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Refractive Errors
and management
   Ahmed AlMumtin, MD
Basic Optics
• Optics is the properties of light as it is
   acted on by optical systems
• Geometric optics: uses line diagrams to
   depict the behavior of light
• Wavefront optics: uses principles of waves
   to describe the behavior of light
Vergence




Prallel Beam          Convergence   Divergence
VERGENCE
          • All naturally occurring sources of light are
            divergent
          • Light rays traveling parallel have zero
            vergence
          • Light rays that focus on a point are
            convergent
          • The unit of measurement of vergence is
            the diopter


D= Vergence (Diopters)=___________1_____________
                       Distance from the source in meters
BASIC OPTICS
• Therefore:
• The closer the light is to its source, the
  greater the vergence
• The farther the light is from its source, the
  lower the vergence, approaching zero as
  distance goes toward infinity.
• Diverging light has negative power (-)
• Converging light has positive power (+)
REFRACTION
• Refraction of light occurs when light
  passes from one medium to another of
  different refractive index (ie. density)
Refractive Components of the Eye
 • Cornea: responsible for the majority of the
   refractive power of the eye (40 D)
 • Lens: 20 D of refractive power, changes
   with accommodation
 • Axial length
REFRACTIVE PHYSIOLOGY
• Light rays are focused on the retina
  because they are refracted by passing
  through the cornea and lens (Snell’s Law)
• Corneal refractive power is constant
• Lens refractive power is modifiable with
  accommodation
• Axial length of the eye is constant except
  under certain conditions
Fovea
        Light rays
Emmetropia
• Adequate correlation between axial length
  and refractive power
• Parallel light rays fall on the retina (no
  accommodation)
Ametropia (Refractive error)
• Mismatch between axial length and
  refractive power.
• Parallel light rays don’t fall on the retina
  (no accommodation)
   • Nearsightedness (Myopia)
   • Farsightedness (Hyperopia)
   • Astigmatism
   • Presbyopia
Accommodation
   • Emmetropic eye
      • object closer than 6 M send divergent light that
        focus behind retina , adaptative mechanism of
        eye is increase refractive power by accommoda
        tion
   • Helm-holtz theory
      • contraction of ciliary muscle -->decrease
        tension in zonule fibers -->elasticity of lens caps
        ule mold lens into spherical shape -->greater di
        optic power -->divergent rays are focused on re
        tina
      • contraction of ciliary muscle is supplied by
        parasympathetic third nerve
Myopia

• Parallel rays converge at a focal point
  anterior to the retina
• Etiology : not clear , genetic factor
• Causes
   • excessive long globe (axial myopia) :
     more common
   • excessive refractive power (refractive
     myopia).
   • Increase in the curvature of the cornea or
     the surfaces of the crystalline lens
Uncorrected, light focuses in front of fovea




Corrected by divergent lens, light focuses on fovea
Myopia
• Forms
   • Benign myopia (school age myopia)
      • onset 10-12 years , myopia increase
        until the child stops growing in height
   • Progressive and malignant myopia
      • interchangeable
      • myopia increase rapidly each year
        and is associated with vitreous opaciti
        es , fluidity of vitreous and chorioretin
        al change
      • rate of increase in amount of myopia
        generally tapers off at about 20 years
        of age
Myopia
  • Congenital myopia
     • Myopia > 10 D
     • Increase slowly each year
Myopia
• Special forms : nuclear sclerosis , keratoconus ,
  spherophakia
• Symptoms
• Typically do not have “eye-strain”, “watering” of the eyes or
   headaches as often as hypermetropes do
• Usually detected by the young when they discover they
   cannot see things at a distance as well as their friends do
• The teacher complains that the child makes too many
   mistakes copying things from the black-board
    • Blurred distance vision
    • Squint in an attempt to improve uncorrected visual
       acuity when gazing into the distance
    • Headache
    • Amblyopia – uncorrected myopia > 10 D
Myopia
 • Morphologic changes
    • deep anterior chamber
    • atrophy of ciliary muscle
    • vitreous may collapse prematurely -->
    opacification
    • fundus change : loss of pigment in RPE ,large
     disc and white crescent-shaped area on temporal side ,
      atrophy in macular area , posterior staphyloma ,retinal
      eneration-->hole-->
    increase risk of RD
 • Treatment : concave lenses, clear lens extraction
MYOPIA
•  Increases with age roughly until the person stops
  growing in height.
• A myopic person can still see some objects clearly,
  provided the object is closer than the far point
• For a -2 D myope, the far point is 0.5 meters
  (D=1/distance in meters), so any objects inside 0.5
  m are clear as long as they are not too close at
  which point clarity may be limited by
  accommodation.
• Pseudomyopia: accomodative spasm.The patient
  cannot relax accomodation when looking in the
  distance. For example, an over anxious student
PATHOLOGICAL CAUSES OF
MYOPIA
• KERATOCONUS
PATHOLOGICAL CAUSES OF
             MYOPIA
* Cataract            * Diabetes
PATHOLOGICAL CAUSES OF
           MYOPIA
Marfan’s            Staphyloma
Hyperopia
• Parallel rays converge at a focal point posterior to
  the retina
• Etiology : not clear , inherited
• Causes:
   • excessive short globe (axial hyperopia) : more common
   • insufficient refractive power (refractive hyperopia)
   • The length of the eyeball is shorter than it should be
   • Hyperopia forms a stage in normal development of the eyes—at
     birth eyes are hypermetropic (2.5 to 3.0 Diopters).
   • When persists in adulthood it represents an imperfectly developed
     eye.
   • Lens changes (cataract).
Hyperopia
• Special forms : lens dislocation , postoperative
  aphakia
• hyperopic persons must accommodate when gazing
  into distance to bring focal point on to the retina
• Symptoms
   • distance vision is impaired in high refractive error( > 3 D)
     and in older patient
   • “Eye-strain”(ciliary muscle is straining to maintain
     accommodation) / “watering” / “redness”
   • Headaches in later part of the day
   • time
   • Young children with significant hypermetropia can also
     develop a convergent squint
HYPEROPIA
• Hyperopia may be partially compensated
   for by using the eyes’ accommodative
   ability
• When accommodative ability cannot keep
   up with demand hyperopia is manifest and
   images are blurred in the distance and for
   near
Uncorrected, light focuses behind fovea




