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Corrosion session 11 july 14


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Corrosion session 11 july 14

  2. 2. Corrosion Process According to Newman, ―Corrosion of reinforcement embedded in concrete is an electrochemical reaction, involving both chemical processes and the flow of electricity between various areas of steel and concrete To complete a corrosion cell, an anode, a cathode, a metallic connection between the anode and cathode, an ionic path, moisture, and oxygen are required.
  3. 3. • At the anode, corrosion occurs through the process of oxidation, a chemical reaction where an electron is lost. The metallic connection is provided by the reinforcing steel and the ionic path is provided by the concrete matrix (electrolyte) Corrosion Process
  4. 4. • The driving force of corrosion is the difference in potential between the anode and the cathode. This potential may be created by • 1. Differences in the surface of the steel bars. Since steel is an alloy created • from various elements (most notably iron and carbon), its surface area has sites of differing electrochemical potentials. • 2. Differences in electrolytes. These include differences in the concentration of chlorides, oxygen, moisture, hydroxides, etc. • 3. Presence of cracks. Cracks allow the more rapid ingress of deteriorating • chemicals and moisture. Corrosion Process
  5. 5. • As corrosion occurs, the cross section of the steel is reduced and the bond between the steel and concrete is damaged. This loss of section and bond loss could reduces the strength of the R/C member. • As the cross section of the steel bar is reduced, the corrosion by-products occupy a greater volume than the original steel. • This increase can be up to 7 times the original volume of the steel. • The expansion causes tensile stresses to be exerted on the surrounding of the concrete. As concrete is weak in tension, the tensile forces cause local delamination ( See figures) Corrosion Process
  6. 6. Corrosion Process
  7. 7. 1. At the anode, iron is oxidized to a ferrous state and electrons are released. 2Fe → 2Fe+2 + 4e- 2. At the cathode, the lost electrons travel through the steel and combine with oxygen and moisture to form hydroxyl ions O2 + 2H2O + 4e- → 4OH- 3. The ferrous ions from the anode then combine with the hydroxyl ions from the cathode to produce ferrous hydroxide 2Fe+ + 4OH- → Fe(OH)2 4. Further oxidation, with the presence of oxygen and moisture, produces ferric oxide 4Fe(OH)2 + 2H2O + O2 → 4Fe(OH)3 2Fe(OH)3 → Fe2O3 + 3H2O Corrosion Process
  8. 8. Chloride Ingress and Carbonation 1. Chloride Ingress : The presence of chlorides not only destroys the protective oxide layer, but also fuels the corrosion process.) Chlorides can be introduced to concrete during mixing or service. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) has been used as an accelerant at the time of mixing. This facilitates the casting of concrete in cold conditions and provides higher early strength concrete. Chlorides may also be found in the aggregates and mixing water. Service chloride contamination occurs because of deicing salts, proximity to sea water, and ground water salts.
  9. 9. 2. Carbonation The other process that causes the corrosion of reinforcing steel is carbonation. While carbonation initially increases concrete‘s compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, surface hardness, and resistance to frost and sulphate attack, it has the detrimental effect of reducing the alkalinity of the concrete. Carbonation occurs when carbon dioxide and other gases from the atmosphere penetrate through the surface pores and capillaries of concrete. When these gases react with water, carbonic acid is formed ,the carbonic acid then reacts with the calcium hydroxide of the hydrated cement paste to produce calcium carbonate Corrosion Process
  10. 10. • CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 • H2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → CaCO3 + 2H2O • A reduction in pH occurs as the calcium carbonate does not have a high alkalinity. • Over time, carbonation will drop the pH levels to 8 – 9, and the passive film will start to break down as the lower alkaline concrete is not able to support the protective oxide layer • Carbonation progresses inwards from the outer surface of the concrete. Initially, the outer zone of concrete is affected and over time, the depth of carbonation increases. • While the rate of carbonation depends on the permeability of the concrete, it also depends on the relative humidity (RH) Corrosion Process
  11. 11.  A protective Cr2O3 layer forms on the surface of Fe σ(Cr2O3) = 0.001 σ(Fe2O3)  Upto 10 % Cr alloyed steel is used in oil refinery components  Cr > 12% → stainless steels → oxidation resistance upto 1000o C → turbine blades, furnace parts, valves for IC engines  Cr > 17% → oxidation resistance above 1000o C  18-8 stainless steel (18%Cr, 8%Ni) → excellent corrosion resistance  Kanthal (24% Cr, 5.5%Al, 2%Co) → furnace windings (1300o C) Alloying of Fe with Cr Other oxidation resistant alloys  Nichrome (80%Ni, 20%Cr) → excellent oxidation resistance  Inconel (76%Ni, 16%Cr, 7%Fe)
  12. 12. Corrosion THE ELECTRODE POTENTIAL  When an electrode (e.g. Fe) is immersed in a solvent (e.g. H2O) some metal ions leave the electrode and –ve charge builds up in the electrode  The solvent becomes +ve and the opposing electrical layers lead to a dynamic equilibrium wherein there is no further (net) dissolution of the electrode  The potential developed by the electrode in equilibrium is a property of the metal of electrode → the electrode potential  The electrode potential is measured with the electrode in contact with a solution containing an unit concentration of the ions of the same metal with the standard hydrogen electrode as the counter electrode (whose potential is taken to be zero) Metal ions-ve +ve
  13. 13. System Potential in V Noble end Au / Au3+ +1.5 Ag / Ag+ +0.80 Cu / Cu2+ +0.34 H2 / H+ 0.0 Pb / Pb2+ −0.13 Ni / Ni2+ −0.25 Fe / Fe2+ −0.44 Cr / Cr3+ −0.74 Zn / Zn2+ −0.76 Al / Al3+ − 1.66 Active end Li / Li+ −3.05 Standard electrode potential of metals Standard potential at 25o C Increasingprope
  14. 14. Galvanic series  Alloys used in service are complex and so are the electrolytes (difficult to define in terms of M+ ) (the environment provides the electrolyte  Metals and alloys are arranged in a qualitative scale which gives a measure of the tendency to corrode → The Galvanic Series Environment Corrosion rate of mild steel (mm / year) Dry 0.001 Marine 0.02 Humid with other agents 0.2 Galvanic series in marine water Noble end Active end 18-8 SS Passive Ni Cu Sn Brass 18-8 SS Active MS Al Zn Mg More reactive
  15. 15. Galvanic Cell Anode Zn (−0.76) Cathode Cu (+0.34) e− flow Zn → Zn2+ + 2e− oxidation Cu2+ + 2e− → Cu Reduction or 2H+ + 2e− → H2 or O2 + 2H2O + 4e− → 4OH− Zn will corrode at the expense of Cu
  16. 16. How can galvanic cells form? Anodic/cathodic phases at the microstructural level Differences in the concentration of the Metal ion Anodic/cathodic electrodes Differences in the concentration of oxygen Difference in the residual stress levels
  17. 17.  Different phases (even of the same metal) can form a galvanic couple at the microstructural level (In steel Cementite is noble as compared to Ferrite)  Galvanic cell may be set up due to concentration differences of the metal ion in the electrolyte → A concentration cell Metal ion deficient → anodic Metal ion excess → cathodic  A concentration cell can form due to differences in oxygen concentration Oxygen deficient region → anodic Oxygen rich region → cathodic  A galvanic cell can form due to different residual stresses in the same metal Stressed region more active → anodic Stress free region → cathodic O2 + 2H2O + 4e− → 4OH−
