Chapter Four Enhancing Emotional Well-Being
The Emerging Self <ul><li>How do you develop your values, beliefs, feelings, thoughts, and ideas about yourself? </li></ul...
Theories of Development <ul><li>Until 1979, the psychology profession supported the long-held belief that women were infer...
Theories of Cognitive Development   <ul><li>Piaget (1932) equated normal child development with male development.  </li></...
Theories of Moral Development <ul><li>Kohlberg (1969) developed a scale of moral development theory based on a male subjec...
Women’s Relational Model of Development <ul><li>Traditional male models of development emphasize  separation and individua...
Sociocultural Influences <ul><li>Sociocultural influences may significantly impact your emotional health in many different...
Life Skill Development <ul><li>Life is suppose to be a fun and challenging job </li></ul><ul><li>Having life skills makes ...
Emotional Intelligence <ul><li>This is the ability to recognize your emotions and those of the people around you </li></ul...
Assertiveness <ul><li>Standing up for personal rights and expressing thoughts or feelings that do not violate another pers...
Effective Communication <ul><li>The following are components of effective communication </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body lan...
Effective Problem Solving <ul><li>Effective problem solving is a step-by-step approach of planning and negotiating and inv...
Self-Esteem Enhancement <ul><li>Based on the distance between the  perceived self  and the  ideal self </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Image Building <ul><li>The key element to building and maintaining a positive self image is to focus on being what you wan...
Image and the Media <ul><li>Glamorization of women in the media started in the 1830s </li></ul><ul><li>Glamorous images pr...
Eating Disorders <ul><li>Poor body image is the central factor in the development of eating disorders </li></ul><ul><li>99...
Resolving Grief over Loss <ul><li>During your lifetime, you will lose someone very important to you </li></ul><ul><li>Grie...
Depression <ul><li>A common emotional health concern for women </li></ul><ul><li>Depression  is an emotional state of pers...
Types of Depression <ul><li>Clinical depression requires intervention by a trained mental health professional </li></ul><u...
Psychosocial Stressors and Depression <ul><li>Experts believe that the reason behind the higher incidence of depression co...
Reproductive System and Depression <ul><li>Fluctuations in female hormones and other biochemicals may influence the freque...
Depression and Genetic Liability <ul><li>Research with female twins determined that there is a genetic liability for the o...
Positive Experiences vs. Depression <ul><li>Women who have positive experiences can enhance their self esteem and decrease...
Developmental Issues and Depression <ul><li>There are no consistent gender differences in rates of depression for pre-pube...
Multicultural Issues of Depression and Suicide <ul><li>African American women may experience racism as an additional stres...
The Counseling Option <ul><li>Feminist therapy  (gender equity therapy) specifically assists women by empowering them via ...
Chapter Four Enhancing Emotional Well-Being
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Womens Health 4

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Womens Health 4

  1. 1. Chapter Four Enhancing Emotional Well-Being
  2. 2. The Emerging Self <ul><li>How do you develop your values, beliefs, feelings, thoughts, and ideas about yourself? </li></ul><ul><li>Personal development and emotional health of women have been tied to possible explanations or theories by well-known behaviorists </li></ul><ul><li>These theories will help in differentiating behaviors of women vs. men </li></ul>
  3. 3. Theories of Development <ul><li>Until 1979, the psychology profession supported the long-held belief that women were inferior to men </li></ul><ul><li>As early as 1905, Sigmund Freud developed the theory of psychosexual development around the experiences of the male child </li></ul><ul><li>Freud viewed differences between men vs. women as the result from women’s developmental failure to meet the male standard </li></ul><ul><li>In 1968, Erikson did recognize gender differences with regards to intimacy development, however, depicted the male pattern as the “standard” for healthy psychosocial development </li></ul>
  4. 4. Theories of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Piaget (1932) equated normal child development with male development. </li></ul><ul><li>Considered females to be far less developed in capacities that would allow normal legal sense , essential to moral development </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget failed to recognize the approach girls took to conflict resolution vs. boys, was equal or sometimes favorable to resolving conflict, depending upon the circumstances </li></ul>
  5. 5. Theories of Moral Development <ul><li>Kohlberg (1969) developed a scale of moral development theory based on a male subject group </li></ul><ul><li>It excluded women, since he felt girls played games that are less likely to involve strict rules, based upon his observations </li></ul><ul><li>By using the Kohlberg Scale, women were deficient in this area </li></ul><ul><li>Gilligan proposed to the psychology profession that a new psychology for women be developed, independent of male standards, which allowed changes to eventually occur </li></ul>