Corrected by convergent lens, light focuses on fovea
Hyperopia
• Symptoms
   • visual acuity at near tends to blur relatively early
       • nature of blur is vary from inability to read fine print to near
         vision is clear but suddenly and intermittently blur
       • blurred vision is more noticeable if person is tired , printing
         is weak or light inadequate
   • asthenopic symptoms : eyepain, headache in frontal region,
     burning sensation in the eyes, blepharoconjunctivitis
   • accommodative esotropia : because accommodation is linked
     to convergence -->ET
   • Amblyopia – uncorrected hyperopia > 5D
Hyperopia

• Fundus in axial hyperopia may reveal
  pseudooptic neuritis (indistinct disc margin, no ph
  ysiologic cup, may elevate disc)
   • DDx from optic neuritis by > 4 D , no enlarged
     blind spot, no passive congestion of vein
• Treatment : convex lenses, keratorefractive
  surgery, refreactive lensectomy with IOL, phakic
  IOL
PATHOLOGICAL CAUSES OF
HYPEROPIA




      DISLOCATED LENS
PATHOLOGICAL CAUSES OF HYPEROPIA




RETINAL DETACHMENT   CHOROIDAL TUMOR




   1 mm = 3D               RETINAL FLUID
Astigmatism


• Parallel rays come to focus in 2 focal lines rather
  than a single focal point
• Etiology : heredity
• Cause : refractive media is not spherical-->refract
  differently along one meridian than along meridian
  perpendicular to it-->2 focal points ( punctiform ob
  ject is represent as 2 sharply defined lines)
Astigmatism
 • Classification
    • Regular astigmatism : power and orientation of
      principle meridians are constant
        • With the rule astigmatism , Against the rule
          astigmatism , Oblique astigmatism
        • Simple or Compound myopic astigmatism ,
          Simple or Compound hyperopic astigmatism ,
          Mixed astigmatism
    • Irregular astigmatism : power and orientation of
      principle meridians change across the pupil
Astigmatism
• Symptoms
   • asthenopic symptoms ( headache , eyepain)
   • blurred vision
   • distortion of vision
   • head tilting and turning
   • Amblyopia – uncorrected astigmatism > 1.5 D
• Treatment
   • Regular astigmatism :cylinder lenses with or without
     spherical lenses(convex or concave), Sx
   • Irregular astigmatism : rigid CL , surgery
Pathologic Causes of
Astigmatism
•  Corneal: post surgical, traumatic,
  infectious
• External pressure on cornea: lid masses
• Lens: pressure on lens from tumors
Presbyopia
      • Physiologic loss of accommodation in
        advancing age
      • deposit of insoluble proteins in lens in
        advancing age-->elasticity of lens progressivel
        y decrease-->decrease accommodation
      • around 45 years of age , accommodation
        become less than 3 D-->reading is possible at
        40-50 cm-->difficultly reading fine print , heada
        che , visual fatigue
Presbyopia
• Treatment
   • convex lenses in near vision
      • Reading glasses
      • Bifocal glasses
      • Trifocal glasses
      • Progressive power glasses
Anisometropia

