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The School System Project Downstream


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Work of teacher from Downstrem Project

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The School System Project Downstream

  1. 1. This is work of teachers from Project „DOWNSTREAM-understanding of watersheds and how to protect the environment”. This project is realised with financial help of European Union (Foundation for the Development of the Education System, Comenius Programme) although European Commission or National Agencies do not hold any responsible for its ideas . Tarnobrzeg, 2009
  2. 2. The Educational System s (in alphabetical order) in Bulgaria , Greece , Poland , Portugal
  3. 3. Bulgarian educational system Nicola Vaptsarov School 38 Han Asparuh Street, Tsarevo 8260 Bulgaria Tel:+359 590 520 18
  4. 4. <ul><li>Bulgarian school year starts at 15 th September and finishes on: </li></ul><ul><li>24 th May for 1 st graders and 12 th </li></ul><ul><li>30 th May for 2 nd to 4 th graders </li></ul><ul><li>15 th June for graders from 5 th to 8 th </li></ul><ul><li>30 th June for 9 th to 11 th </li></ul><ul><li>There are two terms </li></ul><ul><li>Longer Holidays are: </li></ul><ul><li>Christmas, Spring(10 days), Summer </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bulgarian primary and secondary education is free There are already private schools but the prefered schools are state schools Universities and colleges are state ( with affordable payments for the Academic year) and private. The difference in payments is quite big so students always apply to state school firs and then to private ones.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Grading system </li></ul><ul><li>No grades in 1 st grade </li></ul><ul><li>Marks: </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Very good 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Good 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Average 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Poor 2 </li></ul><ul><li>There is : </li></ul><ul><li>an entry test in the beginning of the year ( revision from the last year) </li></ul><ul><li>two term tests </li></ul><ul><li>Test at the end of the units </li></ul><ul><li>Final test at the end of the school year (revision of the year) </li></ul>
  7. 7. STRUCTURE OF SCHOOL SYSTEM <ul><li>Pre-school educational year is compulsory for being 1 st grade in Primary school </li></ul><ul><li>Basic First Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Type of school providing this education: Natchalno utchilischte (form I to IV) </li></ul><ul><li>Length of program in years: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Age level from: 7 to: 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate/diploma awarded: Grade IV Leaving Certificate </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Basic Second Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Type of school providing this education: Progimnazialno utchilichte (form V to VIII) </li></ul><ul><li>Length of program in years: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Age level from: 10 to: 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate/diploma awarded: Basic Education Completion Certificate </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>General Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Type of school providing this education: Gimnazii (form IX to XII) </li></ul><ul><li>Length of program in years: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Age level from: 14 to: 19 </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma za  Zavurcheno Sredno Obrazovanie (Diploma of  Completed Secondary Education) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Type of school providing this education: Profilirani Gimnazii (form IX to XII) </li></ul><ul><li>Length of program in years: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Age level from: 15 to: 19 </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma za Zavurcheno Sredno Obrazovanie (Diploma of Completed Secondary Education) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Vocational secondary <ul><li>Type of school providing this education: Professionalni gimnazii I/ili technikumil </li></ul><ul><li>Length of program in years: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Age level from: 15 to: 19 </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma za Zavurcheno Sredno Obrazovanie (Diploma of Completed Secondary Education) and Certificate of Professional Qualification. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Vocational Secondary <ul><li>Type of school providing this education: Professionalni utchilichta </li></ul><ul><li>Length of program in years: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Age level from: 15 to: 19 </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma za Zavurcheno Sredno Obrazovanie (Diploma of Completed Secondary Education) and Certificate of Professional Qualification </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of higher education institutions: <ul><li>Universitet (University) </li></ul><ul><li>Spetzializirano Visshe Uchilishte (Specialized Higher School) </li></ul><ul><li>Kolej (College) </li></ul>