  18. 18. Polarization  Anodic and Cathodic reactions lead to concentration differences near the electrodes  This leads to variation in cathode and anode potentials (towards each other) → Polarization Current (I) → Potential(V)→ Vcathode Vcathode Steady state current IR drop through the electrolyte
  19. 19. Passivation  Iron dissolves in dilute nitric acid, but not in concentrated nitric acid  The concentrated acid oxidizes the surface of iron and produces a thin protective oxide layer (dilute acid is not able to do so)  ↑ potential of a metal electrode → ↑ in current density (I/A)  On current density reaching a critical value → fall in current density (then remains constant) → Passivation
  20. 20. Prevention of Corrosion Basic goal → • protect the metal • avoid localized corrosion  When possible chose a nobler metal  Avoid electrical / physical contact between metals with very different electrode potentials (avoid formation of a galvanic couple)  If dissimilar metals are in contact make sure that the anodic metal has a larger surface area / volume  In case of microstructural level galvanic couple, try to use a course microstructure (where possible) to reduce number of galvanic cells formed  Modify the base metal by alloying  Protect the surface by various means  Modify the fluid in contact with the metal • Remove a cathodic reactant (e.g. water) • Add inhibitors which from a protective layer  Cathodic protection • Use a sacrificial anode (as a coating or in electrical contact) • Use an external DC source in connection with a inert/expendable electrode
  21. 21. UNIVERSALITY OF CORROSION • Not only metals, but non-metals like plastics, rubber, ceramics are also subject to environmental degradation • Even living tissues in the human body are prone to environmental damage by free radicals-Oxidative stress- leading to degenerative diseases like cancer, cardio- vascular disease and diabetes.
  22. 22. CORROSION DAMAGE • Disfiguration or loss of appearance • Loss of material • Maintenance cost • Extractive metallurgy in reverse- Loss of precious minerals, power, water and man- power • Loss in reliability & safety • Plant shutdown, contamination of product etc
  23. 23. COST OF CORROSION • Annual loss due to corrosion is estimated to be 3 to 5 % of GNP, about Rs.700000 crores • Direct & Indirect losses • Direct loss: Material cost, maintenance cost, over- design, use of costly material • Indirect losses: Plant shutdown & loss of production, contamination of products, loss of valuable products due to leakage etc, liability in accidents
  24. 24. WHY DO METALS CORRODE? • Any spontaneous reaction in the universe is associated with a lowering in the free energy of the system. i.e. a negative free energy change • All metals except the noble metals have free energies greater than their compounds. So they tend to become their compounds through the process of corrosion
  25. 25. ELECTROCHEMICAL NATURE • All metallic corrosion are electrochemical reactions i.e. metal is converted to its compound with a transfer of electrons • The overall reaction may be split into oxidation (anodic) and reduction (cathodic) partial reactions • Next slide shows the electrochemical reactions in the corrosion of Zn in hydrochloric acid
  26. 26. ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS IN CORROSION DISSOLUTION OF ZN METAL IN HYDROCHLORIC ACID, 222 HZnClHClZn +=+ -------------------- -(1) Written in ionic form as, 2 2 222 HClZnClHZn ++=++ −+−+ ----------------------(2) The net reaction being, 2 2 2 HZnHZn +=+ ++ ------------------------- (3) Equation (3) is the summation of two partial reactions, eZnZn 2*2 +→ -----------------------------------------(4) and 222 HeH →++ ------------------------------------------(5) Equation (4) is the oxidation / anodic reaction and Equation (5) is the reduction / cathodic reaction
  27. 27. ELECTROCHEMICAL THEORY • The anodic & cathodic reactions occur simultaneously at different parts of the metal. • The electrode potentials of the two reactions converge to the corrosion potential by polarization
  28. 28. PASSIVATION • Many metals like Cr, Ti, Al, Ni and Fe exhibit a reduction in their corrosion rate above certain critical potential. Formation of a protective, thin oxide film. • Passivation is the reason for the excellent corrosion resistance of Al and S.S.
