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Agile + Lean Startup principles + Lean UX -> How to make it all work together!


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Presented at Campus Party Europe on 9/5/13

Published in: Technology, Business
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Agile + Lean Startup principles + Lean UX -> How to make it all work together!

  1. 1. Agile, Lean & Lean UX - How to make it all work together!
  2. 2. AMRITA AVIYENTE Founder/CEO, UX Strategy & Design Lead Date My Wardrobe Education BIT, MS IT, MS HFID (Human Factors in Information Design) Work Experience Software Engineer -> 7+ years at Fidelity Investments (Boston, MA) UX Research Associate -> User Experience Center (Bentley University, MA) Passion Tennis, Cricket, Reading, Traveling Email: Twitter: @amrita_ux Website:
  3. 3. Agenda Agile Waterfall Lean Startup Lean UX/User Research Questions? @amrita_ux
  4. 4. WATERFALL @amrita_ux 4
  5. 5. Waterfall Sequential steps [ Analysis -> Design -> Dev -> QA -> UAT -> Prod -> Maint. ] Tons of documentation Longer release cycles Well understood requirements @amrita_ux Waterfall
  6. 6. Shortcomings @amrita_ux Waterfall No Accountability, blame game Team conflicts Set meetings Limited business involvement Difficult to make changes (sometimes too late) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  7. 7. AGILE @amrita_ux
  8. 8. Agile @amrita_ux AGILE Kent Beck– American SWE (Creator of the XP), TDD (Test Driven Dev)
  9. 9. Waterfall/Agile Waterfall A lot of documentation Sequential Well Known Req Infrequent Releases Agile Limited documentation Iterative/Incremental Req not well known Frequent Releases AGILE @amrita_ux
  10. 10. Releases @amrita_ux AGILE Release Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Day 1: Iteration Kickoff Day 1: Iteration Kickoff Last Day: Retrospective, Demo Last Day: Retrospective, Demo
  11. 11. Shortcomings Learning curve Stressful releases Continuous customer involvement is not always easy @amrita_ux AGILE
  12. 12. @amrita_ux SCRUM
  13. 13. AGILE Scrum @amrita_ux Agile software development framework for managing software projects!
  14. 14. WAR Rooms Best Practices @amrita_ux AGILE
  15. 15. Small Tracks/Teams (6-8 people/track: 1 analyst, 1-2 app dev, 1-2 DB dev, 2 Qa) Best Practices @amrita_ux AGILE
  16. 16. Daily Scrum Best Practices @amrita_ux AGILE
  17. 17. Quiet Time (few hours/day) Best Practices @amrita_ux AGILE
  18. 18. Restrospective Best Practices @amrita_ux AGILE
  19. 19. Pair Programming Best Practices @amrita_ux AGILE
  20. 20. TDD (Test Driven Development) What worked! @amrita_ux AGILE
  21. 21. How frequently should you be having a product release? @amrita_ux Q
  22. 22. … a set of practices & principles aimed at building, testing and releasing software faster and more frequently! Continuous Delivery @amrita_ux AGILE
  23. 23. LEAN @amrita_ux
  24. 24. @amrita_ux Merchant Scenario-Mobile App
  25. 25. Lean Startup Concepts @amrita_ux LEAN Lean Manufacturing: originated in Japan with Toyota Production System Lean is a set of tools that assist in identification & elimination of waste. As waste is eliminated, quality improves and cost is reduced. Validated Learning – Business plans have a set of assumptions which must be validated as early as possible
  26. 26. Lean Startup Concepts @amrita_ux LEAN  Customer Development: Exercise you go through to find the product-market fit  Get out of the Building (GOOB) – Observe the users in real environments  Customer Archetype – based on the data gathered. You need to validate your assumptions for this customer  Value Hypothesis – Does the product/service deliver value to customers  Growth Hypothesis – Test how new customers will discover the product/service
  27. 27. Lean Startup Concepts @amrita_ux LEAN Build o Turn ideas into products Measure o Get feedback from users Learn o Learn if a pivot is needed Build Measure Learn
  28. 28. Minimum Viable Product (MVP) @amrita_ux LEAN Build o Smallest version to test your hypothesis o Requires least amount of effort and development time o Lacks many features o Prototyping plays an important role in building MVP Measure o Get feedback – most importantly – act on it! Learn o Learning Milestones
  29. 29. Minimum Viable Product (MVP) @amrita_ux LEAN MVP Rule o Remove any feature, process, or effort that does not contribute directly to the learning you seek Pivot o Change in course/strategy o Can lead to more significant growth o Requires a lot of courage Post MVP/CMVP o Decision: Pivot or preserve! When to Pivot? o If hypothesis proven to be false, pivot now. Save effort, time and money
  30. 30. Concierge MVP @amrita_ux LEAN CMVP (Concierge Minimum Viable Product): o MVP where you manually guide your user through the solution to a problem o Short term solution to help you learn how to solve a customers problem o Mainly used for invalidating company’s growth model o Helps decide when pivot is needed o Can happen even if initial MVP is successful o E.g.: Manual delivery of coupons (before building software)
  31. 31. @amrita_ux Q How to decide which features to include in MVP? (Mobile payment app?)