• Difference in refractive power between 2 eyes
• refractive correction often leads to different
  image sizes on the 2 retinas( aniseikonia)
• aniseikonia depend on degree of refractive
  anomaly and type of correction
• closer to the site of refraction deficit the
  correction is made-->less retinal image changes i
  n size
Anisometropia
• Glasses : magnified or minified 2% per 1 D
• Contact lens : change less than glasses
• Tolerate aniseikonia ~ 5-8%
• Symptoms : usually congenital and often
  asymptomatic
• Treatment
   • anisometropia > 4 D-->contact lens
   • unilateral aphakia-->contact lens or
     intraocular lens
Correction of refractive errors
      • Far point
         • point on the visual axis conjugate to the
            retina when accommodation is completely
            relaxed
      • placing an object or imaging an object at far
        point will cause a clear image of that object t
        o be relayed to the retina
      • use correcting lenses to form an image of
        infinity at the far point , correcting the eye for
        distance
What is the Far Point
• The farthest an eye can see
• An emmetrope it is infinity or 20 feet
• 4.00D myope without glasses it is 25cm in
   front of the eye
• 1.00D myope without glasses it is 1meter in
   front of the eye
• 3.00D hyperope without glasses 33.3 cm
   behind the eye
What is the Near Point
• The closest the eye can see
• The near point is the sum of the power of
   the eye and accommodation
• An emmetrope with 10.00D of
   accommodation and a -4.00D error without
   glasses has a near point of 14.00D or
   7.15cm in front of the eye
What is the Near Point
• A 50 year old with 2.00D of accommodation
   and a -1.00D error without glasses has a
   far point of 1 meter and a near point of
   33.3 cm
• With glasses on the far point is infinity or 20
   feet and the near point is 50cm in front of
   the eye
What is the Near Point
• A +3.00D without glasses hyperope with
   6.00D of accommodation has a far point of
   33.3 cm behind the eye and a far point of
   33.3 cm in front of the eye.
• With glasses on the far point is infinity and
   the near point 16.6 cm.
Remember!!
• A myope has too much plus in their eyes
• Whereas a hyperope has too much minus
Diagnosis:

•Diagnosis of refractive errors is made by an optician
or ophthalmologist.
•Instruments used to diagnose refractive errors
include:
- pinhole glasses
- Autorefractor (measures how light changes as it
enters the eye).
-Retinoscope (measures the refractive condition of
the eye).
- Phoropter.
Pinhole glasses            Autorefractor




    Phoropter     View through an autorefractor
Types of optical correction
     • Spectacle lenses
        • Monofocal lenses : spherical lenses ,
          cylindrical lenses
        • Multifocal lenses
     • Contact lenses:
        • higher quality of optical image and less
          influence on the size of retinal image than spe
          ctacle lenses
        • indication : cosmetic , athletic activities ,
          occupational , irregular corneal astigmatism , h
          igh anisometropia , corneal disease.
        • Can be: soft, hard, gas-permeable
• Contact lenses
   • disadvantages : careful daily cleaning and
      disinfection , expense
   • complication : infectious keratitis , giant
      papillary conjunctivitis , corneal vascularization
      , severe chronic conjunctivitis
• Intraocular lenses
   • replacement of cataract crystalline lens
   • give best optical correction for aphakia , avoid
      significant magnification and distortion caused
      by spectacle lenses
Hard lenses:
• Plastic polymer.
• Most durable.
• Rigid, therefore may scratch the cornea.
• Not gas permeable  corneal hypoxia  corneal ulcers.
• Cannot be worn continuously.
• Difficult to get used to (because they are very rigid).
• Less susceptible to infection + allergy.
• Best for treating astigmatism (smoothes out the uneven
  curvature).
Soft lenses:

* High water content.
* Less durable.
* Permeable for both gases + liquids.
* Could be worn for long periods.
* Tolerated much better.
* They do not correct astigmatism.
* Are the most comfortable lenses.
* Are the least durable lenses (must be replaced more often).

•Susceptible to accumulation of deposits (because they
absorb more water, which binds proteins). This accumulation
of protein deposits leads to allergic conjunctivitis and other
allergies.
Gas permeable lenses (Semi-
rigid):

•They are permeable only to gases.
•They are more comfortable than hard lenses, but
less than soft ones.
•They are more durable than soft lenses, but less
than hard lenses.
•Allow oxygen to pass, but also allow proteins to
deposit.
•More durable than soft lenses, but less durable
than hard ones.
Toric lenses:

 Are similar to soft contact lenses, but have a
couple of extra characteristics:
•They have 2 powers in them: 1 for spherical
correction + 1 for astigmatism.
•They are designed to keep the lens in a stable
position even on movement.
They offer the comfort of soft lenses ,and at the
same time they correct astigmatism, but their
disadvantage is that the lens will sometimes rotate,
and this creates a very irritating change in vision as
the lens rotates.
Refractive Surgery Techniques
• Radial Keratotomy (RK)
• Freeze keratomileusis
• Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)
• Laser Epithelial Keratomileusis
  (LASEK)
• Laser-assisted in-situ Keratomileusis
  (LASIK)
• Others:
    •   Astigmatic Keratotomy (AK)
    •   Intracorneal ring segments (Intacs)
    •   Phakic Intraocular Lens Implants
    •   Refractive lensectomy
Radial Keratotomy
      • First used in U.S in 1978.
      • Treats low to mod myopia in outpt
          setting using topical anesthetics.
      •   RK reduces myopia by steepening
          the cornea peripherally, which
          secondarily flattens the cornea
          centrally.
      •   The surgeon makes deep radial
          incisions with a diamond blade in a
          spoke-like pattern, leaving a clear
          optical zone in the center.
      •   Refractive effect determined by the
          number, length, and depth of the
          incisions, as well as the size of the
          spared central optical zone.
      •   The smaller the optical zone, the
          greater the central corneal
          flattening (reduction in myopia), but
          greater risk of side-effects.
Laser technology
• Excimer laser: EXCited dIMER
• AKA “cool laser beam” because little thermal
  damage to adjacent tissues.
• 193nm wavelength ultraviolet laser with
  sufficient energy to disrupt intermolecular
  bonds within the corneal stromal tissue
  (photoablative decomposition).
• First excimer lasers FDA approved in 1995,
  with beam width 4-5mm, now available less
  than 100 microns.
• Each laser pulse removes a given volume of
  stroma
• Three types of laser application: wide-area
  ablation, scanning slit, and flying spot lasers.
Laser technology
• In myopia, laser flattens central cornea to
  decrease its focusing power to bring
  secondary focal point back to retina.
• In hyperopia, the laser removes peripheral
  corneal tissue thereby secondarily
  steepening the central cornea, increasing
  the focusing power of the cornea.
• Astigmatism treated with elliptical or
  cylindrical beams that flatten the steepest
  corneal meridian.
• To minimize glare and halos, optical zone
  should be larger than the dilated pupil.
Myopic photorefractive kertectomy
           • PRK can effectively treat low to
               mod myopia or hyperopia +/-
               astigmatism.
           •   Performed as outpt with topical
               anesthesia.
           •   First, the corneal epithelium in the
               area to be ablated is removed to
               expose Bowman’s layer and the
               underlying corneal stroma
               (spatula, laser).
           •   Excimer laser then applied as
               directed by the corneal
               topography-driven computer
               program.
           •   Topical antibiotics, steroids, and
               NSAIDs applied, along with a
               bandage contact lens (BCTL)
PRK
• In the post-op period, pt may experience tearing,
  photophobia, blurred vision, and discomfort due to
  abrasion of central epithelium.
• This can be controlled with topical steroids and
  NSAIDs.
• Pts occ. require systemic analgesia for severe pain
• BCTL removed once epithelial defect healed (avg 3-
  4 days).
• Abx continued several more days, and steroids for
  up to 3 months post-op.
• Visual acuity improves once the epithelial defect
  heals, but fluctuates for a few months and finally
  stabilizes at ~3 months.
• Glare, halos, and dry eye symptoms common the
  first month post-op, usually diminishing/disappearing
  by 3-6 months.
Laser Sub-Epithelial
          Keratomileusis
• LASEK can treat mild to moderate myopia and
  hyperopia +/- astigmatism.
• Can be performed as an outpt with topical
  anesthesia
• The corneal epithelium is incompletely incised
  using a microkeratome with a 70 micron deep
  blade.
• A hinge is left at the 12 o’clock position.
• Dilute alcohol (20%) drops are applied to the
  exposed tissue and left for ~30 seconds. The
  area is then washed with water and allowed to
  dry. The excimer laser is applied as in PRK to
  the sub-epithelial stroma.
• The epithelial flap is repositioned afterward.
LASIK
• LASIK can treat mild, moderate, and high myopia and
    hyperopia +/- astigmatism.
•   Can also be performed as an outpt with topical anesthesia
•   LASIK is now the most commonly performed refractive
    surgery in the world.
•   A suction ring is applied to the anesthetized cornea and a
    microkeratome is used to raise a corneal flap of
    ~160microns thickness (25-30% of the corneal thickness),
    hinged at the 12 o’clock position.
•   The suction is turned off and the flap is lifted aside,
    exposing stromal tissue
•   The excimer laser is applied as with PRK and LASEK,
    controlled by the topography-driven computer software, to
    reshape the cornea.
•   The flap is replaced on the stromal bed without sutures or
    a BCTL, as the endothelial pumps create a driving force to
    keep the flap in position.
LASIK
• The use of the suction ring helps hold the
  cornea steady and provides for a uniform
  cut by the microkeratome.
• Flaps can be formed by an automated
  process involving a blade guide on the
  suction ring to guide a turbine-driven
  microkeratome, producing a very smooth,
  regular cut
• Patients usually sent home on topical
  antibiotics, steroids, and NSAID drops. Pt
  is usually seen ~POD 1, and 7, then at 1,
  3 and 6 months.
• Benefits include little pain, quick recovery
  of vision, and potential to treat higher
  levels of myopia. LASIK enhancements
  are also easily performed.
LASIK
LASIK Complications
• Potential complications:
   • Intra-operative flap complications: microkeratome
     complication with a higher rate with surgeon inexperience
   • Post-operative flap complications
   • Flap-bed interface epithelialization: that epithelial growth at
     the interface could significantly be reduced by irrigating the
     stromal surfaces and using a BCTL for one day.
   • Irregular astigmatism
   • Infection:
   • Diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK): (AKA Sands of Sahara
     syndrome) Wavy inflammatory reaction at LASIK flap
     interface 1-3 days post-op of unknown cause. Treatment
     involved high-dose topical steroids or lifting the flap to
     irrigating the interface.
   • Progressive corneal ectasia: progressive corneal thinning
     and steepening with worsening irreg. astigmatism thought to
     result from too thin a stromal bed after LASIK. Most believe
     stromal bed thickness should be at least 250 microns.

