIS), which covers eight millionlarge and on the rise, and this gap is increasingly employees; including their family members, itbeing filled by private health care institutions. The provides health security to 33 million people,urban health care industry is booming, with a host of while these social insurance plans have beenprivate hospitals offering state-of-the-art services for around for a long time, their credibility is nowthe rich and the middle class. at stake owing to the large-scale outsourcingThe quality of public health care delivery is woeful. to the private sector. For instance, in largeThe health care system is not only cash-strapped but cities, the ESIS has panels of private doctors,also fraught with inefficiency; it is prone to misuse, who provide ambulatory care to thoseeven abuse. Apart from that, the PHCs remained covered under the scheme. Similarly, underclosed half the time. Most rural PHCs did not have the CGHS, the beneficiaries have the choicerunning water, electricity or emergency medicines, of accessing private health care, with the costleave alone phones or vehicles. Some did not even reimbursed.have routine medicines to treat children for fever, The limited social insurance coverage is alsocough and the common cold. The survey showed that declining and getting privatized. There is a65 per cent of households in India go to private systematic decline in the role of the state inhospitals for treatment while only 29 per cent use the public health finance. This is contrary to thepublic medical sector. Even among poor households, experience elsewhere, which shows thatonly 34 per cent used PHCs. They are increasingly universal access to health care can only beturning to amateur private doctors and faith healers, achieved with financing mechanisms that areeven to treat such infectious diseases as tuberculosis largely of a public nature such as social(TB) and malaria. insurance, tax revenues or a combination ofThe resurgence of communicable diseases such as these Our prime minister Manmohan Singhmalaria and TB in India is partly because of the low said that "on the whole, the record of thelevels of public expenditure on health care and the private sector in health care provisioning incommercialization of medical care. The country India has not been very good”. Singhaccounts for a third of the TB incidence and have the launched the Public Health Foundation oflargest number of active TB patients. An estimated 2 India (PHFI), a public-private initiative, which was first of its kind innovative
  3. 3. partnership in the health sector. PHFI seeks to establish partnerships’ and private medical insurance being services forfive world-class public health institutes to train the majority. There is a need to build upon the positivethousands of professionals in the field annually. Such recognition of the need for change, and to move towards apartnership can help blend the commitment of the rational, affordable, publicly organized system for universalgovernment with operational efficiency of not-for- access to health care.profit private groups. For eg: Dr Devi Shettys Rational, appropriate health care for all would includeHospitals and Dr V Shanthas Cancer Institute in integration of modern and effective traditional medicalChennai. India presents the paradox of persistently practices, giving place to people’s positive health traditionspoor health indicators for a large proportion of the and incorporating appropriate low-cost health technology.population despite high ‘growth rates’ and presence of The lack of established health rights and patients’ rightslarge-scale health care resources (medical colleges, leads to ordinary people becoming extremely vulnerable anddoctors, drug industry, public and private health care disempowered with respect to the health care system. Thisinfrastructure). This point to the need for large scale needs to be remedied by establishing an overarching systemreorganization, redistribution and rationalization of of health related resources. Hoping that the public health professionals would in turn helpThe pattern of economic growth being followed has not transform the state of public health services, he said that inmanaged to ensure access to basic determinants of many areas of social development, the problem was not ahealth for the majority of the population, who are lack of ideas, but on the contrary, institutions have failed tomostly people working in agriculture and the deliver. While states like Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Gujaratunorganized sector. Large scale malnutrition among might have acceptable standards, there were several states,both children and adults, widespread lack of access to which did not have even the minimum number of institutionsclean drinking water and unhealthy environmental and to turn out support staff for healthcare.workplace conditions are some examples of this. Expressing concern over skewed distribution ofThe debilitation of the public health system is linked specializations among doctors, the country needed publicwith predominance of the unregulated private medical health professionals equipped with expertise and managerialsector; India has one of the most privatized health care skills to design and deliver health programmes at the nationalsystems in the world. The private medical sector also level and down to the village level.tends to distort the public health system by creating The Prime Minister said that the country also faced theunhealthy referral linkages, encouraging informal possibility of becoming a global destination for cheap and‘outsourcing’ and drawing away the most skilled high quality healthcare. The demographic contrast between adoctors and staff. young India and an ageing world gave us an opportunity to Public health care often tends to be deficient in its train professionals at different levels to meet the needs of theresponsiveness to patients felt needs, and suffers from emerging global care industry.weak inputs (e.g. lack of staff and essential medicines) Conclusionalong with lack of accountability. Private medical care There are three major groups in health care in the country, thetends to be unaffordable, often irrational in nature; public health sector, the private health sector and thethere is the problematic influence of drug and medical households who utilize health services. The public healthequipment industries. sector consists of the central government, state‘Poor health care at high cost’: Market driven government, municipal & local level bodies. Health is a stateirrationality in health care is leading to wastage of responsibility, however the central government doesresources; profit oriented over- medicalisation for those contribute in a substantial manner through grants andwho can pay combined with health care deprivation or centrally sponsored health programs/schemes. There are othervery poor quality care for those who cannot pay. ministries and departments of the government such as Today the need for health care system reorganization defense, railways, police, ports and mines who have theirin India is being increasingly recognized. However, the own health services institutions for their personnel.current trends of privatization oriented ‘Public-privateoffered as the ‘solution’ cannot ensure quality health 3