  6. 6. Women’s Relational Model of Development <ul><li>Traditional male models of development emphasize separation and individuation process for psychological well-being </li></ul><ul><li>A woman’s self concept (identity, self-esteem) is strongly associated with her relationship to others </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to relate to others is considered a strength </li></ul><ul><li>This relational approach is called “self-in-relation theory” (Stone Center/Wellesley College) </li></ul><ul><li>This has now emerged to be referred to as “gender-relations theory”, emphasizing separation and individuation, but neglects the intricacies of human interconnection </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sociocultural Influences <ul><li>Sociocultural influences may significantly impact your emotional health in many different ways </li></ul><ul><li>They can lead you to either life satisfaction or dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to be in touch with yourself and know when you need to make adjustments, based upon your level of satisfaction by allowing one to perform the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integration and ongoing mindfulness (self-exploration) </li></ul></ul></ul>See Figure 4.1
  8. 8. Life Skill Development <ul><li>Life is suppose to be a fun and challenging job </li></ul><ul><li>Having life skills makes it easier to cope with the demands of life </li></ul><ul><li>These skills can be taught to anyone at any age </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of such skills are as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing emotions (Emotional Intelligence) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assertiveness training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effective communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining a healthy self-image </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Having good self-esteem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resolving grief over loss </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Emotional Intelligence <ul><li>This is the ability to recognize your emotions and those of the people around you </li></ul><ul><li>The classic two step approach involves becoming aware of your own emotions and developing an action plan </li></ul><ul><li>An action plan is used to resolve troubling emotions </li></ul><ul><li>It may require changing the way you speak to someone or developing better listening skills </li></ul>
  10. 10. Assertiveness <ul><li>Standing up for personal rights and expressing thoughts or feelings that do not violate another person’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>Involves respect, not deference </li></ul><ul><li>A need for assertion training is more prevalent for women since the American culture teaches males to be aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Adventure based activities can have a positive influence on assertiveness for women </li></ul>
  11. 11. Effective Communication <ul><li>The following are components of effective communication </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summarization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Effective Problem Solving <ul><li>Effective problem solving is a step-by-step approach of planning and negotiating and involves all parties to be effected </li></ul><ul><li>A common model involves 6 steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defining the problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generating possible solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating the solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making the decision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determining how to implement the decision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing the success of the solution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Self-Esteem Enhancement <ul><li>Based on the distance between the perceived self and the ideal self </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Esteem Enhancement is the process of reducing the distance between the two points </li></ul><ul><li>Once the ideal self is more realistic, you can have a healthier opinion about yourself and greater self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining or enhancing self-esteem in women varies across cultures </li></ul>
  14. 14. Image Building <ul><li>The key element to building and maintaining a positive self image is to focus on being what you want to be </li></ul><ul><li>Build your image from the inside out </li></ul><ul><li>Every woman has something unique to offer on the 6 levels of health dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance self image, start by loving yourself and accepting yourself as you are right now </li></ul><ul><li>Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a body image disturbance which can lead into unhealthy behaviors </li></ul>
  15. 15. Image and the Media <ul><li>Glamorization of women in the media started in the 1830s </li></ul><ul><li>Glamorous images projected by the media have contributed to harsh self-criticism by women </li></ul><ul><li>Technology has advanced how unrealistic women are perceived by the media </li></ul><ul><li>Public efforts have been placed on hiding a woman’s natural body image than in accepting the nature of a woman’s uniqueness </li></ul><ul><li>There have been some instances in the past where the media have benefited women’s issues </li></ul>
  16. 16. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Poor body image is the central factor in the development of eating disorders </li></ul><ul><li>99% of people with eating disorders are women </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorders include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anorexia nervosa (starving oneself) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bulimia nervosa (eating-vomiting) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binge eating disorder (binge eating w/o purging) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>It is difficult for women to lose weight due to the designation of body fat factor </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment requires a combination of mental health counseling and nutritional guidance </li></ul>