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Refractive errors

  • 1. Refractive Errors and management Ahmed AlMumtin, MD
  • 2. Basic Optics • Optics is the properties of light as it is acted on by optical systems • Geometric optics: uses line diagrams to depict the behavior of light • Wavefront optics: uses principles of waves to describe the behavior of light
  • 3. Vergence Prallel Beam Convergence Divergence
  • 4. VERGENCE • All naturally occurring sources of light are divergent • Light rays traveling parallel have zero vergence • Light rays that focus on a point are convergent • The unit of measurement of vergence is the diopter D= Vergence (Diopters)=___________1_____________ Distance from the source in meters
  • 5. BASIC OPTICS • Therefore: • The closer the light is to its source, the greater the vergence • The farther the light is from its source, the lower the vergence, approaching zero as distance goes toward infinity. • Diverging light has negative power (-) • Converging light has positive power (+)
  • 6. REFRACTION • Refraction of light occurs when light passes from one medium to another of different refractive index (ie. density)
  • 7. Refractive Components of the Eye • Cornea: responsible for the majority of the refractive power of the eye (40 D) • Lens: 20 D of refractive power, changes with accommodation • Axial length
  • 8. REFRACTIVE PHYSIOLOGY • Light rays are focused on the retina because they are refracted by passing through the cornea and lens (Snell’s Law) • Corneal refractive power is constant • Lens refractive power is modifiable with accommodation • Axial length of the eye is constant except under certain conditions
  • 9. Fovea Light rays
  • 10. Emmetropia • Adequate correlation between axial length and refractive power • Parallel light rays fall on the retina (no accommodation)
  • 11. Ametropia (Refractive error) • Mismatch between axial length and refractive power. • Parallel light rays don’t fall on the retina (no accommodation) • Nearsightedness (Myopia) • Farsightedness (Hyperopia) • Astigmatism • Presbyopia
  • 12. Accommodation • Emmetropic eye • object closer than 6 M send divergent light that focus behind retina , adaptative mechanism of eye is increase refractive power by accommoda tion • Helm-holtz theory • contraction of ciliary muscle -->decrease tension in zonule fibers -->elasticity of lens caps ule mold lens into spherical shape -->greater di optic power -->divergent rays are focused on re tina • contraction of ciliary muscle is supplied by parasympathetic third nerve
  • 13. Myopia • Parallel rays converge at a focal point anterior to the retina • Etiology : not clear , genetic factor • Causes • excessive long globe (axial myopia) : more common • excessive refractive power (refractive myopia). • Increase in the curvature of the cornea or the surfaces of the crystalline lens
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Uncorrected, light focuses in front of fovea Corrected by divergent lens, light focuses on fovea
  • 17. Myopia • Forms • Benign myopia (school age myopia) • onset 10-12 years , myopia increase until the child stops growing in height • Progressive and malignant myopia • interchangeable • myopia increase rapidly each year and is associated with vitreous opaciti es , fluidity of vitreous and chorioretin al change • rate of increase in amount of myopia generally tapers off at about 20 years of age
  • 18. Myopia • Congenital myopia • Myopia > 10 D • Increase slowly each year
  • 19. Myopia • Special forms : nuclear sclerosis , keratoconus , spherophakia • Symptoms • Typically do not have “eye-strain”, “watering” of the eyes or headaches as often as hypermetropes do • Usually detected by the young when they discover they cannot see things at a distance as well as their friends do • The teacher complains that the child makes too many mistakes copying things from the black-board • Blurred distance vision • Squint in an attempt to improve uncorrected visual acuity when gazing into the distance • Headache • Amblyopia – uncorrected myopia > 10 D
  • 20. Myopia • Morphologic changes • deep anterior chamber • atrophy of ciliary muscle • vitreous may collapse prematurely --> opacification • fundus change : loss of pigment in RPE ,large disc and white crescent-shaped area on temporal side , atrophy in macular area , posterior staphyloma ,retinal eneration-->hole--> increase risk of RD • Treatment : concave lenses, clear lens extraction
  • 21. MYOPIA • Increases with age roughly until the person stops growing in height. • A myopic person can still see some objects clearly, provided the object is closer than the far point • For a -2 D myope, the far point is 0.5 meters (D=1/distance in meters), so any objects inside 0.5 m are clear as long as they are not too close at which point clarity may be limited by accommodation. • Pseudomyopia: accomodative spasm.The patient cannot relax accomodation when looking in the distance. For example, an over anxious student
  • 23. PATHOLOGICAL CAUSES OF MYOPIA * Cataract * Diabetes