  4. 4. Feminism: Lessons for Social Work Practice (Samsheer, S4 MSW) “One is not born, but becomes a woman”- Simon de Beauvoir But the feminist movements could not be Feminism was a child of enlightenment. It is completely paralyzed because the feminists during the period of enlightenment that powerful themselves never ceased to be the victims of feminist movements emerged. The movements prior to atrocities for which there were no reason this period were often classified as proto feminists. except they all belong to so called “weaker The profession of social work has a natural affinity to sex”. It is rightly said “women had all the feminism, as both deals with the oppressed. potential of men, but none of their opportunities”. The feminist movements But feminism is radical in its thoughts and became more and more powerful and actions whereas social work is bounded by a body of successful as time passed owing greatly to norms and values. On the one hand the body of norms these painful impulses they continually and values standardized and provided a professional received from “civilized society”. dignity to social work; on the other hand it delimited the secular intellectual reasoning and freedom which To be frank, professional social work is is an essential condition for the development of any very much detached from the real sufferings area or field of enquiry. Simon de Beauvoir`s “The of people. Even if a thousand times they read Second Sex” and the classic work of Betty Friedan and heard the term empathy, they can only “The Feminine Mystique” represent the influential pretend but never can practice because they creative abilities that could create powerful flames of never felt the way the victims felt. Feminists revolution out of almost extinguished sparks of desire were not professionals. But because of their for change. deep felt involvement in the problems and issues, they could come up with effective Feminism later known as women`s liberation solutions. advocated for the rights of women who were cruelly degraded by the dominant patriarchy. In earlier days It is not professional knowledge but the very word “feminism” was subjected to social, sensitivity which is acquired through political and moral hostility. So, many women could hardships in the real life that makes a good not become part of these movements as they were social worker. afraid of social exclusion and negative attitude associated with the label of feminism.Picasso MSW (Vishnu S, S2 MSW) Corruption!!! 4
  5. 5. Interview with a professional Social Worker : DR. R. PARTHASARATHYDR. R. PARTHASARATHY has been in the field of mental health for the past 30years and is presently working as professor and Head of PSYCHIATRIC SOCIALWORK at NIMHANS, Bangalore. His special areas of interest include:Community based mental health programme, Family mental health, School mentalhealth, Research in Social WorkFirst, 1. Your inspiration towardsof the newsletter. This could be determine the audience choosing this field…anyone who might benefit from the information it contains, forexample, employees or peoplenot planned one.purchasing a product My entry to MSW programme is interested in It is field work programmes. Presently, I think makingor accidental. After entering into MSW, I got motivated requesting your service. oneself comfortable is essential to make others or inspired to get involved in social work activities. InYouway, compile awork entry is ness cards collected at trade shows,In so doing, one should not get “selfish” a can my social mailing list ‘serendipity’ to the comfortable.or realization of great potentials of social workpurchasing a mailing list membership lists. You might consider in my or who are thinking too much of himself / herself. Byfrom aAs a student of science, I should have opted for life. company. nature and by virtue of our training all of us are endowed with certain competencies, skills andIf you explore the Publisher catalog, youancillary many post graduation in science subject. As my will find subjects were not available in the post graduation, I capacities. We should be thankful to all those whopublications that match the style of your newsletter. was forced to try other areas, one of which is social have given us the opportunity to develop theseThe purpose of work. Because a newsletter is to provide specialized information of family support and influence, I capacities. These capacities are meant to sort out the could get a audience. Newsletters can be a great way to marketto a targeted seat in MSW programme in the last client’s problems and to improve his/her quality of life minute. Subsequently, my exposure to credibility and build to some extent. This helping and being helpedyour product or service, and also create various at least your theoretical approaches, among peers, members, employees, ororganization’s identity field work activities, and situation will change any time. We should be prepared research aspects made me get involved in thevendors. for such reverses in life. Sharing and using our skills profession intensively. In short, my choosing thisIf you explorenot because of the influence of heredity many knowledge, and being helpful to others are the profession is the Publisher catalog, you will find and but because of match the style of your newsletteer. great moments of life being extended by ourpublications thatconducive environment in terms of support and guidance from family members and profession. Till now, I fully enjoy such social work significant others. encounters and experiences. 2. Your philosophy of Social Work… 3. Your current area of focus… My special areas of interest are student mental health, When I entered the profession, I had very simple community based mental health programmes, and idea of social work. I thought doing social service research activities related to social work. Currently, is social work; for example, conducting evening I’m involved with marriage and family therapy classes for slum children, helping the poor, services and training the professionals, para- helping in making village roads, etc. are the professionals and non professionals in mental health in components of social work. I was very happy in general and psychiatric social work in particular. the initial stages that if I did all these for two years, I would be awarded M.A. in social work. 4. Any unexpected/stressful situation in your life This was totally changed as I got involved in as a professional Social Worker and your mode variety of activities in the classroom and in the of handling the situation… 5