  32. 32. What features to add in MVP (mobile payment app)?  Merchant App o Accept Payments through smart phone  Customer App o Register o Add Credit card o Make Payment Don’t worry about- Transaction History (merchant app) Social Media check-in (consumer app) Etc.! Back to Scenario @amrita_ux
  33. 33. How important is quality and design in an MVP? @amrita_ux Q
  34. 34. Zappos (online shoe retailer) o Founder Nick Swinmurn o It is better to observe real customer behavior rather than ask hypothetical questions Date My Wardrobe (P2P wardrobe sharing service) o Started with shoe share service idea More Lean Examples @amrita_ux
  35. 35. LEAN MVP Fail quickly and cheaply on order to succeed Build-Measure-Learn Pivot Don’t wait for the product to be built in order to learn Observe the customer behavior rather than ask what they want. Many times they may not know what they want Lean Startup Recap @amrita_ux
  36. 36. LEAN UX - User Research @amrita_ux 36
  38. 38. Design Thinking @amrita_ux LEANUX “Design thinking is a discipline that uses the designer’s sensibility and methods to match people’s needs with what is technologically feasible and what a viable business strategy can convert into customer value and market opportunity” - Tim Brown (CEO, IDEO) Take a “people first” approach, imagine desirable solutions Ideation, prototyping, implementation and learning steps Solution focused approach to problem solving
  39. 39. Lean Startup/Lean UX @amrita_ux LEANUX Build Product MeasureData Learn Ideas Think Make Check LEAN STARTUP + UX = LEAN UX Eric Ries Build-Measure-Learn Feedback loop Think-Make-Check UX Cycle
  40. 40. Role of Prototyping in Lean UX @amrita_ux LEANUX  “Lean UX is where Prototyping shines”  - Jeff Gothelf (UX Designer and Author-Lean UX: Applying Lean Principles to Improve User Experience)  Allows the designer to build the product experience putting in minimum amount of effort and iterate based on feedback.  Choose the right tool for prototyping based on what is to be learned from the MVP Fidelity Tool Paper Prototype Paper Clickable Wireframes – Low OmniGraffle, MS Visio Medium Axure RP, Adobe Illustrator High Code
  41. 41. What are the similarities/differences between UCD (User Centered Design) and LeanUX? @amrita_ux Q
  42. 42. UCD/Lean UX UCD Learn from users No Agile concepts No Validating Hypothesis No way to measure design outcomes LeanUX Learn from users + Agile concepts Validating Hypothesis Measure design outcomes LEANUX @amrita_ux Lean UX = UCD + agile + lean
  43. 43. Lean UX/AgileLEANUX @amrita_ux Lean UX is Agile Cross Functional Teams o Developers, designers, product owners work together o Greater accountability + faster design process Limited Documentation o Enough to communicate the design o Since requirements may change, easier to manage documentation
  44. 44. Traditional/Agile/Lean UX @amrita_ux LEANUX
  45. 45. LEAN UX is Data Driven Don’t assume that a new design/feature is better than what came before Test Everything You can’t learn if you don’t measure! Example – Facebook registration process @amrita_ux LEANUX
  46. 46. LEANUX Lean UX o Look at a product as a set of hypothesis (rather than a set of features) o Lean UX is not about adding features. It is about understanding customers problems and validating if you are correct. Validate @amrita_ux IDEA DESIGN PRODUC T Validate Validate
  47. 47. LEANUX Landing Page Test – Have a landing page • Signup button (e.g. to get an early signup) o Tool: Launchrock o Drive traffic using AdWords, Facebook Ads Show people real product (or close!) o User Interviews User Research for Validation @amrita_ux
  48. 48. LEANUX When o Great to understand detailed motivations towards a particular design o Conversation needed (not finite answers) o Environment independent o A few users available Structure o Structured (closed questions), Unstructured (open-ended Q), Semi-structured (mix of both) Facilitator Tips o Interact informally (to keep it comfortable) o Observe the user o Let the user think (silence is acceptable) o Come back on track if user distracted o Use mod guide (moderator’s guide) as a guide (not a rule) o Restate when necessary User Research - Interviews @amrita_ux
  49. 49. LEANUX What is important? o Contradictory info to your research o What frustrates the user o Feedback on design and future ideas Note: watch for body language Remote? o Acceptable if environment doesn't play a role o Tool: Facetime, Skype, Hangouts, Webex User interviews are a great way to incorporate user insights into the product/service requirements Interviews @amrita_ux
  50. 50. What o Surveys for large amounts of data o Can be administered online or offline o Can be complex (based on how many results you get) o Good way to observe trends o Iterative - Good to get survey reviewed by someone o It’s OK to pilot the survey with smaller set of users When to use? o Answers are finite (conversation not required) o Large amounts of data needed User Research - Surveys @amrita_ux LEANUX
  51. 51. LEANUX How? o Write clearly, focus on data needed from users o Whether MCQ format or free text responses are needed Tools o Web-based (Survey Monkey), emails, paper based Format o < 5 minutes, set expectations o Include subject of survey, purpose and your contact information o Better to have multiple surveys of smaller length than have one long survey Surveys @amrita_ux
  52. 52. LEANUX What? o Study of a person or a group through OBSERVATION o Information is recorded from different vantage points o Minimal or no interaction, focus on observation. Can have follow- up interaction When? o Complex domain o Study the real environment Look for? o Terminology (new), frustrations, inefficiencies, challenges User Research - Ethnography @amrita_ux
  53. 53. LEANUX If your product/service doesn’t have any competitors, go do more research!  Competitor Testing o Run a usability test for a competitor product/service (alone or with your product) o You are not fixing their mistakes. Make sure you don’t make them.  Landing Page Goal – To convert visitors to users o A/B test – to see which landing page is doing best o – To get feedback on your landing page.  Focus on Branding, Messaging & Call To Action  Never give a guided tour to the user during testing (e.g. while showing a prototype) User Research @amrita_ux
  54. 54. Lean UX Recap Lean UX o Lean UX is about validating hypothesis o Lean UX is User Centered o Lean UX is Agile o Lean UX is Data Driven – Think of Metrics o Lean UX fast and cheap (sometimes) –Think of Waste o Lean UX is Iterative (always) – Think of MVP User Research o Interviews o Surveys o Ethnography @amrita_ux LEANUX
  55. 55. LEANUX NYC 2013LEANUX @amrita_ux  “There are no best practices for Lean UX. We are dealing with unknown unknowns. The land of innovation -Will Evans (Director- UX, TLCLabs)  Don’t listen to users, instead watch their behavior - Tomer Sharon (Author, “It’s Our Research”, Sr. UX Researcher, Google)  Your user is a person. Treat them like one! (Use natural language) -Bill Beard – Creative Director of Copy (TheLadders)  Designers are expected to be perfect all the time. And agile doesn’t work that way. Designers must adopt a sustainable pace (instead of coping with Agile) - Jonathan Berger - Designer/Developer (Pivotal Labs)  Nothing kills a new idea faster than common sense - Luke Williams (Exec Director, Berkley Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation)  Good UX = Good Business
  56. 56. @amrita_ux Agile/Le an/Lean UX Q’s?
  57. 57. AMRITA AVIYENTE Founder/CEO, UX Strategy & Design Lead Date My Wardrobe Thank You! Email: Twitter: @amrita_ux Website: