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101214 Conservation POLIMI


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101214 Conservation POLIMI

  1. 1. GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION:- Located in the Northeastern corner of Africaand south-western Asia.-It is bounded on the North by theMediterranean Sea, on the East by Palestineand Israel, on the South by Sudan, and on theWest by Libya, with total land boundaries 2665 km (Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya1 115 km, Sudan 1 273 km).-It has a total area of 1,001,450 km2, with landarea 995,450 km2 and water area is 6 000km2.
  2. 2. RIVERS ON THE COUNTRY’S COAST:-The Nile River is the longest river in theworld, stretching for 6 738 km.-It flows from South to North and is formed bythree major tributaries: the White Nile, theBlue Nile and the Atbara. The Nile splits intotwo branches, the Rosetta Branch to the westand the Damietta to the east.- Lake Nasser is a man-made lake created bythe construction of the Aswan High Dam;opened in 1971 and built to regulate the flowof the Nile River, and thus benefit the region’sinhabitants.
  3. 3. COASTAL CLIMATE:- The country experiences a desert climate,which is hot and dry most of the year,especially in the Summer. The averagetemperatures are from 20°C to 26°C. TheEgyptian summer is hot and dry in most of thecountry, and humid in the delta and along theMediterranean coast.- In the coastal region, average annualtemperatures range from a maximum of 37°Cto a minimum of 14°C.- In the deserts, Wide variations oftemperature occur in the deserts, rangingfrom a maximum of 46°C during daylighthours, to a minimum of 6°C after sunset.During the winter season desert temperaturesoften drop to 0°C.
  6. 6. ANCIENT EGYPT (THE PHARAOHS) - THE FIRST EGYPTIAN IN HISTORY was King Menes (aka Narmer). Menes was the 1st to unite the North & South parts of Egypt & He made Memphis his capital. - THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS WERE THE FIRST TO BUILD IN STONE AND TO FASHION THE ARCH IN STONE & BRICK. They had developed a plough and a system of writing. - They learned about astronomy in order to predict the Nile flood. - They sculpted in stone and decorated the walls of their tombs with naturalistic murals in vibrant colors. - THE LEGACY OF ANCIENT EGYPT IS WRITTEN IN STONE ACROSS THE FACE OF THE COUNTRY FROM THE PYRAMIDS TO THE ROCK TOMBS IN THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS TO THE OLD KINGDOM TEMPLES OF LUXOR AND KARNAK TO THE TEMPLES OF EDFU AND DENDERA AND TO THE ROMAN TEMPLE TO ISIS ON PHILAE ISLAND.
  8. 8. MEDIEVAL EGYPT (THE MUSLIMS) - The Arab conquest IN 641 by “AMR IBN AL’AAS” resulted in THE ISLAMIZATION & ARABIZATION OF THE COUNTRY, which endure to this day. - Beginning in the 9th Century local rulers were allowed to maintain a great deal of control over the countrys destiny. DURING THIS PERIOD CAIRO WAS ESTABLISHED AS THE CAPITAL OF THE COUNTRY & BECAME A CENTRE OF RELIGION, LEARNING, ART, & ARCHITECTURE. - In 1260, because of the victories of Qutuz (The ruler) against the Mongols, Islamic civilization could continue to flourish. Qutuzs successor, Baybars the 1st, inaugurated the reign of the Mamluks, a dynasty of slave-soldiers of Turkish and Caucasian origin that lasted for almost three centuries. - IN 1517 THE COUNTRY WAS ABSORBED INTO THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. - After only a century of Ottoman rule, the Mamluk system reasserted itself, and Ottoman governors became at times virtual prisoners in the Cairo Citadel, the ancient seat of the countrys rulers.
  10. 10. MODERN EGYPT (THE EGYPTIANS) - The Modern History of Egypt is marked by EGYPTIAN ATTEMPTS TO ACHIEVE POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE, first from the Ottoman Empire and then from the British. - IN 1798 A FRENCH ARMY LED BY NAPOLEON LANDED AT EGYPT. Napoleon was utterly defeated at sea by the British navy. However the French expedition led to a renewed interest in Ancient Egypt in Europe. - THE BRITISH OCCUPATION IN 1882, because of their need to control the Suez Canal. Although the country was granted nominal independence in 1922, Britain remained the real power. - In the First Half of the 19th Century, AN ATTEMPT TO CREATE AN EGYPTIAN EMPIRE INAUGURATED BY MUHAMMAD ALI & aimed at extending to Syria and to remove the country from Turkish control. Ultimately, he was unsuccessful, and true independence from foreign powers would not be achieved until midway through the next century. - POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE WAS FINALLY ACHIEVED between the 1952 Revolution and the 1956 War. In 1956 Nasser, as Egyptian president, announced the nationalization of the Suez Canal, an action that resulted in the tripartite invasion by Britain, France, and Israel. Ultimately, however, Egypt prevailed, and the last British troops were withdrawn from the country by the end of the year.
  12. 12. LEGAL FRAMEWORK (NATIONAL LEGISLATION PROTECTING EGYPTS CULTURAL HERITAGE) INTRODUCTION (Historical Brief)- Le service des Antiquités d’Egypte was established in 1859 belonging to the ministry of public works. Later on, itbelonged to The Ministries of: Information, National Guidance, Education.Since 1960, it became a part of The Ministry of Culture.-Le service des Antiquités d’Egypte was transformed in 1971 into The Egyptian Antiquities Organization EAO(presidential decree 2828/1971) having its own president and belonging to the ministry of culture.- The EAO was then transformed by the decree 82/1994 into The Supreme Council of Antiquities SCA belonging tothe ministry of culture and its president is the minister himself.- In 1997, The Ministry of Environment took the responsibility of the preservation of Natural Reserves in Egypt.
  13. 13. LEGAL FRAMEWORK (NATIONAL LEGISLATION PROTECTING EGYPTS CULTURAL HERITAGE) ADMINISTRATIONThe public law 117/1983 is the only and principal law that assigns power to the central and public officesconcerned with the different cultural Heritage categories in Egypt and which belong to the following juridicalsectors of SCA: - Prehistoric, Ancient Egyptian and Greco- Roman Sector (all sites allover Egypt). - Islamic and Coptic sector (all monuments and sites in Egypt). - Museums sector (all central and local museums). - Technical affairs (Architecture, Restoration, Engineering) sector for all Antiquities. - Funding sector. All listed private collections are also covered by this law and no private law exists in Egypt. Note: The Public Law 117/1983 has been revised lately By law No.3/2010; which was released in June 2010
  14. 14. LEGAL FRAMEWORK (NATIONAL LEGISLATION PROTECTING EGYPTS CULTURAL HERITAGE) RESPONSIBILITIESThe Islamic & Coptic Sector control:- The Listed mosques and churches in service and their collections.The permanent committees of Egyptian antiquities, Islamic and Coptic antiquities as well as the board oftrustees of museums are responsible for:- Studying the problems of antiquities, urban and habitation problems & foreign missions undergoing excavationsby applying the law 117.They are supported by the police of antiquities and the central police authorities.The Ministry of Environment Control:- The Places of environmental interest.•Inventories of antiquities in sites and museums are accomplished by two centers of Documentation, for Egyptianantiquities and for Islamic and Coptic antiquities through the Information center of SCA and by the collaborationwith the center of Information and Decision making of the Ministries council.•Documentation sheets are diffused and filled by local authorities together with photos and inventory exists onlyon administrative and scientific level; juridical intervention takes place only in case of illegal traffic. Inventories arenow done by electronic data base systems and some data are already available (Egyptian Museum, .. etc)
  15. 15. LEGAL FRAMEWORK (NATIONAL LEGISLATION PROTECTING EGYPTS CULTURAL HERITAGE) FUNDSRestoration and enhancement of Egyptian cultural Heritage is essentially funded by public funds: the fees ofentrance of archaeological sites, museums, exhibitions… etc which are spontaneously transferred to the fundingsector pool and by the agreement of the ministries of planning and finance, funds are allocated to the differentsectors.Together with public funds, there are international donations e.g. salvage of Nubia Monuments by the UNESCO inthe sixties (26 million dollars) and Nefertari tomb by Getty (1 million dollar) foreign missions are asked by the law117 to undergo restoration for their findings.Fiscal facilities are now on the way and so private associations start now to contribute for the enhancement ofNational Heritage,e.g.: NEHRA (National Egyptian Heritage Revival association officially recognized and published under the code4612/ March 2, 1999 and having funds from industrial and Business men is already involved in many coptic sitesfor the celebration of he holy family trail in Egypt and their works are done by the approval and control of SCAauthorities.
  16. 16. LEGAL FRAMEWORK (NATIONAL LEGISLATION PROTECTING EGYPTS CULTURAL HERITAGE) SUMMARYThe Egyptian law governing archaeology and the antiquities trade, is Law no. 215 (31st October 1951) onthe Protection of Antiquities, revised by laws no. 529 of 1953, no. 24 of 1965 and no. 117 of 1983. Under this law:Antiquities are defined as all movable and immovable objects, which are produced by the arts, sciences,literatures, customs, religions, etc. from prehistoric times to the reign of Ismail. Also included are any movable orimmovable objects produced by foreign civilizations that were at one time related to Egypt (i.e. Greek, Ptolemaic,Roman, Libyan, Persian, etc.) that are found within Egypts borders. Any movable or immovable object declared tobe an antiquity.All antiquities, either known or concealed, ultimately belong to the State, and are required to be registered on anofficial inventory. Modification, displacement or demolition of classified antiquities is prohibited. The Statemaintains the right to expropriate any antiquity, or land containing antiquities. Discovery of antiquities should bereported immediately to the nearest administrative official; the State may acquire any such antiquity for nationalcollections, and the displaying of such antiquity.
  17. 17. LEGAL FRAMEWORK (NATIONAL LEGISLATION PROTECTING EGYPTS CULTURAL HERITAGE)A permit is legal required for all field research, the conditions of which are set at the time of granting of thepermit. All foreign nationals are required to submit a security declaration form to the Ministry of Culture SecurityOffice, via the SCA.Exportation of cultural property (including environmental and biological samples) is strictly prohibited without apermit, which must be obtained 30 days prior to the intended date of export. Movement of antiquities within thecountry must be approved 15 days prior to their transportation.The Supreme Council of Antiquities under the auspice of the Ministry of Culture, are responsible for therestoration and preservation of Egypts cultural heritage.
  18. 18. LEGAL FRAMEWORK (NATIONAL LEGISLATION PROTECTING EGYPTS CULTURAL HERITAGE)Other laws and regulations apply to related issues of zoning of cities and townships the organization of localgovernments and the creation of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their roles and responsibilities:Law 32 of 1964 on NGOs is now being updated by a new revised law. This law does not provide for anymanagement of sites or buildings and the realization of regular income and economic assumption of projects dueto strong restriction s and direct supervision of the Ministry of Social Affairs.Law 43 of 1979 relates to the organization of local governments, governors, city managers, mayors, and localcouncils, and sets their roles and responsibilities. Note: while this law provides regulatory and supervisoryresponsibilities for the zoning and organization of townships and cities, as well as giving permits for the erection ofbuildings or sites, the law does not touch on the issue of cultural heritage.
  19. 19. INSTITUTES, ASSOCIATIONS & CH ORGANISATIONS 1- Institutions - American Research Center Egypt (ARCE) - Centre for Preservation and Conservation of Islamic Architectural Heritage (CIAH) - Deutsche Archäologische Institut (DAI) - Egypt Exploration Society (EES) - Institute of Nautical Archaeology - Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire (IFAO) - International Association of Papyrologists - Italian Cultural Institute, Dipartimento di Archeologia – Cairo - Nederlands-Vlaams Institut in Cairo (NVIC) - Oriental Institute / Chicago House, Luxor - Russian Institute of Egyptology, Cairo (RIEC) - Sudan Archaeological Research Society (SARS)
  20. 20. INSTITUTES, ASSOCIATIONS & CH ORGANISATIONS 2- Associations - Ancient Egypt Research Associates - Ancient Egypt Studies Association - Archaeogate - Association Internationale pour l’Etudes du Droit de l’Egypte Ancienne (AIDEA) - Association of Ancient Egypt Studies (MAAT) - Berenike Foundation - Ex Oriente Lux, Belgium branch (EOL) - Heinrich-Barth-Institut - Harpokrates – International Institute of Younger Egyptologists - International Association for Coptic Studies - International Association for Egyptologists (IAE) - Le Centre dEtudes Alexandrines - Société Française d’Égyptology (SFE) - The Amarna Research Foundation - World Archaeological Congress - The World Conservation Union (WCU) - World Archaeological Congress
  21. 21. INSTITUTES, ASSOCIATIONS & CH ORGANISATIONS 3- CH Organizations - Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) - AKDN (Agha Khan Development Network) - The Art Loss Register - Enhancement of the organisation and Capabilities to preserve Cultural Heritage Assets of Egypt - Egyptian Assosiation of Lovers of Antiquities - The Illicit Antiquities Research Centre (IARC) - International Center for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) - International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - UNESCO Cultural Heritage Sites - UNESCO, Cairo Office - United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) - USAID (Egypt) - World Monuments Fund
  22. 22. WORLD CULTURAL HERITAGE CONVENTIONSSOME OF THE WCHC RELATED TO THE PROTECTION OF EGYPT’S WORLD CULTURAL HERITAGE: - The 1954 Hague UNESCO Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. - The 1970 Paris UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. - The 1972 Paris UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. - The 1995 Rome UNIDROIT Convention on the International Return of Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects. - The 2001 Paris UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, Paris 2002. - The 2001 Paris UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity - The 2003 Paris UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage - Recommendation on International Principles Applicable to Archaeological Excavations - Convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions 2005 Paris, 20 October 2005
  23. 23. EGYPT & THE WORLD HERITAGE LISTThe World Heritage List was established under terms of The Convention Concerning the Protectionof the World Cultural and Natural Heritage adopted in November 1972 at the 17th GeneralConference of UNESCOUntil the year 2002 there were only 5 areas of Egypt inscribed on the World Heritage List: - Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur (N29 51 E31 15) - Ancient Thebes with its Necropolis (N25 42 E32 35) - Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae (N22 30 E31 50) - ISLAMIC (OLD) CAIRO (N30 6 E31 26) - Abu Mena (Monastery near Alexandria) (N30 51 E29 40)These areas were inscribed on the List in 1979, however, in 2002 one more area was added to the list: - St. Katherines (Monastery and Area Immediately Surrounding it) (N28 34 E34 0)
  25. 25. WHAT IS THE AKTC?The Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC ) was established in Geneva in 1988 as a private Charitable Foundation, inorder to integrate & coordinate the different initiatives of – His Highness – The Aga Khan regarding theimprovement of the built environment in societies where Muslims have a significant presence.It contains 3 Programs: 1- The HCSP (Historic Cities Support Program) 2- The Aga Khan Award for Architecture (Established in 1977 as the world’s largest prize for Architecture) 3- The Education & Culture ProgramThe AKTC is part of the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) After a Conference in 11 November 1984 entitled “The Expanding Metropolis: Coping with the Urban Growth of Cairo” which was organized by The Aga Khan Award for Architecture; The Aga Khan Decided to donate a park to the citizens of Cairo. Soon after, a 30 hectare site was selected to be the “Breathing Lung” in the center of Islamic Cairo .
  27. 27. WHERE IS THE SITE?
  28. 28. STUDY AREA
  30. 30. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARAL AZHAR PARKIt is a large tract that had for centuries been an area for refuse. Today it is the Al-Azhar Park, a 30 hectares ofnewly landscaped public park, providing for the first time a large area of green space.The extensively landscaped park is augmented with: - A Community Center - Two Childrens Playgrounds - Youth Sports Center - Restaurant, Café - Viewing Platforms - Formal Gardens. This introduction of open landscape and places for social gathering has been recognized internationally as a significant contribution to the quality of life for the citizens of Cairo.
  31. 31. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARSite DescriptionAl Azhar Park - Before
  32. 32. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARSite DescriptionAl Azhar Park - Nowadays
  33. 33. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARTHE AYYUBID WALLThe Ayyubid Wall stands under restoration today.The wall acts as boundary for the Darb al-Ahmar district to the west and the newly opened (2005) Al-Azhar Parkon the eastern side.It runs for 1.5 km at a slight arc from south to north on the eastern side of Cairo. It is part of the urbanfortifications built by Salah al-Din in 1176.The Southern Edge of the wall is anchored by two important nearby monuments restored by the AKTC, TheKhayrbek Mosque and the Aq Sunqur (Blue) Mosque.The North Part of the restored wall is attached to the Archeological Triangle Park which contains ruins and artifactsfrom the Fatimid era in its sunken site. The restored wall itself contains fourteen towers and two gates, the Bab al-Mahruq and the Bab al-Barqiyya, thelatter being the subject of this project and of particular interest due to its innovative design of interlocking volumes that provided optimum security in its day.
  34. 34. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARTHE AYYUBID WALLPoints to be discussed: 1- Brief History 2- Current Situation 3- Philosophy of Conservation (Preservation within its own context) 4- Guidelines for Intervention 5- Future Prospects & Required Actions
  35. 35. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARSite DescriptionThe Ayyubid Wall – Conserving Al Ayyubid Wall
  36. 36. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARSite DescriptionThe Ayyubid Wall – Conserving Al Ayyubid Wall
  37. 37. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARAL DARB AL AHMARAl Darb al-Ahmar district was an area that had suffered serious decline over many years.It is of great historic importance as the spine of Fatimid Cairo with many bazaars, historic neighborhoods, andmonuments such as the Aslam Mosque and the al-Azhar Mosque.The area had experienced neglect and deterioration.The AKTC Historic Cities Support Program designed a comprehensive rehabilitation program that focused not only on the physical wall, but also the adjacent neighborhoods and people that comprised their community. Thiscomprehensive program of revitalization was comprised of not only historic preservation and restoration, but also education, health care, housing, and other social services for the communities.Rehabilitation of al Darb Al Ahmar include: 1- Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings (Umm Al Sultan Sha’ban Mosque & Madrasa, Khayrbek Complex, & Darb Shoughlan School) 2- Rehabilitation of Public Open Spaces (Commercial Streetscapes, Imp Public Squares & Concourse areas, and Small Neighborhood squares) 3- Housing Improvements
  38. 38. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARAL DARB AL AHMARPoints to be discussed: 1- Current Situation 2- Issues & Opportunities 3- Strategic Actions & Pilot Interventions 4- Rehabilitation in Al Darb Al Ahmar 5- Institutional Tools & Local Inscntives 6- The Community Development Corporate Incentive 7- Future Prospects
  39. 39. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARSite DescriptionAl Darb Al Ahmar – Restoration of Residential Units & Community Development
  40. 40. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARSite DescriptionAl Darb Al Ahmar – Restoration of Residential Units & Community Development
  41. 41. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARSite DescriptionAl Darb Al Ahmar – Umm Al Sultan Sha’ban Mosque & Madrasa
  42. 42. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARSite DescriptionAl Darb Al Ahmar – Al Amir Khayrbek Complex
  43. 43. AL AZHAR PARK, THE AYYUBID WALL & AL DARB AL AHMARSite DescriptionAl Darb Al Ahmar – Al Amir Khayrbek Complex