  6. 6. My health problems have come in the way of my doing social work. Bi-pass surgery, chronic diabetes, andchronic kidney disease have troubled me now and then. But, with the support I get from my family members,colleagues, friends, and students, I never got dis-heartened by any of these problems. I take appropriate healthaction to handle these problems and keep alive my interest and enthusiasm to get involved in social workactivities. In fact, my social work activities are the real source of rejuvenation and renewed energy in everymoment of my life. I firmly believe in healthy dependence, inter-dependence and independence. Goodrelationship I maintained gives me a lot of strength to face any problem in my personal life as well asprofessional life. I believe in god who shows the ways and means of preventing the problems as well ashandling problematic situations. Being a social worker in the field of mental health, gives me opportunity topractice the effective principles of mental health in my own life situations. 5. The factors that motivate you to be in the field of Social Work in spite of the slow development of Social work profession in India…Social work has given me enough and more satisfaction in my life. I attribute my 3A’s of happiness, which areacceptance, achievement and affection to my social work affiliation. I learned about life and myself a lot fromsocial work activities. I’m aware of the problems and obstacles, faced by the profession in our country, in myown way, I take some small steps along with my colleagues to sort out this problems. The slow pace ofdevelopment of the profession does not make me disgruntled. But they force me to be active, sensitive and beresponsible to the challenges in day to day life. I’m fully satisfied with the actions I take either collectively orindividually to uplift the standards of the profession in our country. The developments that occur in the field ofsocial work makes myself a constant learner looking for answers from literature, from clients, seniors, juniors,students, strangers and unexpected situations. These are all some of the forces of my motivation to be in thefield of social work. 6. The specific goals that you have established for your career and your plans to make these things happen...As far as, my achievements are concerned. I’m quite satisfied with I could accomplish so far. Presently, I focuson to share these achievements with my youngsters, juniors, students and research scholars. Their achievementsgive me a lot of happiness. 7. The effect of your social work practices in your personal as well as professional life…I have become less selfish, and more others centered; more empathetic; better understanding; moreintrospective; moving towards spirituality; accepting the events as they are; trying to practice what you preach;tendency to share with others; learn from others; more compassionate; more contended; increased the urge tohelp others; are some of the changes due to my involvement in social work. In my opinion, I would not have gotthese qualities and state of mind, had I chosen other professions in my life. For all these, I’m ever grateful tosocial work. 8. Your message for the budding Social Workers…Be a nice human being; that is the first step towards helping others. Believe in the principles and practice ofsocial work. Improve your personal skills and professional skills constantly and continuously to make yourquality of services, high order. Be happy with social work opportunities and don’t ever give undue importanceto yourself. Social work has bright future in India and elsewhere. Let us adequately prepare ourselves for the futuretasks and responsibilities. 6
  7. 7. Field Work news: Fieldwork and Women’s Day celebration at Govt. Mahila Mandiram, Kollam (Lekshmi Vimala and Amrutha A, S2MSW) “There is no chance of the welfare of the world make use of their full potential and be better unless the condition of women is improved. It is citizens. not possible for a bird to fly on one wing.” The programme started with the inauguration speech - Swami Vivekananda by Prof.Sulabha. She was the principal of SreeSocial work trainee conducted some activities for Narayana Woman’s college when she retired afterthe inmates of the institution, Govt. Mahila 36 years of service at the institution. She is an avidMandiram at Anchukallummoodu as a part of thinker and have penned articles for leadingfieldwork. It includes mainly the interaction newspapers such as Keralakoumudi andprocess. The other activities done by the trainees Deshabhimani until the recent past.were group activities with the participation of the She talked about the importance of the day and itsmembers, celebration of Republic Day, history. She later compared the life of the people inInternational Women’s Day and fund collection the past and of those in the present. She pointed outprogramme at Kollam. Fund collection is one of the that nowadays everyone is after material pleasuresmain activities done by the social work trainees for and give little attention to their spiritualthe effective functioning of the institution. Trainee development. She also pointed out that the ideaalways conducted the interactive session with the about love has changed as compared to the past dueinmates of the institution and the staff members of to rapid urbanisation and westernisation.the institution. Ms.Surya Krishna (faculty, Department of socialWoman’s day was celebrated at the Mahila work) emphasized on the need of breaking theMandiram by the social work trainees, staff and culture of silence that is practiced by the women ofinmates of the organisation. Prof. Sulabha the country which is most prominently observed in(Development standing committee chairperson, the rural areas. Women are afraid to raise their voiceKollam Corporation) and Ms. Surya Krishna were against the ills that befall them and this furtherthe chief guests of the day. deepens the gulf between the status enjoyed by menInternational woman’s day is celebrated worldwide and women in the society. She also added that it ison March 8th in order to instill the feeling of respect the duty of the present generation to do somethingand joy of womanhood among the public. It about it and make a change. Ms.Vibhafocuses on rejoicing the love, care and appreciation (Superintendent, Mahila Mandiram) addressed thetowards women and also their achievements in gathering and talked about the significance ofdifferent fields. Mahila Mandiram houses women creating an equal status for the women in order towho have undergone much suffering in the past- facilitate the proper development of the in the form of domestic violence or the ills that The programme concluded after the entertainmentbefall the destitute. These women need moral and activities performed by the inmates which projectedspiritual upliftment so that they can realize and their creativity and talent in different realms. 7