  14. 14. School leaving and higher education credentials: <ul><li>Diploma of Completed Secondary Education </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Bachelor </li></ul><ul><li>Master </li></ul><ul><li>Do c tor </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Academic year: </li></ul><ul><li>Classes from:  15 th Sep to  30 th Jun </li></ul><ul><li>Long vacation from: 1 Jul to: 15 Sep </li></ul><ul><li>Languages of instruction:  Bulgarian </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of studies: </li></ul><ul><li>Non-university level post-secondary studies (technical/vocational type): </li></ul><ul><li>Non university-level post-secondary education generally consists of a 3-year course of study after completion of secondary education and leads to the qualification of Specialist in different fields. Studies culminate in a state final examination. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  16. 16. University level studies <ul><li>University level first stage: Bakalavr (Bachelor): </li></ul><ul><li>This stage of study at  higher education institutions (HEI) lasts for at least  four years and leads to the Bachelor's Degree (Bakalavr) in many fields. This is a degree created by the Higher Education Act of 1995. However, there are some fields where the Bachelor does not exist and where studies lead directly to the second stage of studies (Master's Degree level). </li></ul><ul><li>University level second stage: Magistr (Master): </li></ul><ul><li>This stage of study at HEI lasts for five/six years after completion of secondary education or one year after obtaining the Bachelor's Degree. Students must (usually) complete a thesis and pass a state examination. The Diplom degree is Master's. </li></ul><ul><li>University level third stage: Doktor (Doctor): </li></ul><ul><li>This stage is the third degree in the higher education system and  leads to  the title of Doctor. It is obtained on the basis of individual research and after the defence of a thesis. It replaces the former Kandidat na Naukite (Candidate of the Sciences). The Higher Education Act of 1995 grants all Kandidat na Naukite holders the rights of a holder of a Doctor's degree. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  17. 17. Presentation prepared by Bulgarian project team Thank you for your attention Nicola Vaptsarov School 38 Han Asparuh Street, Tsarevo 8260 Bulgaria Tel:+359 590 520 18
  18. 18. Greek Education system The structure of the education system 12ο ΔΗΜΟΤΙΚΟ ΣΧΟΛΕΙΟ ΞΑΝΘΗΣ Marathonos 2 , Xanthi, Greece Tel. 0030 25410 20360
  19. 19. The Greek Educational System
  20. 20. <ul><li>Education in Greece is compulsory for all children from 5 -1 5 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Education : Nursery school,called </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nipiagogeio” lasts for one year and “Dimotiko” lasts for 6 years ( 6 - 12 years of age) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Education </li></ul><ul><li>Lower secondary schools (Gymnasio), last for three years ( 12 15 years of age) and </li></ul><ul><li>Upper secondary schools (Lykio), (15 - 18 years of age) </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>School life of the students, however, starts with the pre-school education in institutions (both private and public) called </li></ul><ul><li>“ Vrefonipiakoi paidikoi stathmoi” (nursery classes which operate along kindergartens, 2- 5 years of age). </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Post- compulsory secondary Education , according to the Reform Act of 1997, consists of two school types </li></ul><ul><li>A) Unified Upper Secondary Schools called “Eniaia Lykia”, which last for three years, and </li></ul><ul><li>B) Technical Educational Schools (TEE). </li></ul><ul><li>A’ level (2 years) and B’ level (3 years) </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Along with the mainstream schools of Primary and Secondary Education, are also in operation Musical, Ecclesiastical and Physical Education gymnasia and Lykia which offer specified studies to cover different needs. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Post - compulsory secondary education also includes the Vocational Training Institutes (IEK), which are an unclassified level of education. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Public Higher Education is divided into Universities and Technological Education Institutes (TEI). Students are admitted to these Institutes according to their performance at national level examinations, that take after the second and third grade of Lykio </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally, students are admitted to the Hellenic Open Universities after the completion of their 22 nd year of age. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>The following graph presents concisely the structure of the Greek Education System (the formal, classified or unclassified education). </li></ul><ul><li>Formal education is characterized by the fixed length of study. </li></ul><ul><li>As a consequence of the classification of the education institutions lead to a title (school- leaving certificate) compulsory for students, in order to continue with the next education level. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>The major part of education system is supervised by the Ministry of Education. However, there are much more educational services, classified or unclassified, offered by both the private and the public sector. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>A detailed description of the Greek Education System is offered in EURYBASE, the EURIDICE European Education System in </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Identity of our School <ul><li>Our school was founded in 1986. </li></ul><ul><li>It belongs to the primary education </li></ul><ul><li>It has 300 students and 25 teachers </li></ul><ul><li>There is a Computer room, a Gym, a Library and a canteen, the teacher’s office and the headmaster’s office, all on the ground floor. All the classrooms are on the 1 st floor. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Classes and students <ul><li>There are 6 classes </li></ul><ul><li>In 1 st grade there are 31 students </li></ul><ul><li>In 2 nd grade there are 40 students </li></ul><ul><li>In 3 rd grade there are 74 students </li></ul><ul><li>In 4 th grade there are 50 students </li></ul><ul><li>In 5 th grade there are 51 students </li></ul><ul><li>In 6 th grade there are 54 students </li></ul>
  31. 31. School activities <ul><li>We share the same playground with other 3 public institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>In our school we organize lots of activities such as environmental, sports, theatrical, musical and activities connected to our tradition. </li></ul>
  32. 32. “ Oloimero dimotiko (allday school) <ul><li>Apart from the daily programme, there is also “Oloimero dimotiko” from 12.30 to 16.15 o'clock, with certain other activities, like: </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional dances, theatre, plastic art, constructions, music (school choir, piano lessons), environmental education etc. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Presentation prepared by Greek team <ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul>
  34. 34. The School System in Poland SZKOŁA PODSTAWOWA NR 3 im. A. FREYERA w TARNOBRZEGU ul. J. Kochanowskiego 1, 39-400 Tarnobrzeg, Poland ☏ /0-48/158233511
  35. 35. The present educational system was introduced in 1999.
  36. 36. In 1999 primary school was shortened from 8 to 6 years, and secondary school was changed from 4 year lyceum into 3 year gymnasium and 3 year lyceum .
  37. 37. Before the reorganization 8 years 3-4-5 years Up to 6 years Pre-school education Primary School Secondary School Higher Education
  38. 38. Recent system 6 years 3 years Up to 6 years 2-3-4 years Pre-school education Primary School Lower Secondary School Upper Secondary School Higher Education
  39. 39. before now Pre-school education Primary School 8 years Secondary School 3-4-5 years Higher Education Pre-school education Primary School 6 years Lower Secondary School 3 years Upper Secondary School 2-3-4 years Higher Education
  40. 40. In Poland parents are required by law to provide their children with education between age 6-1 8.
  41. 41. The total number of years of primary and secondary education is 12 or 13. Students are required to graduate primary and lower secondary school.
  42. 42. Most children receive free education in schools financed from public founds. A small proportion of children attend private schools .
  43. 43. P re-school nurseries and kindergartens are available for children to enter the schooling system at an earlier stage.
  44. 44. Both boys and girls are taught together in most primary and lower secondary schools and almost all pupils from upper secondary schools attend mixed secondary school.
  45. 45. The school year (ten months) is divided into two semesters: <ul><li>Winter term - from September 1st to winter brake in February (changeable) . </li></ul><ul><li>Spring term - from February to third week of June. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Grading <ul><li>It is a method used in P olish schools to record pupils achievements. </li></ul><ul><li>Every school keeps a record of each student’s achievements in order to have basis for measuring his/her progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Absence is also marked . </li></ul><ul><li>Every class has a book where grades are writing down. </li></ul>
  47. 47. N A M E S
  48. 48. Grading <ul><li>Marks: </li></ul><ul><li>6- perfect </li></ul><ul><li>5- very good </li></ul><ul><li>4- good </li></ul><ul><li>3- average </li></ul><ul><li>2- pass </li></ul><ul><li>1- fail </li></ul>The worst grade in Polish school is 1, the best one is 6.
