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The Renaissance
Unit 1

Day 2
1
Europe, the Near East, and North Africa in the Renaissance
2

©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomso...
The Renaissance
– Renaissance is a French term which means
“rebirth” or “revival” ****
– In European history, it is roughl...
Renaissance Beginnings- Italy
• Why the Renaissance Began in the Italian
City-States

– Italy was the initial center of th...
• The Renaissance Moves Northward
– By the middle of the 16th century, Italy had
begun to decline as a center of the
Renai...
• Northern Renaissance
– The north was less concerned with sensuality,
aesthetics, and the enjoyment of life, which
had ch...
Renaissance Society
– Three estates: ****
• clergy (first estate)
• nobility (second estates)
• peasants and inhabitants o...
Peasants and Townspeople
– Peasants and Townspeople
• Peasants 85-90 percent of the total population
– Decline of manorial...
The Intellectual Renaissance
• Italian Renaissance Humanism
– The intellectual and cultural movement known as
humanism aro...
• Impact of Printing
– The northern Humanists' desire to reform the Bible
and attack the abuses of the Church naturally le...
Artistic Italian Renaissance
• The Italians were very much aware of the fact
that in the distant past Italy, with Rome her...
The Artistic Renaissance

• Early Renaissance ****

– Masaccio (1401-1428) ****
• Frescos ****

• New Renaissance style
– ...
Characteristics of
Renaissance Art

13
Perspective

****

 The Trinity

Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!

Masaccio...
15
Perspective is created

16
Classicism

****

Greco-Roman
influence.
Secularism
(Worldly).
Humanism.
Individualism  free
standing figures.
Symme...
Emphasis on Individualism

****

 Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The

Duke & Dutchess of Urbino

 Piero della...
Isabella d’Este – da Vinci, 1499
1474-1539
“First Lady of
the Italian
Renaissance”
Great patroness
of the arts in
Mantu...
Geometrical Arrangement of Figures

****

 The Dreyfus

Madonna
with the
Pomegranate

 Leonardo da
Vinci
 1469
 The fi...
Light & Shadowing

****

Chiaroscuro
An element in art,
(Italian for
lightdark) defined
as a bold contrast
between light a...
Michelangelo Merisi,
aka Caravaggio:
Crucifixion of St.
Peter

Chiaroscuro

22
Softening Edges
Sfumato
(from Italian
sfumare, “to
tone down,” or
“to evaporate
like smoke”),
in painting or
drawing, term...
Florence Under the Medici

****

•Cosmo de’ Medici controlled the
Florentine oligarchy in 1434 ****

The Medici Palace

Me...
 Filippo Brunelleschi
1377 - 1436
 Architect

****

****

 Cuppolo of St. Maria

del Fiore

****

25
Filippo Brunelleschi
• Commissioned to
build the cathedral
dome.
– Used unique
architectural
concepts.
• He studied the
an...
The Renaissance “Man”
• Broad knowledge about many things in
different fields. ****
• Deep knowledge/skill in one area.
• ...
Leonardo DaVinci
The Renaissance Man

****

 Artist
 Sculptor
 Architect
 Scientist
 Engineer

 Inventor
1452 - 1519...
29
Mona Lisa OR da Vinci?

30
31
Simon

Thaddeus

Matthew

Phillip

James (Major)

Thomas

John

Peter

Judas

Andrew

Jams (Minor)

Bartholomew
The Last Supper (da Vinci)
Geometry

****

32
Leonardo, the Scientist
(Biology):
Pages from his Notebook
An example of
the humanist
desire to unlock
the secrets of
nat...
Leonardo, the Scientist
(Anatomy):
Pages from his Notebook

34
Renaissance

35
The Pieta ****
Michelangelo Buonarroti
1499

36
The Sistine
Chapel
Michelangelo
Buonarroti ****
1508 - 1512
37
The Liberation of St. Peter by
Raphael, 1514

38
Venice During the Renaissance

39
Titian
St. Christopher fresco
1523

40
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Unit 1 renaissance- power point notes

  1. 1. The Renaissance Unit 1 Day 2 1
  2. 2. Europe, the Near East, and North Africa in the Renaissance 2 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.
  3. 3. The Renaissance – Renaissance is a French term which means “rebirth” or “revival” **** – In European history, it is roughly a 200 year period from 1350 and 1550 **** – The Renaissance marked a rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman ideas, art, culture and philosophy **** – Urban society in Renaissance Italy – Recovery from the Black Death **** – Emphasis on individual ability – “Universal person” – Not just art but many areas including literature**** – The decline of feudalism opened the way for the Renaissance in Western Europe **** 3
  4. 4. Renaissance Beginnings- Italy • Why the Renaissance Began in the Italian City-States – Italy was the initial center of the Renaissance because the ruins and remains of the Roman Empire stimulated curiosity about this past civilization. **** – In addition, these city-states were close to the advanced civilizations of the Byzantines, Muslim Arabs, and Ottoman Turks, with whom they were impressed and from whom they received new ideas. – Money into city states bound for Western Europe- funded pursuit of knowledge/arts 4
  5. 5. • The Renaissance Moves Northward – By the middle of the 16th century, Italy had begun to decline as a center of the Renaissance. • By then, most of the important trade routes were via the Atlantic, therefore the Mediterranean declined as an entry spot for eastern goods. • Thus, most of the more notable advances of this movement began to be made in the Netherlands, France, and England, while Portugal and Spain took the early lead in overseas exploration. – As the Renaissance shifted northward, its character changed, coming to differ significantly from the Italian in several respects… **** 5
  6. 6. • Northern Renaissance – The north was less concerned with sensuality, aesthetics, and the enjoyment of life, which had characterized the Italian Renaissance **** – More religious in nature- concerned with purifying the Christian religion **** – Politics • In the area of politics, the northern Renaissance saw an increase in pomp and ceremony • The northern European Renaissance witnessed newly powerful, independent monarchs' first attempts to gain control over the Catholic churches within their realms. • This contest for power between the church and the state in European politics will be known as the Reformation 6
  7. 7. Renaissance Society – Three estates: **** • clergy (first estate) • nobility (second estates) • peasants and inhabitants of towns and cities (third estate) – Nobility • 2 to 3 percent of the population • Political posts • Ideals of the aristocrat, Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529), The Book of the Courtier **** – Impeccable character, “breeding”/dignity, military service, standards of conduct, classical education, welldeveloped personality **** 7
  8. 8. Peasants and Townspeople – Peasants and Townspeople • Peasants 85-90 percent of the total population – Decline of manorialism and continuing erosion of serfdom – Peasants as hired workers • Patricians at the top of the urban society (trade, industry, and banking) • Petty burghers (shopkeepers, artisans, guildmasters, and guildsmen) • Property less workers (30 to 40 percent of the urban population) Family and Marriage in Renaissance Italy **** – Arranged marriages – Father-husband at the center • Authority was absolute – Wife manages the household 8
  9. 9. The Intellectual Renaissance • Italian Renaissance Humanism – The intellectual and cultural movement known as humanism arose from the study of classical Greek and Roman culture. **** – These "Humanist" scholars studied history, astronomy, physics, mathematics, chemistry, medicine, poetry, philosophy, politics, and the fine arts= human potential and achievements **** – Renaissance individualism was characterized by the search for great heroes and great accomplishments--the person was elevated over the spirit. 9
  10. 10. • Impact of Printing – The northern Humanists' desire to reform the Bible and attack the abuses of the Church naturally led them to conclude that the public ought to be able to read the Bible for themselves – Johannes Gutenberg • Movable metal type, 1445-1450 **** • Bible, 1455 or 1456- first full-sized book printed **** • Circulated widely and were printed in the vernacular-common native languages **** – Development of scholarly research **** – Standard textbooks were developed **** – Lay reading public- cook books, novels etc. **** 10
  11. 11. Artistic Italian Renaissance • The Italians were very much aware of the fact that in the distant past Italy, with Rome her capital, had been the center of the civilized world, and that her power and glory had waned since the Germanic tribes, Goths and Vandals, had invaded the country and broken up the Roman Empire • The ideas of a revival were closely connected in the minds of the Italians with the ideas of a rebirth of „the grandeur that was Rome.‟ **** 11
  12. 12. The Artistic Renaissance • Early Renaissance **** – Masaccio (1401-1428) **** • Frescos **** • New Renaissance style – Laws of perspective and geometrical organization of outdoor space and light – Investigation of movement and anatomical structure • High Renaissance – Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) • Realism and idealism – Raphael (1483-1520) • Ideal of beauty – Michelangelo (1475-1564) • Divine beauty 12
  13. 13. Characteristics of Renaissance Art 13
  14. 14. Perspective ****  The Trinity Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Masaccio 1427 Perspective! First use of linear perspective= sense of depth created in a painting. **** What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become. 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. Perspective is created 16
  17. 17. Classicism **** Greco-Roman influence. Secularism (Worldly). Humanism. Individualism  free standing figures. Symmetry/Balance The “Classical Pose” Medici “Venus” 17
  18. 18. Emphasis on Individualism ****  Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of Urbino  Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466. 18
  19. 19. Isabella d’Este – da Vinci, 1499 1474-1539 “First Lady of the Italian Renaissance” Great patroness of the arts in Mantua. Known during her time as “First Lady of the World” 19
  20. 20. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures ****  The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate  Leonardo da Vinci  1469  The figure as architecture 20
  21. 21. Light & Shadowing **** Chiaroscuro An element in art, (Italian for lightdark) defined as a bold contrast between light and dark**** 21
  22. 22. Michelangelo Merisi, aka Caravaggio: Crucifixion of St. Peter Chiaroscuro 22
  23. 23. Softening Edges Sfumato (from Italian sfumare, “to tone down,” or “to evaporate like smoke”), in painting or drawing, term designating fine shading that produces soft, imperceptible transitions between colors and tones.**** **** Sfumato 23
  24. 24. Florence Under the Medici **** •Cosmo de’ Medici controlled the Florentine oligarchy in 1434 **** The Medici Palace Medici Chapel 24
  25. 25.  Filippo Brunelleschi 1377 - 1436  Architect **** ****  Cuppolo of St. Maria del Fiore **** 25
  26. 26. Filippo Brunelleschi • Commissioned to build the cathedral dome. – Used unique architectural concepts. • He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome. • Used ribs for support. 26
  27. 27. The Renaissance “Man” • Broad knowledge about many things in different fields. **** • Deep knowledge/skill in one area. • Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge. • The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded man” was at the heart of Renaissance education. 27
  28. 28. Leonardo DaVinci The Renaissance Man ****  Artist  Sculptor  Architect  Scientist  Engineer  Inventor 1452 - 1519 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. Mona Lisa OR da Vinci? 30
  31. 31. 31 Simon Thaddeus Matthew Phillip James (Major) Thomas John Peter Judas Andrew Jams (Minor) Bartholomew
  32. 32. The Last Supper (da Vinci) Geometry **** 32
  33. 33. Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology): Pages from his Notebook An example of the humanist desire to unlock the secrets of nature. 33
  34. 34. Leonardo, the Scientist (Anatomy): Pages from his Notebook 34
  35. 35. Renaissance 35
  36. 36. The Pieta **** Michelangelo Buonarroti 1499 36
  37. 37. The Sistine Chapel Michelangelo Buonarroti **** 1508 - 1512 37
  38. 38. The Liberation of St. Peter by Raphael, 1514 38
  39. 39. Venice During the Renaissance 39
  40. 40. Titian St. Christopher fresco 1523 40

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