  8. 8. Agency News: ASTITVA ( Sukanya Vijayan, S2MSW)Astitva is a non- profit community based organization Community events are done through small getregistered in Nov 2006 and is situated at Thane together programmes for the hijra community at[Maharashtra], India. It aims at giving support and their office during festivals. Their chairperson Ms.also the development of sexual minorities. The Laxmi Narayana Tripathi and other 7 hijrafounder and chairperson of Astitva is Ms. Laxmi members performed at the Amsterdam IndiaNarayan Tripathi. Their mission is to work with festival in Nov 2008. Ms.Laxmi was one of thesexual minorities, especially transgender [hijras] andtheir main focus is on sexual rights advocacy, sexual main hostess and judge at various programmeshealth issues and struggle to create a safe during the festival. They were one of the coreenvironment and positive attitude towards transgender members of the “Advocacy needs of sexualpeople in the main stream society. As a community minorities in India: The way forward” conferencebased organisation they have hijras/transgender in Nagpur (Aug2009).They also organised thepersons as their staff and board members. Indian Super Queen beauty pageant for the hijra The activities they have done so far include community. They are also the part of:advocacy and sensitisation, sexual health promotion  Asia Pacific Network ofand community events. Advocacy and sensitisation Transgender[APNT]was done through organising sensitisation workshops  Asia Pacific Network of Sexwith the doctors and counsellors of the Civil Hospitalin Thane [March 2007] and of the Rajiv Gandhi workers[APNSW]Memorial Hospital in Kalwa [April 2007] on the  Global Network of Sex workersissues faced by sexual minorities. They organised a Project[NSWP]workshop with ACP of Thane police force about the  National Network of Sex workers[NSW]harassment faced by sexual minorities. They also  Indian Network of Sexual Minoritiesorganised advocacy meeting with some of the local [INFOSEM]leaders such as Mr. Jitendra Indise [Republican Board MembersLeader and Nagar Adhayakash], Mr. Jitendra  Atharva Nair-GeneralSecretaryAwad[NCP Nagar and Nagar Adhakash],Mr. RaviPawar etc. They made use of the media and did a  Kumar Bagle -Treasurermonthly aired programme by collaborating with RED  Laxmi Narayan Tripathi -ChairpersonFM 93.5 and RJ Malishka to sensitise the public on  Shahin Samad Naik -Vice Presidenttransgender issue. Sexual health promotionactivities are done by distributing condoms and M.S LAXMI NARAYAN TRIPATHI OR Mr.IEC materials to general public during annual ATHARVfestivals. They also helped in organising health Address: 303, Poonam Apartments, Sahakarcheck up camp with Civil Hospital Thane for Nagar, Opposite Vartak Mane Gas Agency,HIV testing in Nov 2007. Blood donation camp Shahstri Nagar, Thane West- 400606at Thane station in collaboration with NCP in Maharashtra,City: ThaneState: MaharashtraAug 2008 is another major achievement. Phone:91 9819018274 / 91 9892182184 Email id: 8
  9. 9. Social Work Research @ Amrita Research Paper: Stigma and Insecurity of HIV Positive People in Kerala V.S. Kochukrishna Kurup * Faculty, Dept of Social Work, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kollam DT, Kerala. Email: ABSTRACT People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are stigmatized and looked at negatively by people at large. Stigma, discrimination, and prejudice extend its reach to people associated with HIV-positive people. The major aim of the study is to find out the way social stigma increases the level of insecurity in people living with HIV. The data were collected from 50 respondents, who are staff and members of working with network offices of CPK+ (Council of people living with HIV in Kerala). Insecurity is the anxiety one experience when one feels vulnerable and insecure. Key words: Social stigma, Insecurity, Social support 1. Instrumental AIDS Stigma---A reflection of the fearINTRODUCTION and appreciation that are likely to be associated with any deadly and transmissible illness.A global threat of twenty first century, AIDS is an 2. Symbolic AIDS Stigma—the use of HIV/AIDS toepidemic leading a person to a gradual death. Medical expresses attitudes towards the social groups orsciences face a biggest challenge form HIV/AIDS as ‘lifestyles’ perceived to be associated with the diseasesthere is no cure for it. In many societies people living 3. Courtesy AIDS Stigma –stigmatization peoplewith HIV/AIDS are often seen as shameful and it has connected to the issue of HIV/AIDS or HIV positiveaccompanied with social response of fear, denial, people.repression and discrimination. The HIV/AIDS pandemichas become a human, social and economic disaster with Stigma and Insecurityfar reaching implications for individuals, communitiesand countries no other disease has so dramatically the People with HIV/AIDS face wide spread discriminationcurrent disparities and inequalities in health care access. from all sectors of society. Stigma and discrimination surrounding HIV/AIDS serve as barrier to the properStigma and discrimination care, treatment and support of people living with HIV and discourage people from seeking counseling andThe people living with HIV are treated negative by the testing –important aspects of prevention and treatmentsociety. A tendency to blame them and keep them aloof efforts. Because of this fear of insecurity, the identifiedfrom the social gathering highlights the horror of HIV. ‘PLWHA’ thus do not seek care and support, nor do theyThese people are often seen as disgraceful and this state contribute to reducing the future transmission. Theseis an increasing social problem. The society develops a individuals find it unable to handle and face the dailytotally isolated approach to people living with HIV. social situations and it has a negative effect on his/herBecause of this HIV related stigma the individuals find it complete personality. Thus social stigma and insecuritydifficult to lead a normal life with HIV. Social stigma is are inter-related. The social stigma leads insecurity to aoften the feeling of guilt or wrong doing that it tends to person living with HIV generates most difficult lifeinculcate in the mind of those infected, ‘shame’ or loss of situations and his life becomes harder. Social, financializzat (honour) in the minds of families and individuals and emotional insecurity is a severe fact that a personwhich can result in discrimination and his or her family living with HIV faces. They are neglected off form theby members of society (UNICEF, 2009).AIDS stigma social support that they are supposed to get and whichhas been derived in to the following three categories 9
  10. 10. Dishaa Vol 2, issue 1,they very much require to continue to live as purposeful level of stigma on HIV. It is highly evident from thisindividual members of the society. Even children are study that more than 80% of HIV positives havenot spared even though it is no mistake of theirs. undergone feeling if insecurity. But a majority of them are moderately insecure in their families. Even in theirStudy Analysis work place the insecurity is higher while it is low in social relationships. It is evident that femaleThis study revealed the reality that though Kerala respondents are feeling more insecurity than that ofclaims of 100% literate, still the prejudice and stigma male. Another crucial result is found out that the levelis existing among the rich and poor equally. The study of stigma decreases with the increase in duration ofwas made to find out the way social stigma increases being HIV positive. It was interesting that those HIVthe level of insecurity in people living with HIV. The positive people who are staff of the organization CPK+present study conducted among HIV positive people, have very low level of insecurity than otherwho are employees and members of district network respondents who are members of CPK+. Though theoffices of CPK+ (Council of People living with level of social stigma is high in respondents comingHIV/AIDS in Kerala). from