  29. 29. FORMS OF CORROSION • Corrosion may be classified in different ways • Wet / Aqueous corrosion & Dry Corrosion • Room Temperature/ High Temperature Corrosion CORROSION WET CORROSION DRY CORROSION CORROSION ROOM TEMPERATURE CORROSION HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION
  30. 30. WET & DRY CORROSION • Wet / aqueous corrosion is the major form of corrosion which occurs at or near room temperature and in the presence of water • Dry / gaseous corrosion is significant mainly at high temperatures
  31. 31. WET / AQUEOUS CORROSION Based on the appearance of the corroded metal, wet corrosion may be classified as • Uniform or General • Galvanic or Two-metal • Crevice • Pitting • Dealloying • Intergranular • Velocity-assisted • Environment-assisted cracking
  32. 32. UNIFORM CORROSION • Corrosion over the entire exposed surface at a uniform rate. e.g.. Atmospheric corrosion. • Maximum metal loss by this form. • Not dangerous, rate can be measured in the laboratory.
  33. 33. GALVANIC CORROSION • When two dissimilar metals are joined together and exposed, the more active of the two metals corrode faster and the nobler metal is protected. This excess corrosion is due to the galvanic current generated at the junction • Fig. Al sheets covering underground Cu cables
  34. 34. CREVICE CORROSION • Intensive localized corrosion within crevices & shielded areas on metal surfaces • Small volumes of stagnant corrosive caused by holes, gaskets, surface deposits, lap joints
  35. 35. PITTING • A form of extremely localized attack causing holes in the metal • Most destructive form • Autocatalytic nature • Difficult to detect and measure • Mechanism
  36. 36. DEALLOYING • Alloys exposed to corrosives experience selective leaching out of the more active constituent. e.g. Dezincification of brass. • Loss of structural stability and mechanical strength
  37. 37. INTERGRANULAR CORROSION • The grain boundaries in metals are more active than the grains because of segregation of impurities and depletion of protective elements. So preferential attack along grain boundaries occurs. e.g. weld decay in stainless steels
  38. 38. VELOCITY ASSISTED CORROSION • Fast moving corrosives cause • a) Erosion-Corrosion, • b) Impingement attack , and • c) Cavitation damage in metals
  39. 39. CAVITATION DAMAGE • Cavitation is a special case of Erosion-corrosion. • In high velocity systems, local pressure reductions create water vapour bubbles which get attached to the metal surface and burst at increased pressure, causing metal damage
  40. 40. ENVIRONMENT ASSISTED CRACKING • When a metal is subjected to a tensile stress and a corrosive medium, it may experience Environment Assisted Cracking. Four types: • Stress Corrosion Cracking • Hydrogen Embrittlement • Liquid Metal Embrittlement • Corrosion Fatigue
  41. 41. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING • Static tensile stress and specific environments produce cracking • Examples: • 1) Stainless steels in hot chloride • 2) Ti alloys in nitrogen tetroxide • 3) Brass in ammonia
  42. 42. HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT • High strength materials stressed in presence of hydrogen crack at reduced stress levels. • Hydrogen may be dissolved in the metal or present as a gas outside. • Only ppm levels of H needed
  43. 43. LIQUID METAL EMBRITTLEMENT • Certain metals like Al and stainless steels undergo brittle failure when stressed in contact with liquid metals like Hg, Zn, Sn, Pb Cd etc. • Molten metal atoms penetrate the grain boundaries and fracture the metal • Fig. Shows brittle IG fracture in Al alloy by Pb
  44. 44. CORROSION FATIGUE • Synergistic action of corrosion & cyclic stress. Both crack nucleation and propagation are accelerated by corrodent • Effect on S-N diagram • Increased crack propagation AirAir CorrosionCorrosion log (cycles to failure, Nf) StressAmplitude Log (Stress Intensity Factor Range,  K log(CrackGrowthRate,da/dN)
  45. 45. PREVENTION OF CORROSION • The huge annual loss due to corrosion is a national waste and should be minimized • Materials already exist which, if properly used, can eliminate 80 % of corrosion loss • Proper understanding of the basics of corrosion and incorporation in the initial design of metallic structures is essential