  49. 49. P re-school education
  50. 50. Infants Nursery Schools <ul><li>Education for children under three. </li></ul><ul><li>It is more form of child care rather than education and may be provided by an infant nursery schools or infant class attached to the local nursery school. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents pay a fee. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Nursery Schools /Kindergartens/ <ul><li>For children between 3-6 years old- it will change soon-children at age 6 will go to the primary school. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Nursery Schools /Kindergartens/ <ul><li>how to move and control their body (physical-motor skills), </li></ul><ul><li>how to communicate (language skills), </li></ul><ul><li>how to relate to themselves and to other people in their world( social-emotional, relationship skills), </li></ul><ul><li>how to think and learn about the world around them (thinking skills) , </li></ul><ul><li>how to read (primary reading skill - any homework) , </li></ul><ul><li>how to calculate ( basic mathematics). </li></ul>Children learn:
  53. 53. School education
  54. 54. Primary Schools /Elementary Schools/ the first cycle 1-3 grade s the second cycle 4-6 grade s 6 grades two cycles Beginning learning is offered Systematic learning is provided Period: 6 years Age: 7-12
  55. 55. Primary Schools /Elementary Schools/ <ul><li>Polish language </li></ul><ul><li>English language </li></ul><ul><li>social & natural environment </li></ul><ul><li>mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>crafts & technology </li></ul><ul><li>art & music </li></ul><ul><li>physical education </li></ul><ul><li>religion (not obligatory ) </li></ul>teacher writes a detailed note where report the student’s progress, attitude, activities and social adjustment T he first cycle 1-3 grade s The main components taught are One teacher teaches all subjects N o marking system
  56. 56. Primary Schools /Elementary Schools/ <ul><li>Polish language </li></ul><ul><li>foreign language </li></ul><ul><li>mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>science </li></ul><ul><li>history </li></ul><ul><li>music </li></ul><ul><li>art& crafts </li></ul><ul><li>informatics </li></ul><ul><li>physical education </li></ul><ul><li>religion (not obligatory) </li></ul>T he second cycle 4 - 6 grade s The main components taught are E ach subject has a different teacher P upils change classroom for each subject One lesson takes 45 minutes
  57. 57. Lower Secondary School /G ymnasium/ <ul><li>Polish language </li></ul><ul><li>foreign language </li></ul><ul><li>mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>science </li></ul><ul><li>history </li></ul><ul><li>social studies </li></ul><ul><li>chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>biology </li></ul><ul><li>geography </li></ul><ul><li>music </li></ul><ul><li>art& crafts </li></ul><ul><li>informatics </li></ul><ul><li>physical education </li></ul><ul><li>religion (not obligatory) </li></ul>Period: 3 years Age: 13-15 3 grades The main components taught are E ach subject has a different teacher P upils change classroom for each subject One lesson takes 45 minutes
  58. 58. Upper Secondary Schools /High Schools / <ul><li>Types of post-gymnasium schools: </li></ul><ul><li>3-year specialized lyceum, </li></ul><ul><li>3-year general lyceum, </li></ul><ul><li>4-years technical secondary school, </li></ul><ul><li>2 or 3-year vocational school, </li></ul><ul><li>2-year complementary lyceum, </li></ul><ul><li>3-year complementary technical secondary school. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Upper Secondary Schools <ul><li>Upper Secondary schools provide pupils with general education, with the possibility of receiving the graduation certificate of general education. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who have passed the final examination called maturity exam may apply to universities. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who do not want to study at university and those who have not taken the maturity examination may continue their education in post - secondary vocational schools. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Post - secondary vocational schools <ul><li>Secondary schools of vocational education prepare qualified workers and others with equivalent qualification. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of these schools is to meet the demand for qualified workers, and they also provide young people with the opportunity of acquiring secondary education and taking the maturity examination. </li></ul><ul><li>Students are trained as nurses, accountants, administrative personnel for enterprises and hotels, computer specialists, librarians, hair stylist, beauty specialist etc... </li></ul>