  • 24. PATHOLOGICAL CAUSES OF MYOPIA Marfan’s Staphyloma
  • 25. Hyperopia • Parallel rays converge at a focal point posterior to the retina • Etiology : not clear , inherited • Causes: • excessive short globe (axial hyperopia) : more common • insufficient refractive power (refractive hyperopia) • The length of the eyeball is shorter than it should be • Hyperopia forms a stage in normal development of the eyes—at birth eyes are hypermetropic (2.5 to 3.0 Diopters). • When persists in adulthood it represents an imperfectly developed eye. • Lens changes (cataract).
  • 26. Hyperopia • Special forms : lens dislocation , postoperative aphakia • hyperopic persons must accommodate when gazing into distance to bring focal point on to the retina • Symptoms • distance vision is impaired in high refractive error( > 3 D) and in older patient • “Eye-strain”(ciliary muscle is straining to maintain accommodation) / “watering” / “redness” • Headaches in later part of the day • time • Young children with significant hypermetropia can also develop a convergent squint
  • 27. HYPEROPIA • Hyperopia may be partially compensated for by using the eyes’ accommodative ability • When accommodative ability cannot keep up with demand hyperopia is manifest and images are blurred in the distance and for near
  • 28.
  • 29. Uncorrected, light focuses behind fovea Corrected by convergent lens, light focuses on fovea
  • 30.
  • 31. Hyperopia • Symptoms • visual acuity at near tends to blur relatively early • nature of blur is vary from inability to read fine print to near vision is clear but suddenly and intermittently blur • blurred vision is more noticeable if person is tired , printing is weak or light inadequate • asthenopic symptoms : eyepain, headache in frontal region, burning sensation in the eyes, blepharoconjunctivitis • accommodative esotropia : because accommodation is linked to convergence -->ET • Amblyopia – uncorrected hyperopia > 5D
  • 32. Hyperopia • Fundus in axial hyperopia may reveal pseudooptic neuritis (indistinct disc margin, no ph ysiologic cup, may elevate disc) • DDx from optic neuritis by > 4 D , no enlarged blind spot, no passive congestion of vein • Treatment : convex lenses, keratorefractive surgery, refreactive lensectomy with IOL, phakic IOL
  • 34. PATHOLOGICAL CAUSES OF HYPEROPIA RETINAL DETACHMENT CHOROIDAL TUMOR 1 mm = 3D RETINAL FLUID
  • 35. Astigmatism • Parallel rays come to focus in 2 focal lines rather than a single focal point • Etiology : heredity • Cause : refractive media is not spherical-->refract differently along one meridian than along meridian perpendicular to it-->2 focal points ( punctiform ob ject is represent as 2 sharply defined lines)
  • 36.
  • 37. Astigmatism • Classification • Regular astigmatism : power and orientation of principle meridians are constant • With the rule astigmatism , Against the rule astigmatism , Oblique astigmatism • Simple or Compound myopic astigmatism , Simple or Compound hyperopic astigmatism , Mixed astigmatism • Irregular astigmatism : power and orientation of principle meridians change across the pupil
  • 38.
  • 39. Astigmatism • Symptoms • asthenopic symptoms ( headache , eyepain) • blurred vision • distortion of vision • head tilting and turning • Amblyopia – uncorrected astigmatism > 1.5 D • Treatment • Regular astigmatism :cylinder lenses with or without spherical lenses(convex or concave), Sx • Irregular astigmatism : rigid CL , surgery
  • 40. Pathologic Causes of Astigmatism • Corneal: post surgical, traumatic, infectious • External pressure on cornea: lid masses • Lens: pressure on lens from tumors
  • 41. Presbyopia • Physiologic loss of accommodation in advancing age • deposit of insoluble proteins in lens in advancing age-->elasticity of lens progressivel y decrease-->decrease accommodation • around 45 years of age , accommodation become less than 3 D-->reading is possible at 40-50 cm-->difficultly reading fine print , heada che , visual fatigue
  • 42. Presbyopia • Treatment • convex lenses in near vision • Reading glasses • Bifocal glasses • Trifocal glasses • Progressive power glasses
  • 43. Anisometropia • Difference in refractive power between 2 eyes • refractive correction often leads to different image sizes on the 2 retinas( aniseikonia) • aniseikonia depend on degree of refractive anomaly and type of correction • closer to the site of refraction deficit the correction is made-->less retinal image changes i n size
  • 44. Anisometropia • Glasses : magnified or minified 2% per 1 D • Contact lens : change less than glasses • Tolerate aniseikonia ~ 5-8% • Symptoms : usually congenital and often asymptomatic • Treatment • anisometropia > 4 D-->contact lens • unilateral aphakia-->contact lens or intraocular lens
  • 45. Correction of refractive errors • Far point • point on the visual axis conjugate to the retina when accommodation is completely relaxed • placing an object or imaging an object at far point will cause a clear image of that object t o be relayed to the retina • use correcting lenses to form an image of infinity at the far point , correcting the eye for distance
  • 46. What is the Far Point • The farthest an eye can see • An emmetrope it is infinity or 20 feet • 4.00D myope without glasses it is 25cm in front of the eye • 1.00D myope without glasses it is 1meter in front of the eye • 3.00D hyperope without glasses 33.3 cm behind the eye
  • 47. What is the Near Point • The closest the eye can see • The near point is the sum of the power of the eye and accommodation • An emmetrope with 10.00D of accommodation and a -4.00D error without glasses has a near point of 14.00D or 7.15cm in front of the eye
  • 48. What is the Near Point • A 50 year old with 2.00D of accommodation and a -1.00D error without glasses has a far point of 1 meter and a near point of 33.3 cm • With glasses on the far point is infinity or 20 feet and the near point is 50cm in front of the eye
  • 49. What is the Near Point • A +3.00D without glasses hyperope with 6.00D of accommodation has a far point of 33.3 cm behind the eye and a far point of 33.3 cm in front of the eye. • With glasses on the far point is infinity and the near point 16.6 cm.
  • 50. Remember!! • A myope has too much plus in their eyes • Whereas a hyperope has too much minus
  • 51. Diagnosis: •Diagnosis of refractive errors is made by an optician or ophthalmologist. •Instruments used to diagnose refractive errors include: - pinhole glasses - Autorefractor (measures how light changes as it enters the eye). -Retinoscope (measures the refractive condition of the eye). - Phoropter.
  • 52. Pinhole glasses Autorefractor Phoropter View through an autorefractor
  • 53. Types of optical correction • Spectacle lenses • Monofocal lenses : spherical lenses , cylindrical lenses • Multifocal lenses • Contact lenses: • higher quality of optical image and less influence on the size of retinal image than spe ctacle lenses • indication : cosmetic , athletic activities , occupational , irregular corneal astigmatism , h igh anisometropia , corneal disease. • Can be: soft, hard, gas-permeable
  • 54. • Contact lenses • disadvantages : careful daily cleaning and disinfection , expense • complication : infectious keratitis , giant papillary conjunctivitis , corneal vascularization , severe chronic conjunctivitis • Intraocular lenses • replacement of cataract crystalline lens • give best optical correction for aphakia , avoid significant magnification and distortion caused by spectacle lenses
  • 55. Hard lenses: • Plastic polymer. • Most durable. • Rigid, therefore may scratch the cornea. • Not gas permeable  corneal hypoxia  corneal ulcers. • Cannot be worn continuously. • Difficult to get used to (because they are very rigid). • Less susceptible to infection + allergy. • Best for treating astigmatism (smoothes out the uneven curvature).
  • 56. Soft lenses: * High water content. * Less durable. * Permeable for both gases + liquids. * Could be worn for long periods. * Tolerated much better. * They do not correct astigmatism. * Are the most comfortable lenses. * Are the least durable lenses (must be replaced more often). •Susceptible to accumulation of deposits (because they absorb more water, which binds proteins). This accumulation of protein deposits leads to allergic conjunctivitis and other allergies.
  • 57. Gas permeable lenses (Semi- rigid): •They are permeable only to gases. •They are more comfortable than hard lenses, but less than soft ones. •They are more durable than soft lenses, but less than hard lenses. •Allow oxygen to pass, but also allow proteins to deposit. •More durable than soft lenses, but less durable than hard ones.
  • 58. Toric lenses: Are similar to soft contact lenses, but have a couple of extra characteristics: •They have 2 powers in them: 1 for spherical correction + 1 for astigmatism. •They are designed to keep the lens in a stable position even on movement. They offer the comfort of soft lenses ,and at the same time they correct astigmatism, but their disadvantage is that the lens will sometimes rotate, and this creates a very irritating change in vision as the lens rotates.
  • 59. Refractive Surgery Techniques • Radial Keratotomy (RK) • Freeze keratomileusis • Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) • Laser Epithelial Keratomileusis (LASEK) • Laser-assisted in-situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) • Others: • Astigmatic Keratotomy (AK) • Intracorneal ring segments (Intacs) • Phakic Intraocular Lens Implants • Refractive lensectomy
  • 60. Radial Keratotomy • First used in U.S in 1978. • Treats low to mod myopia in outpt setting using topical anesthetics. • RK reduces myopia by steepening the cornea peripherally, which secondarily flattens the cornea centrally. • The surgeon makes deep radial incisions with a diamond blade in a spoke-like pattern, leaving a clear optical zone in the center. • Refractive effect determined by the number, length, and depth of the incisions, as well as the size of the spared central optical zone. • The smaller the optical zone, the greater the central corneal flattening (reduction in myopia), but greater risk of side-effects.
  • 61. Laser technology • Excimer laser: EXCited dIMER • AKA “cool laser beam” because little thermal damage to adjacent tissues. • 193nm wavelength ultraviolet laser with sufficient energy to disrupt intermolecular bonds within the corneal stromal tissue (photoablative decomposition). • First excimer lasers FDA approved in 1995, with beam width 4-5mm, now available less than 100 microns. • Each laser pulse removes a given volume of stroma • Three types of laser application: wide-area ablation, scanning slit, and flying spot lasers.
  • 62. Laser technology • In myopia, laser flattens central cornea to decrease its focusing power to bring secondary focal point back to retina. • In hyperopia, the laser removes peripheral corneal tissue thereby secondarily steepening the central cornea, increasing the focusing power of the cornea. • Astigmatism treated with elliptical or cylindrical beams that flatten the steepest corneal meridian. • To minimize glare and halos, optical zone should be larger than the dilated pupil.
  • 63. Myopic photorefractive kertectomy • PRK can effectively treat low to mod myopia or hyperopia +/- astigmatism. • Performed as outpt with topical anesthesia. • First, the corneal epithelium in the area to be ablated is removed to expose Bowman’s layer and the underlying corneal stroma (spatula, laser). • Excimer laser then applied as directed by the corneal topography-driven computer program. • Topical antibiotics, steroids, and NSAIDs applied, along with a bandage contact lens (BCTL)
  • 64. PRK • In the post-op period, pt may experience tearing, photophobia, blurred vision, and discomfort due to abrasion of central epithelium. • This can be controlled with topical steroids and NSAIDs. • Pts occ. require systemic analgesia for severe pain • BCTL removed once epithelial defect healed (avg 3- 4 days). • Abx continued several more days, and steroids for up to 3 months post-op. • Visual acuity improves once the epithelial defect heals, but fluctuates for a few months and finally stabilizes at ~3 months. • Glare, halos, and dry eye symptoms common the first month post-op, usually diminishing/disappearing by 3-6 months.
  • 65. Laser Sub-Epithelial Keratomileusis • LASEK can treat mild to moderate myopia and hyperopia +/- astigmatism. • Can be performed as an outpt with topical anesthesia • The corneal epithelium is incompletely incised using a microkeratome with a 70 micron deep blade. • A hinge is left at the 12 o’clock position. • Dilute alcohol (20%) drops are applied to the exposed tissue and left for ~30 seconds. The area is then washed with water and allowed to dry. The excimer laser is applied as in PRK to the sub-epithelial stroma. • The epithelial flap is repositioned afterward.
  • 66. LASIK • LASIK can treat mild, moderate, and high myopia and hyperopia +/- astigmatism. • Can also be performed as an outpt with topical anesthesia • LASIK is now the most commonly performed refractive surgery in the world. • A suction ring is applied to the anesthetized cornea and a microkeratome is used to raise a corneal flap of ~160microns thickness (25-30% of the corneal thickness), hinged at the 12 o’clock position. • The suction is turned off and the flap is lifted aside, exposing stromal tissue • The excimer laser is applied as with PRK and LASEK, controlled by the topography-driven computer software, to reshape the cornea. • The flap is replaced on the stromal bed without sutures or a BCTL, as the endothelial pumps create a driving force to keep the flap in position.
  • 67. LASIK • The use of the suction ring helps hold the cornea steady and provides for a uniform cut by the microkeratome. • Flaps can be formed by an automated process involving a blade guide on the suction ring to guide a turbine-driven microkeratome, producing a very smooth, regular cut • Patients usually sent home on topical antibiotics, steroids, and NSAID drops. Pt is usually seen ~POD 1, and 7, then at 1, 3 and 6 months. • Benefits include little pain, quick recovery of vision, and potential to treat higher levels of myopia. LASIK enhancements are also easily performed.
  • 68. LASIK
  • 69. LASIK Complications • Potential complications: • Intra-operative flap complications: microkeratome complication with a higher rate with surgeon inexperience • Post-operative flap complications • Flap-bed interface epithelialization: that epithelial growth at the interface could significantly be reduced by irrigating the stromal surfaces and using a BCTL for one day. • Irregular astigmatism • Infection: • Diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK): (AKA Sands of Sahara syndrome) Wavy inflammatory reaction at LASIK flap interface 1-3 days post-op of unknown cause. Treatment involved high-dose topical steroids or lifting the flap to irrigating the interface. • Progressive corneal ectasia: progressive corneal thinning and steepening with worsening irreg. astigmatism thought to result from too thin a stromal bed after LASIK. Most believe stromal bed thickness should be at least 250 microns.