  17. 17. Resolving Grief over Loss <ul><li>During your lifetime, you will lose someone very important to you </li></ul><ul><li>Grief is a normal response to a loss </li></ul><ul><li>There is are several ways to grieve </li></ul><ul><li>Sorrow, despair, and depression are natural and healthy ways to express sadness from a loss </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to mourn the loss since un-reconciled or poorly reconciled grief experiences can lead to unhealthy behaviors </li></ul>
  18. 18. Depression <ul><li>A common emotional health concern for women </li></ul><ul><li>Depression is an emotional state of persistent dejection, from mild discouragement to extreme despair </li></ul><ul><li>Women are twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with clinical depression </li></ul><ul><li>A chemical imbalance of the neurotransmitter, serotonin , is thought to be the precursor to depression </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of this imbalance may be the experience of stress or trauma, or a genetic disposition towards depression </li></ul>
  19. 19. Types of Depression <ul><li>Clinical depression requires intervention by a trained mental health professional </li></ul><ul><li>The common types of clinical depression are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major depressive episode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dysthymic disorder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major depressive disorder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bipolar disorder (manic depression) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Psychosocial Stressors and Depression <ul><li>Experts believe that the reason behind the higher incidence of depression compared to men is due differences in women’s responses to depressing events </li></ul><ul><li>Other researchers hypothesize the higher incidences of stress could be based upon having more stress and discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood trauma can also impair interpersonal and psychological functioning in women </li></ul>
  21. 21. Reproductive System and Depression <ul><li>Fluctuations in female hormones and other biochemicals may influence the frequency of depression in women </li></ul><ul><li>Gonadal and adrenal steroids affect neurotransmitters, which play a role in regulating mood and behavior, and neuro-endocrine physiology </li></ul><ul><li>The following are reproductive concepts that can cause depression: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menstruation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy and Childbirth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menopause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infertility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Depression and Genetic Liability <ul><li>Research with female twins determined that there is a genetic liability for the onset of major depression in women who experience stressful events (Kendler et al. 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>The tendency to develop depression may be inherited </li></ul><ul><li>Major depressive disorder is 1.5 to 3 times more common among first degree biological relatives of persons with this disorder than among the general population </li></ul>
  23. 23. Positive Experiences vs. Depression <ul><li>Women who have positive experiences can enhance their self esteem and decrease depression </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show a negative relationship between depression and a sense of humor </li></ul><ul><li>As humor increases, depression decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Increased quality of personal relationships and work status have demonstrated improvements to self esteem and evaluation in women over a 7 year period </li></ul>
  24. 24. Developmental Issues and Depression <ul><li>There are no consistent gender differences in rates of depression for pre-pubescent </li></ul><ul><li>However, by age 13-15, girls show significantly higher rates of depressive disorders and symptoms than boys </li></ul><ul><li>Besides the physical differences, girls respond to distress differently than boys </li></ul><ul><li>Girls exhibit more passive and introspective coping styles </li></ul><ul><li>Girls and women eventually face more negative life events than males </li></ul>
  25. 25. Multicultural Issues of Depression and Suicide <ul><li>African American women may experience racism as an additional stressor that contributes to depression </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic women may experience economic deprivation, migration, and political discrimination, leading to depression </li></ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem are significant problems for many Asian women which contribute to depression </li></ul><ul><li>Native American women have higher mortality rates than other groups, which poverty, lack of education, and their existing environment contribute to suicide and major illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>The strongest risk factors for suicide are depression, alcohol and drug abuse, and separation or divorce </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Counseling Option <ul><li>Feminist therapy (gender equity therapy) specifically assists women by empowering them via a egalitarian relationship (equity-based) with the therapist </li></ul><ul><li>Assists in rebuilding and reinforcing a woman’s inner strength and ability to survive in the face of emotional burdens </li></ul><ul><li>Mental health professionals are required to be licensed or certified by a health board in order to practice in most states </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to explore the background and training of any counselor </li></ul>
  27. 27. Chapter Four Enhancing Emotional Well-Being

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