  61. 61. Secondary Schools /High Schools / <ul><li>To qualify for admission to an institution of higher education, the applicant must hold the secondary school certificate-the maturity exam . </li></ul><ul><li>The rules of admission to the first year of study are determined autonomously by each institution. Some organize competitive entrance examinations, others use ranking procedures based on the final grades listed in the secondary school certificate, still others admit all who apply. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Higher Education Day studies in public higher schools are free of charge. others agricultural academies economic academies polytechnics universities Institutions as:
  63. 64. Teachers - qualifications <ul><li>Teacher s must have at least Bachelor's Degree and pedagogical preparation. </li></ul><ul><li>In Poland, teachers trained at university level in one subject alone may be qualified to work at all levels of education from primary to university level. </li></ul>
  64. 65. Teachers - working <ul><li>The teaching norm consists of 40 </li></ul><ul><li>hours per week, of which 18 hours per </li></ul><ul><li>week activity (teaching) in the school. </li></ul>
  65. 66. Stages of the teacher’s professional career <ul><li>There are four steps on this ladder. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher starts work in school as : </li></ul><ul><li>trainee and depending on his professional achievements and after fulfilling the conditions envisaged by the law may during his career become: </li></ul><ul><li>a contract teacher, </li></ul><ul><li>an appointed teacher </li></ul><ul><li>and a professionally qualified teacher. </li></ul>
  66. 67. Any questions? Thank you for your attention
  67. 68. The End SZKOŁA PODSTAWOWA NR 3 im. A. FREYERA w TARNOBRZEGU ul. J. Kochanowskiego 1, 39-400 Tarnobrzeg, Poland ☏ /0-48/158233511 Prepared by Agnieszka M. Paduch
  68. 69. Portuguese educational system Escola Básica do Primeiro Ciclo com Pré-Escolar da Nogueira Madeira Island Region Funchal   City 9135-200 Camacha Postcode Street – Number Rua dos Sapatinhos s/n Address
  69. 70. Portuguese educational system The Portuguese educational system covers pre-school education, school education, including basic, secondary and higher education, and extra-curricular education. The coordination of the policy for the educational system is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education (pre-school education and basic and secondary education) and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (higher education).
  70. 71. PORTUGUESE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Ages Pre-School education Basic Education Secoundary Education Higher Education University Kindergarden 1st Cicle 2nd Cicle 3rd Cicle Courses Scientific-humanistic courses Technological courses Specialized artisitics Professionals Polytechnics Technologicals Specialization Courses Post-Secoundary Non-Higher Education Adults Education from 15 years old
  71. 72. Pre-school education – For children between the age of 3 and the start of basic education (6 years); attendance is optional; – The aim is to stimulate the capacities of children and to encourage their development, to contribute to their emotional stability, to encourage them to observe the natural world and human society, to help them develop a moral sense, to promote integration in different social groups, to develop expressive and communication skills, to encourage hygienic and healthy habits, and to detect early signs of dysfunctions, handicaps or special gifts, promoting good orientation and progress.
  72. 73. Basic education – Is universal, compulsory and free of charge and directed to children between 6 and 15 years of age; – It lasts for 9 years and is spread over 3 cycles: 1st cycle, lasting for 4 years, 2nd cycle, lasting for 2 years, and 3rd cycle lasting for 3 years; – Provides general common instruction which: – Guarantees the discovery and development of interests, skills and capacities in pupils, promoting their individual realisation in harmony with the values of social solidarity; – Leads to the acquisition and command of basic knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed for the pursuit of both general and professional studies;
  73. 74. Basic education – Leads to the acquisition of independent attitudes, so as to develop citizens who are civically responsible and who participate democratically in community life; – Promotes a national awareness with a view to a universal humanistic approach, in solidarity with others, and develops an understanding and respect for the values of a Portuguese identity; – Leads to the diploma of basic education. Ways of integrating or coordinating specialised artistic instruction in dance and music with general instruction are provided in basic education.
  74. 75. CURRICULUM COMPONENTS 1st Cicle Education for the Citizenship Curricular areas to discipline of obligator frequency: Portuguese language ; Mathematics ; Study of the Environment (science studies) ; Expressions : Artistic; Physicist-Motor. Personal and Social formation Curricular areas not to discipline: Project Area; Followed Study; Civic Formation. Total: 25 hours Curricular areas to discipline of facultative frequency : Moral and Religious education Total: 1 hour TOTAL: 26 hours Enrichment Activities
  75. 76. Madeira Autonomic Region Adaptation to the national curriculum components: Enrichment Activities Language: mostly English Sports Music and Dramatic arts Plastic Arts New technologies Special needs support Each school as his autonomy to decide what activities to propose attending to each community suggestions/needs;
  76. 77. Basic education Basic recurrent education Recurrent (second-chance) education is a special type of schooling which is available for those who did not complete basic education at the usual age of school attendance (up to age 15). Basic recurrent education has the same objectives and leads to the same diploma as regular basic education, although it adopts study plans and methods appropriate for its target users. In some cases recurrent basic education also provides a certified vocational training component.
  77. 78. Secondary e ducation – For pupils who have completed basic education; – Lasts for 3 years; – Secondary regular education is arranged into: – General courses, designed mainly for pupils who want secondary level instruction, with a view to pursuing higher education studies; – Technological courses, designed mainly for pupils who want an intermediate level vocational qualification that will give access to the labour market; – Leads to a diploma of secondary education and, in the case of technological courses, to a level 3 vocational qualification.
  78. 79. Secondary education Specialised artistic education Courses in specialised artistic education are administered in secondary education with the objective of providing artistic training for the pursuit of studies and vocational preparation in the visual arts, dance and music, and encouraging individual and group artistic practices.
  79. 80. Seconda ry education Recurrent secondary education Recurrent (second-chance) education is a special type of schooling which is available for those who did not complete secondary education at the usual age of attendance (up to age 18). Recurrent secondary education has the same objectives and leads to the same diploma as regular secondary education, although it adopts plans and methods appropriate for its target users. General courses and technical courses are provided in recurrent secondary education in several fields. Technical courses, apart from the diploma of secondary education, also lead to a level 3 vocational qualification.
  80. 81. Secondary education Vocational training Vocational courses are provided in vocational training, a special type of schooling, for those who have completed basic education. Vocational courses prepare the pupil for a professional activity and lead to a level 3 vocational qualification certificate and a diploma equivalent to the diploma of secondary education. These courses last for 3 years and are administered in vocational schools controlled by the Ministry of Education.
  81. 82. Post-secondary, non-higher education Post-secondary, non-higher education Post-secondary, non-higher courses known as technological specialisation courses are taught in vocational training, mainly to those who have the diploma of secondary education and a level 3 vocational qualification and who want to acquire more scientific and technological knowledge in the field of their basic vocational training. These courses also develop personal and professional skills appropriate for working in the vocational qualification chosen by the student. These courses last a total of 1200 to 1560 hours, including training in a work context of 360 to 720 hours, and on completion a diploma in a technological specialisation is attributed certifying level 4 vocational qualification.
  82. 83. Higher education Higher education comprises university education and polytechnic education. Access Access to higher education is subject to number restrictions ( numerus clausus) and admission is by competition. Students may apply who hold a diploma of secondary education or the equivalent and who meet all the demands laid down by law, particularly exams in specific subjects in which minimum marks must be obtained. University education University education ensures a solid scientific and cultural preparation and provides technical training suitable for vocational and cultural work, encouraging the skills for concept-building, innovation and critical analysis.
  83. 84. Higher education University education leads to the following degrees: a) Licenciado, after a course lasting four or five years 5; b) Mestre, a process lasting a total of two years, including a specialised course (mestrado) and preparation and presentation of a dissertation. Only those students with the licenciado degree have access to mestrado courses; c) Doutor, through the preparation and presentation of a thesis. Mestres have access to doctorate level, and, in special conditions, licenciados. This teaching is administered in universities, organised, as laid down in their statutes, in units that may adopt different names: e.g. faculty, institute, school, department. University teaching can also be administered in university colleges that are not integrated in universities, which are usually specialised.
  84. 85. Thank you for your attention