Elements of drama


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The structure of drama, its literary, technical and performance elements.

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Elements of drama

  1. 1. Rozi Khan GPGJC Swat
  2. 2. <ul><li>Elements of Drama: The elements of drama, by which dramatic works can be analyzed and evaluated, can be categorized into three major areas: </li></ul><ul><li>literary elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technical elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>performance elements </li></ul>Rozi Khan GPGJC Swat
  3. 3. Literary Elements <ul><li>Plot: the series of events that take place in a play. There are 6 stages in a plot structure : </li></ul><ul><li>Initial incident </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary event </li></ul><ul><li>Rising action </li></ul><ul><li>Climax </li></ul><ul><li>Falling action </li></ul><ul><li>Denouement or Conclusion </li></ul>Rozi Khan GPGJC Swat
  4. 4. <ul><li>Character: a person portrayed in a drama, novel, or other artistic piece. </li></ul><ul><li>Exposition: is the “who, when, where and what” part of the play. </li></ul><ul><li>Story organization: beginning, middle, end </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict: the internal or external struggle between opposing forces, ideas, or interests that creates dramatic tension. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspense: a feeling of uncertainty as to the outcome, used to build interest and excitement on the part of the audience. </li></ul>Rozi Khan GPGJC Swat Literary Elements
  5. 5. <ul><li>Theme: the basic idea of a play; the idea, point of view, or perception that binds together a work of art. </li></ul><ul><li>Language : in drama, the particular manner of verbal expression, the diction or style of writing, or the speech or phrasing that suggests a class or profession or type of character. </li></ul><ul><li>Style: the shaping of dramatic material, settings, or costumes in a deliberately realistic or nonrealistic manner. </li></ul>Rozi Khan GPGJC Swat Literary Elements
  6. 6. <ul><li>Dialogue: the speeches of characters, usually, of more then one character on stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Monologue : a long speech made by one actor; a monologue may be delivered alone or in the presence of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Soliloquy : a speech by a single actor who is ALONE on stage </li></ul>Rozi Khan GPGJC Swat Literary Elements
  7. 7. Technical Elements <ul><li>Scenery (set): the theatrical equipment, such as </li></ul><ul><li>curtains, flats, backdrops, or platforms, used in a </li></ul><ul><li>dramatic production to communicate surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Costumes: clothing's, masks and accessories worn by actors to portray character and period. </li></ul><ul><li>Props: short for properties; any article, except costume or scenery, used as part of a dramatic production; any moveable object that appears on stage during a performance, from a telephone to a train. </li></ul>Rozi Khan GPGJC Swat
  8. 8. <ul><li>Lights: the placement, intensity, and color of lights to help communicate environment, mood, or feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Sound: the effects an audience hears during </li></ul><ul><li>performance to communicate character, context, or environment </li></ul><ul><li>Makeup: costumes, wigs, and body paint used to transform an actor into a character. </li></ul>Technical Elements Rozi Khan GPGJC Swat
  9. 9. Performance Elements <ul><li>Acting: the use of face, body, and voice to portray character </li></ul><ul><li>Character motivation: the cause or reasons for a character’s behavior; an incentive or inducement for further action for a character </li></ul><ul><li>Character analysis: in responding to dramatic art, the process of examining how the elements of drama—literary, technical, and performance—are used </li></ul><ul><li>empathy: the capacity to relate to the feelings of another. </li></ul>Rozi Khan GPGJC Swat
  10. 10. <ul><li>Verbal Expressions: </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking: the mode of expression or delivery of lines </li></ul><ul><li>Breath control: proper use of the lungs and diaphragm muscle for maximum capacity and efficiency of breath for speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal expression: how an actor uses his or her voice to convey character </li></ul><ul><li>Inflection: change in pitch or loudness of the voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Projection: how well the voice carries to the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking style: the mode of expression or delivery of lines </li></ul><ul><li>Diction: selection and pronunciation of words; clarity of speech. </li></ul>Performance Elements Rozi Khan GPGJC Swat
  11. 11. <ul><li>Nonverbal expression: </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures : any movement of the actor’s head, shoulder, arm, hand, leg, or foot to convey meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Body alignment: physiologically correct posture and use of the body to ensure the maximum capacity and efficiency of breathing and movement </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expression: physical and vocal aspects used by an actor to convey mood, feeling, or personality </li></ul><ul><li>Character blocking: the path formed by the actor’s movement on stage, usually determined by the director with assistance from the actor and often written down in a script using commonly accepted theatrical symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Movement: stage blocking or the movements of the actors onstage during performance; also refers to the action of the play as it moves from event to event. </li></ul>Performance Elements Rozi Khan GPGJC Swat Cell # 03455949378, Email: rozikhan782@hotmail.com