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safety aspects of nuclear reactor

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safety aspects of nuclear reactor

  1. 1. Safety Aspects of Nuclear Reactor Submitted by Rajan.D.Lanjekar Roll no : 07310R09 Under Guidance of Prof J.B.Doshi
  2. 2. Outline : <ul><li>Objectives of Nuclear Reactor Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of Nuclear Reactor Safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Inherently Safe Nuclear Reactors </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of Radiation dose limits. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of Nuclear Reactor Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives of Nuclear Reactor Safety: <ul><li>The basic objective of Nuclear Reactor Safety is the safety of operating personnel and general public and minimum impact on the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection against consequences of nuclear excursion. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The SAHARA Principle : <ul><li>S afety </li></ul><ul><li>A s </li></ul><ul><li>H igh </li></ul><ul><li>A s </li></ul><ul><li>R easonable </li></ul><ul><li>A chievable </li></ul>
  5. 5. Three levels of Nuclear Reactor Safety: <ul><li>First level : It addresses the prevention of accidents by virtue of design, construction and surveillance of the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Second level : It provides safety systems to protect operators and the public and to prevent or minimize damage, if accident occurs despite of prevention in first level. </li></ul><ul><li>Third level : It supplements the first two by adding margin of safety in the event of extremely unlikely or unforeseen events. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Multiple barrier concept : <ul><li>Fuel pellet . </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel cladding . </li></ul><ul><li>Closed loop heat transfer system. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactor vessel. </li></ul><ul><li>Containment. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Inherent safety features : <ul><li>Negative temperature coefficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative void coefficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent or full passive safety design depends only on physical phenomena such as convection, gravity or resistance to high temperatures, not on functioning of engineered components. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Principles for radiation dose limit : <ul><li>Justification </li></ul><ul><li>Optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Dose limit </li></ul>
  9. 10. The ALARA Principle : <ul><li>A s </li></ul><ul><li>L ow </li></ul><ul><li>A s </li></ul><ul><li>R easonably </li></ul><ul><li>A chievable </li></ul>
  10. 11. Principles of radiation exposure : <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Shielding </li></ul>
  11. 12. Distance: <ul><li>Double distance = 1/4 dose. </li></ul><ul><li>Triple distance = 1/9th dose. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>0.25 mm lead rubber apron  8.5% </li></ul><ul><li>0.35 mm lead rubber apron  5% </li></ul><ul><li>2 x 0.25 mm apron  2.5% </li></ul><ul><li>2 x 0.35 mm apron  1.0% </li></ul><ul><li>Double brick wall  0.003% </li></ul>Typical Transmission through Shielding:
  13. 14. Radiation hazards: <ul><li>Ionising Radiations: </li></ul><ul><li>X-rays </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma rays (  -rays) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta particles (  ) </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beams </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Do no harm </li></ul><ul><li>Kill the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Cause the cell to multiply out of control (cancer) </li></ul><ul><li>Cause the cell to malfunction in some other way . </li></ul>Ionising radiation can cause chemical reactions in the body’s cells which may :
  15. 19. Where very large doses kill many cells leads to : <ul><li>Radiation “burns” </li></ul><ul><li>Cateract </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation sickness </li></ul>
  16. 20. Threshold risks very large doses only. The bigger the dose, the more severe the effect :
  17. 21. Cancer risks: <ul><li>It is assumed that any dose of radiation could potentially cause cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>The bigger the dose, the more likely the effect will occur, (but it will probably never occur). </li></ul>
  18. 22. Risk of Fatal Cancer in one year for adult workers : A bit like crossing the road - the more times you cross the more likely you are to be run over, but probably never will.
  19. 23. Classification of accidents on the basis of INES scale:
  20. 24. Major Nuclear Reactor Accidents :
  21. 25. Conclusion: <ul><li>The benefits resulting from the operation of the reactor facilities is one of the factors in judging safety of Nuclear reactor. </li></ul><ul><li>Inherently safe reactors eliminates the inherent hazards of the reactor by eliminating the operator intervention in the safety aspects of the reactor. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear wastes can be safely isolated from the environment so that they do not pose a danger to today's or future generations. </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>This level of performance establishes the nuclear reactor as one of the best industry in the world in terms of personnel safety. </li></ul>

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