Muslim background, the insecurity level is foundCPK+ is an NGO working for the wellbeing of HIV to be very low.positive people in Kerala. The organization has Regarding the insecurity variable it is observed that asnetwork offices in almost all the district of Kerala state. age increases there is increase in the level of insecurity.A proportionate random sampling method was The level of insecurity is more visible among femaleemployed for selecting 50 respondents from 8 district respondents than that in the male respondents.offices of the CPK+ organization. The population Insecurity is high among widowed respondents.elements were scattered over a wider area including the Another notable finding is that as the educationdistricts of Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, increases the level of insecurity predominantly high.Pathananthitta, Alappuzha, Ernakulum, Kottayam, This may be due to multiple factors associated withThrissur and Idukki. employment, income and social relationships.The research design used in the study was descriptive Insecurity level is high in respondents with duration ofand the selected respondents are in the age group of being HIV positive from the below one year as well as20- to 50 and 68% of them are females. When above 10 years.considering the education level of the respondents 75%have either SSLC or +2 qualifications. More than half Suggestionsof the respondents are married and 64% belongs to theHindu religion. Half of the respondents are staff The investigators put forward some notable suggestionsworking with CPK+. Taking in to consideration, the to get reduce the stigma, discrimination and feelings ofduration of being HIV +, 64% have 1-5 years of insecurity on HIV/AIDS people. Social support andduration and 30% have 6-10 years of duration. ample counseling must be provided to individual with HIV/AIDS to lessen their personal stigma. Secondly,Findings information on agencies like CPK+, INP+ must be made available easily which could help HIV positiveEven though the respondents are employees and individuals to come up in the social platforms for lead amembers of the organization, 60% of them feel that normal life. Thirdly, more support is required fromthey are facing a discrimination moderately and a social and religious institutions, NGO’s, and other civilmajority of them have negative personal reflections society organizations. Lastly, anti retroviral therapy.The level of stigma is higher in work place than in the should be made available in every district hospitalsfamily and in social situations. Comparing the level of with ensuring proper timely support to the needy HIVstigma in different districts, Alappuzha and positives.Thiruvananthapuram are observed to have highest 10
  11. 11. Dishaa Vol 2, issue 2,ConclusionAll over the world HIV/AIDS is causing devastation by destroying individuals, families and communities and takingaway hope for the future. The result of the study shows that the level of social stigma and insecurity the people living withHIV to come in open and speak for themselves varies from person to person though the basis is the same. The Socialworkers can directly help the people through various initiatives. Lot needs to be done in removing this stigma which isbringing insecurity in the minds of people living with HIV .It is so vital to remember that, “Fight AIDS - Not Peoplewith AIDS”REFERENCESEngender Health- KSACS ( 2002) Stigma and Discrimination in Health Setting in Kerala, Thiruvanathapauram.Herek, G. M. (2009). Sexual prejudice. In T. Nelson (Ed.), Handbook of prejudice (pp. 439-465). New York:Psychology PressMahadevan, kuttan. Et al.(2005)Health Promotion, Prevention of HIV /AIDS and population regulation. NEW Delhi: BRpublishing CorporationUNAIDS.2009: Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. In: & Report/2006/ ********** Introduction to Policies/Acts : RTE: The clarion call of a new era in the educational system. Education has always been one of the indicators of The states are of the opinion that they do not development. India being a developing country has have the necessary physical or financial a larger responsibility in improving the educational capability that is needed to impart universal status of its people. Statistics show that 8.1 million education. Hence it is required by the central children between 6 and 14 do not attend school government to provide support to them. The with the additional problem of shortage of teachers provision for free and compulsory education in the country. It was in this background that the for children belonging to the age group of 6 to government of India passed the Right to Education 14 is described by RTE under Article 21A of Act(RTE) in the parliament on 4th August, the Indian Constitution. India is one of the 135 2007.According to the Indian Constitution, countries which have made education a providing education is the responsibility of the fundamental right of every child since the states and the act envisages that the state and local passing of the act on 1st April 2010. bodies are to properly implement it. 11
  12. 12. Dishaa Vol 2, issue 1, RTE mainly focuses on providing education According to this act, education is a fundemenalto those who are deprived of it with special right. It also specifies certain minimum norms to beprovisions for disadvantaged groups, such as followed by the elementary schools. The act haschild labourers, migrant children, children with made it compulsory even for private schools tospecial needs, or those who have a “disadvantage reserve 25% of the seats to children from poorowing to social, cultural economical, families which will be reimbursed by the state asgeographical, linguistic, gender or such other part of the public-private partnership plan. It alsofactor.” Since the Universal Declaration of prohibits all unrecognized schools from practice andHuman Rights in 1948, right to education has makes provisions for no donation or capitation feesbeen accepted as a universal concept and has and no interview of the child or parent forbeen included in all development plans. Though admission. Until the completion of elementaryalmost all the governments have recognized the education, no child shall be held back, expelled, orimportance of education, not many have taken required to pass a board examination. A provisionmeasures to incorporate it into legislation or to for providing special training to school drop-outs tostrictly implement it. In order to reach the goal of bring them up to par with students of the same age isproviding primary education to every child by another important attribute of the act. Several2015, it is necessary that all the powers of the criticisms also revolve around this should come together and work forit.India’s education system has made significant RTE also tries to improve the quality of teachingprogress in the past few decades. India was able and learning which needs increased efforts andto increase the primary school enrolment overall radical reforms. Measures are to be taken to paveby 13.7 per cent and by 19.8 per cent for girls, the way for a child friendly educational systemaccording to a study conducted for the timeperiod between 2000 and 2005.. 12 .