  46. 46. METHODS • Material selection • Improvements in material • Design of structures • Alteration of environment • Cathodic & Anodic protection • Coatings
  47. 47. MATERIAL SELECTION • Most important method – select the appropriate metal or alloy . • “Natural” metal-corrosive combinations like • S. S.- Nitric acid, Ni & Ni alloys- Caustic • Monel- HF, Hastelloys- Hot HCl • Pb- Dil. Sulphuric acid, Sn- Distilled water • Al- Atmosphere, Ti- hot oxidizers • Ta- Ultimate resistance
  48. 48. IMPROVEMENTS OF MATERIALS • Purification of metals- Al , Zr • Alloying with metals for: • Making more noble, e.g. Pt in Ti • Passivating, e.g. Cr in steel • Inhibiting, e.g. As & Sb in brass • Scavenging, e.g. Ti & Nb in S.S • Improving other properties
  49. 49. DESIGN OF STRUCTURES • Avoid sharp corners • Complete draining of vessels • No water retention • Avoid sudden changes in section • Avoid contact between dissimilar metals • Weld rather than rivet • Easy replacement of vulnerable parts • Avoid excessive mechanical stress
  50. 50. ALTERATION OF ENVIRONMENT • Lower temperature and velocity • Remove oxygen/oxidizers • Change concentration • Add Inhibitors – Adsorption type, e.g. Organic amines, azoles – H evolution poisons, e.g. As & Sb – Scavengers, e.g. Sodium sulfite & hydrazine – Oxidizers, e.g. Chromates, nitrates, ferric salts
  51. 51. CATHODIC & ANODIC PROTECTION • Cathodic protection: Make the structure more cathodic by – Use of sacrificial anodes – Impressed currents Used extensively to protect marine structures, underground pipelines, water heaters and reinforcement bars in concrete • Anodic protection: Make passivating metal structures more anodic by impressed potential. e.g. 316 s.s. pipe in sulfuric acid plants
  52. 52. COATINGS • Most popular method of corrosion protection • Coatings are of various types: – Metallic – Inorganic like glass, porcelain and concrete – Organic, paints, varnishes and lacquers • Many methods of coating: – Electrodeposition – Flame spraying – Cladding – Hot dipping – Diffusion – Vapour deposition – Ion implantation – Laser glazing
  53. 53. Corrosion Management Strategies • Factors governing Corrosion prevention methods 1. the level of chloride contamination 2. carbonation, 3. amount of concrete damage, 4. location of corrosion activity (localized or widespread), 5. the cost and design life of the corrosion protection system, 6. the expected service life of the structure
  54. 54. Corrosion Management Strategies
  55. 55. 1. Sealers and Coatings • The application of protective sealers and coatings helps to prevent the initiation of corrosion. Properly applied sealers and coatings do offer a significant increase in life expectancy when installed before contamination of the concrete. • Sealers work by chemically reacting with the components of concrete to fill the pores; thus, making it difficult for water to penetrate the concrete surface. However, this also inhibits water vapor from exiting the concrete • Barrier protection by creating a physical barrier between the concrete and the environment. Corrosion Management Strategies
  56. 56. 2. Admixed Corrosion Inhibitors • Admixed corrosion inhibitors, which are added to the concrete at the time of mixing, are used to prevent the onset of corrosion in R/C. Corrosion Management Strategies Corrosion Inhibitors Cathodic Inhibitors, Mixed inhibitorsAnodic Inhibitors
  57. 57. • Anodic inhibitors work by stabilizing the protective film of the concrete. • It does so by interfering with the conversion of the ferrous oxide to ferric oxide. • The most commonly used anodic inhibitor is calcium nitrate. By reacting with chlorides, higher concentrations of chlorides are necessary for the initiation of corrosion. • When using anodic inhibitors, using too low of a concentration in aqueous environments has a possibility of producing pitting corrosion Corrosion Management Strategies
  58. 58. • Cathodic inhibitors work by reducing the amount of oxygen in the concrete. However, cathodic inhibitors require a large amount of material and are therefore impractical for use in concrete. Furthermore, some cathodic inhibitors slow the setting time of concrete Corrosion Management Strategies
  59. 59. Surface Treatment (Coatings) • Organic paints • Chromating and phosphating: – The Process - chromating and phosphating are surface-coating processes that enhance the corrosion resistance of metals. Both involve soaking the component in a heated bath based on chromic or phosphoric acids. The acid reacts with the surface, dissolving some of the surface metal and depositing a thin protective layer of complex chromium or phosphorous compounds • Anodizing (aluminum, titanium) – The Process - Aluminum is a reactive metal, yet in everyday objects it does not corrode or discolor. That is because of a thin oxide film - Al2O3 - that forms spontaneously on its surface, and this film, though invisible, is highly protective. The film can be thickened and its structure controlled by the process of anodizing. The process is electrolytic; the electrolyte, typically, is dilute (15%) sulfuric acid. Anodizing is most generally applied to aluminum, but magnesium, titanium, zirconium and zinc can all be treated in this way. The oxide formed by anodizing is hard, abrasion resistant and resists corrosion well. The film-surface is micro-porous, allowing it to absorb dyes, giving metallic reflectivity with an attractive gold, viridian, azure or rose-colored sheen; and it can be patterned. The process is cheap, an imparts both corrosion and wear resistance to the surface.
  60. 60. • Electro-plating – The Process -Metal coating process wherein a thin metallic coat is deposited on the workpiece by means of an ionized electrolytic solution. The workpiece (cathode) and the metalizing source material (anode) are submerged in the solution where a direct electrical current causes the metallic ions to migrate from the source material to the workpiece. The workpiece and source metal are suspended in the ionized electrolytic solution by insulated rods. Thorough surface cleaning precedes the plating operation. Plating is carried out for many reasons: corrosion resistance, improved appearance, wear resistance, higher electrical conductivity, better electrical contact, greater surface smoothness and better light reflectance. Surface Treatment (Coatings)
  61. 61. Bluing: Bluing is a passivation process in which steel is partially protected against rust, and is named after the blue-black appearance of the resulting protective finish. True gun bluing is an electrochemical conversion coating resulting from an oxidizing chemical reaction with iron on the surface selectively forming magnetite (Fe3O4), the black oxide of iron, which occupies the same volume as normal iron. Done for bolts called “blackening” Surface Treatment (Coatings)
  62. 62. Hot-dip Coating (i.e. galvanizing) – Hot dipping is a process for coating a metal, mainly ferrous metals, with low melting point metals usually zinc and its alloys. The component is first degreased in a caustic bath, then pickled (to remove rust and scale) in a sulfuric acid bath, immersed (dipped) in the liquid metal and, after lifting out, it is cooled in a cold air stream. The molten metal alloys with the surface of the component, forming a continuous thin coating. When the coating is zinc and the component is steel, the process is known as galvanizing. – The process is very versatile and can be applied to components of any shape, and sizes up to 30 m x 2 m x 4 m. The cost is comparable with that of painting, but the protection offered by galvanizing is much greater, because if the coating is scratched it is the zinc not the underlying steel that corrodes ("galvanic protection"). Properly galvanized steel will survive outdoors for 30-40 years without further treatment.
  63. 63. CONCLUSION • Corrosion is a natural degenerative process affecting metals, nonmetals and even biological systems like the human body • Corrosion of engineering materials lead to significant losses • An understanding of the basic principles of corrosion and their application in the design and maintenance of engineering systems result in reducing losses considerably