  13. 13. TITLE OF THE BOOK: NNANGA Book Review IPPIMALENA MAKKA (Geethu M Lal, S2MSW) YEAR OF PUBLICATION: 2011 EDITOR: VASUDEVAN CHEEKKALUR PUBLISHED BY: PEEP, KALPETTAThis book” NNANGA IPPIMALENA MAKKA” They wave adieu to the dead not with tears but withedited by Vasudevan Chekkallur is a book about festive.‘Paniya’, a tribe group in Wayanad, by Paniyas. The chapter by ‘Chedayan AppanavayilThe title of the book represents the shouting that Kurathinadakam’ depicts a folk style play carried outwe are children of “ippimalai”. The book state in the ploughed field. It is completely carried out by aabout the tribal lifestyle, that is very close to clown and question-master and is played around dusk.nature. It is a very serious verse-play.Introduction by Palliyara Raman gives us an The Paniya group of people is found commonly inaccount of what the book is about and it opines Wayanad but they are also found in Malappuram andthat the book shows light to the genesis, life- Kanoor about which P.C.Vinodkumar and Rajeshstyle, rituals etc. of the group of people ‘Paniyas’ Kottiyoor has written in order.who are always known and considered as the An article model chapter by ‘Chithariya Jeevithangal’“group who are supposed to work”. by P .K .Reji is about the split-end life of the PaniyaThe foremost chapter ‘Paniyas’ by Vasudavan group of people. Among the total population ofChekalur gives us an evidence of the social Wayanad 17.43% is occupied by various tribalcultural system prevailing among the Paniya groups. But the situation of Paniyas is very muchgroup found commonly in Wayanad. This miserable. The men are dying as a result ofchapter also accounts on the songs and sayings overdrinking and the women in the family areamong them, giving a detailed differentiation of struggling to live the life.the syntax differences, political, educational and Chapter 9 is a serious chapter by Dr. Manjula Poyilreligious scenario. titled ‘Marananthara Chadangukalum SambathikaThe second chapter is an account by Pinnokkavasthayum’ shows the financial‘Appanavayil Mundatti’ about the Paniya women backwardness and post funeral rituals. It was saidand the cuisine among the Paniya group. It states earlier in a chapter that the Paniyas give morethat they mainly consume the edible leaves, fruits importance to the post funeral ceremonies and Dr.and underground stems and roots, mushrooms, Manjula Poyil states that this is the reason for theircrab etc. also find space in the Paniya menu. As financial backwardness and poverty.their life-style, their food is also very close to Chapter 10 entitled ‘Hinduism -the milestone of tribalnature. groups’ by Nandakumar gives a detailed story on theThe third chapter by ‘Velayudhan Appanavayil’ relationship of the tribes and Hinduism. He says thatis all about the medicinal practices prevailing that the Hindu rituals prevailing in and around us areamong the Paniya group of people. They have inter-twined with the customs among the tribal groups.local Ayurveda medicines at their hand for The last chapter is about the changes happening in thealmost all diseases from skin irritation to serious social scene of the Paniyas group of people, theailments. problems faced by and solution suggested byThe chapter ‘Death’ by Vasantha Pallikuth is Ramanunni. He has stated about the educationalabout the funeral ceremonies and rituals among forwardness met by the tribals especially the Paniyas.the Paniyas. The way of disposal of dead bodies He also states that the Paniyas, through increasedand the post funeral ceremonies are interesting. education and high social status will emerge to the forefront of society. 13
  14. 14. Activities of Department of Social Work  Feb 2, 2012  Jan 5,2012 Social Work trainees RH Samseer, Nisanth M, andJourney with the ‘Banker to the Poor’ Harikrishnan.U participated in the monthlyRenowned economist, social activist and Nobel ‘Mushroom Cultivation training programme’Laureate Prof. Muhammad Yunus inaugurated the organized by Bodhana (NGO),Thiruvalla.International Conference on Technology EnhancedEducation, organized at the Amritapuri campus of  Feb 3-5, 2012Amrita University on January 3, 2012. Studentsand faculty of Department of Social work got an ‘Sustainable village’ at Vidyut National levelopportunity to have an interactive session with tech festProf. Yunus during which he shared his views on Department of Social Work participated in Vidyutsocial business, micro financing, Grameen Bank - National level tech fest by setting up a hut as partetc. He also answered the different queries that of creating a sustainable village model. The hutwere put forward by the students regarding the had models of sustainable cities, rainwaterchallenges that he faced in implementing his harvesting and biogas plants. The effort helped inschemes, applicability of sustainable development generating awareness about sustainable livingin his endeavor, sources of inspiration for his among the public.books etc.  Feb 6, 2012 Observed World Cancer Day Department of Social Work observed World Cancer Day (Feb 3rd) on 6th of Feb, 2012. Awareness generation was conducted through posters and videos against the use of drugs/smoking. Students of Department of Social Work also performed a role play on the same in the campus.  Jan 14,2012 Interactive session with faculty and students of St Ambrose University, Davenport, Iowa Dr. Johny Augustine (Assistant Professor of Social Work) and students of St Ambrose University paid visit to Department of Social Work. An interactive session between the students of both universities discussed the fieldwork experiences and syllabi of both the universities. Later on Dr. Johny Augustine introduced the health system of United States to the Social Work students of Amritapuri 14
  15. 15. Dis h a a V ol 2 , is s u e 1  Feb 8-9, 2012  Mar 2, 2012 Conducted survey on ‘The role of Gram Panchayath in Effective Self Enrichment’ talk by Dr. providing quality education’ Shobha Kapoor, Director, Mukti Social Work Trainees Samseer RH, Nisanth M and Harikrishnan Sadan, Mumbai U conducted a survey on ‘The role of Gram Panchayath in providing quality education’. The programme was organized by Dr. Shobha Kapoor, who is a visiting Bodhana (NGO) in Kottayam district. Social Work practitioner at Amrita,  Feb 22, 2012 addressed the first and second year MSW students stressing the need of self Observed World Thinking Day enrichment and self esteem in the field of Department of Social Work conducted field level programmes Social Work. She also pointed out that on World Thinking Day at Govt. Girls High school Kollam the field required effective management wherein awareness generation and group discussion on of one’s emotions and stress. environmental sustainability was the major programme. Social Work trainees Fathima H, Nisha Lijesh and Rashmi PC also conducted a role play on sustainable development.  Mar 6, 2012  Feb 22-23, 2012 Social Work trainees Manu Mohan Ashwathy.P.Saju and Sijo organized a Awareness programme on Tuberculosis programme on ‘Ayurveda and Social Social Work trainees RH Samseer, Nisanth M and Harikrishnan Work’ on 6th march 2012 where U conducted an awareness programme on tuberculosis. The Dr.Mahesh from Amrita School of programme was organized by Bodhana (NGO), Thiruvalla. Classes were also given to various communities in Ayurveda gave a talk on the subject Pathanamthitta district. which was followed by a question- answer session where the trainees expressed their queries. Dr. Mahesh talked about the relevance of a healthy lifestyle as advocated by Ayurveda in this modern world and the role of Social workers in improving the accessibility of the Ayurvedic medical facilities to the common man. He also talked about the de-addiction procedures followed in Ayurveda and about Ayurvedic Psychiatry. The programme was followed  Feb 23-24 by the Women’s Day special talk by SPECTRA’12 Mrs.Seena from the Department ofStudents of Department of Social Work participated in the Chemistry, Amrita VishwaNational level Social Work students meet, SPECTRA’12 which Vidyapeetham.had based its theme on Sustainable Child Empowerment for aPromising Nation at Marian College Kuttikkanam and alsoinvolved themselves in the Street play competition. 15
  16. 16.  Mar 7, 2012 Corporation) formally inaugurated the function and delivered a speech pointing out the atrocities that thePresentation on role of Social workers in women faced today and also suggested methods to bringcombating the issue of alcoholism the present scenario under control. She was able to instill the feeling of joy of being a woman among the audience.Social Work trainee Manu Mohan conducted an Ms. Surya Krishna (faculty, Department of Social Work)awareness presentation on ‘The role of Social also addressed the gathering and spoke on theWorkers in combating the issue of alcoholism’ significance of breaking the culture of silence, if a changefor the medical students of Amrita School of was to be brought in the society. Later certainAyurveda as the part of concurrent fieldwork. entertainment and recreational programmes were performed by the inmates of the agency.  Mar 8, 2012 Women’s Day at Gandhi Bhavan, Pathanapuram Observed International Women’s Day Social work trainees Ammu Asok and Vishnu RajInternational Women’s day celebration was coordinated Women’s Day celebration at Gandhi Bhavan.organized at KSACS, Kollam, Mahila Mandiram Mrs. Shobha Mohan (teacher, Kundayam High School)Kollam and Gandhi Bhavan, Pathanapuram by was the chief guest of the day.Social work trainees as part of the concurrentfieldwork.Women’s day celebration at KSACS, KollamSocial Work trainees of Department of SocialWork and Suraksha Project organized Women’sday programme for the high risk group on 8thMarch 2012. Ms. Jasmin (President, CBO)Ms.Remani (Secretary, CBO), Mr.Hareesh(M&E of SURAKSHA) and Mr.Dinu(Accountant, SURAKSHA) were present duringthe function. Social Work trainees Shilpa V Rgave the women’s day message and Dhanya S Tgave the vote of thanks. Trainee Prageesh E Pdid the comparing for the whole programme. Inthe afternoon income generating programme wasinitiated under the leadership of Mrs.Latha. Itincluded jewellery making and making washingpowder and soaps.Women’s day at Mahila Mandiram, KollamDepartment of Social work observedInternational Women’s Day at MahilaMandiram. Prof. Sulabha (DevelopmentStanding Committee Chairperson, Kollam 16
  17. 17. Dishaa Vol 2, issue 1It would also be useful to include a contact name for readers who want more information about the organization.  March 28, 2012  Mar 9-13, 2012 Home stead farming at VellanadTraining of Trainers Programme (TOT) atEttimadai on ‘Entrepreneurship Development’ Strength and Weakness analysis studiesSocial Work trainees Abhishek.V.Menon, Vivek on women SHGs under MitranikethanSubramaniam and Sumesh.E.M of second year MSW (NGO), Trivandrum and Personalityparticipated in TOT programme organized jointly by Development classesAmrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham and I CREATE Inc. at Social Work trainees Gladson M.E, ArunEttimadai Amrita campus on ‘Entrepreneurship B.R, Archana A and Sathyaraj S organizedDevelopment’. farmers towards home stead farming in Vellanad. The programme included  Mar 15, 2012 distribution of seeds and initiation ofParticipated in ‘Thantedam’ Gender Fest farming. The team also conducted a study about the strengths and weaknesses of theStudents and faculty of Department of Social Work SHG women’s group functioning underparticipated in the ‘Thantedam Gender Fest ,2012’ at Mitraniketan and submitted the report to theSwapnanagari, Calicut organized by the Kerala State agency. Social work trainee Arun B RWomen Development Corporation under the initiative conducted a group activity among theof the Social Welfare Department, Govt. of Kerala. adolescents in Mitaniketan in order to increase their confidence and leadership  Mar 26, 2012 skills.Celebrated World Social Workers Day through  Mar 28-29, 2012socially responsible action  2012 SWOT analysis among KudumbasreeDepartment of Social Work observed World Social Work members in Alappad Panchayatday by conducting a blood donation camp at AmritaVishwa Vidyapeetham Amritapuri campus. The Social Work trainees Abhishek.V.Menon,programme was organized with the support of District R.H Samseer, Nisanth.M, Sumesh.E.M, andHospital, Kollam. About 60 Amritians donated their Harikrishnan.U conducted Strength,blood while over 300 registered for the same resulting in Weakness; Opportunity, Threats analysisthe initiation of Amrita Blood Army (AMBA). The with SHG groups at Alappad panchayat as aprogramme was coordinated by Social Work trainee Joby part of the SAVE project of AMMACHISGeorge. labs.  2012 17
  18. 18. Dis h a a V ol 2 , is s u e 1  Mar 29, 2012Amrita Santhvanam programme was conducted at Govt. Old ageHome, KollamSocial Work trainees conducted Amrita Santhvanam program atGovernment Old Age home as a part of their concurrent field work.Dr. Renjith.R.Pillai (HOD, Department of Social work) Mr.V.SKochukrishna Kurup (Lecturer/Field work supervisor), Mr.Sooraj.P.S(Lecturer) and Mr.Ganesh Babu (Superintendent of the Govt.Old AgeHome) were present. Mr.Raju Madhavan (Senior Lecturer, Departmentof Malayalam) was the chief guest of the day. He threw light on themeaning of our existence and how to lead it fruitfully even at the laterstages of life by quoting instances from the ancient scriptures such asThe Bhagavat Gita and The Mahabharata. The trainees and the inmatesalso involved themselves in some entertainment programmmes. SocialWork trainees Vishnu.S, Parvathy.V and Seethu Arun coordinated theprogramme.AMC newsAMC (ASWAS Movie club) was initiated with an objective of making the students and facultyof the Department of Social Work get acquainted with the role of media in bringing aboutpositive changes through exhibiting classics and other thought provoking initiativesAn Inconvenient Truth (2006) is a documentary directed by DavisGuggenheim about former United States Vice President Al Gorescampaign to educate citizens about global warming through a slideshow. It had won two Academy Awards for the Best DocumentaryFeature and the Best Original Song. The film earned $49 million atthe box office worldwide, and also became the sixth-highest-grossingdocumentary film to date in the United States. Since the films release,An Inconvenient Truth has been credited for raising internationalpublic awareness on climate change and reenergizing theenvironmental movement. The documentary has also been included inscience curricula in schools around the world in order to reach themasses better. 18
  19. 19. The Song of Sparrows (2008) is an Iranian movie directed by Majid Majidi. Thestory revolves around Karim whose life takes a dramatic turn when he was firedfrom his job. He is forced to look for other jobs and thus the plot of the movieunfurls. The story speaks volume about the strength of the human heart and theability to move along no matter what happened in the past. The movie has wonseveral critical acclaims.Children of Heaven (1997) are an Iranian movie written and directed by MajidMajidi. The story is about Ali and Zahra and a pair of shoes. It shows how ourtrue wishes are satisfied if we put our mind and soul to it and work hard. It wasnominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1998.Born into Brothels: Calcuttas Red Light Kids (2004) is an Americandocumentary film about the children of prostitutes in Sonagachi, one of Kolkatasred light districts. The widely acclaimed film, written and directed by ZanaBriski and Ross Kauffman, won a string of accolades including the AcademyAward for Best Documentary Feature in 2004. It throws light on the lives of thechildren- their dreams, worries and also their talent.Baraka (1992) is a non-narrative film directed by Ron Fricke. The title Barakameans blessing in a multitude of languages. Baraka was the first in about twentyyears to be photographed in the 70mm Todd-AO format. Baraka has no plot, nostoryline, no actors, no dialogue nor any voice-over. Instead, the film usesthemes to present new steps and evoke emotion through pure cinema. Baraka is akaleidoscopic, global compilation of both natural events and by fate, life andactivities of humanity on earth. Dr. Renjith R. Pillai Assistant Professor & Chief Editor Staff Editors: Mr. Rajeev MM Mr. V S Kochukrishna Kurup Mr. P K Anand Achari Student Editors: Ms. Parvathy V Ms. Lekshmi Vimala Design and Layout: Mr. Sijo Mathew JacobPrinted and published by: Chair person, Department of Social Work. (For private circulation only)Feel free to mail your suggestions and ideas to the editor’s desk: