Womens Health 16


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Womens Health 16

  1. 1. Chapter Sixteen Reducing Your Risk of Cancer
  2. 2. Defining Cancer <ul><li>Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells that often invade surrounding tissue and metastasize to distant body sites </li></ul><ul><li>A woman’s prognosis depends upon a variety of factors e.g. location, nature of the tumor, and its stage </li></ul><ul><li>The key to survival is early detection </li></ul><ul><li>The higher incidence and mortality rates for cancer in women are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rectum </li></ul></ul></ul>Tumors can be malignant or benign
  3. 3. Seven Warning Signs of Cancer C hange in bowel/bladder habits A sore that does not heal U nusual bleeding or discharge T hickening or a lump in the breast or elsewhere I ndigestion or difficulty swallowing O bvious change in a wart/mole N agging cough or hoarseness In 2006 it was estimated that 679,510 women would be diagnosed with cancer and 273,560 would die
  4. 4. Leading Sites of New Cancer Cases and Death in Women, 2006 Estimates Estimated New Cases Estimated Deaths All sites 273,560 (100%) All sites 679,510 (100%) Brain & other nervous system 5,560 (2%) Pancreas 6,580 (2%) Multiple myeloma 5,630 (2%) Urinary bladder 16,730 (2%) Uterine corpus 7,340 (3%) Ovary 20,180 (3%) Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 8,840 (3%) Thyroid 22,590 (3%) Leukemia 9,810 (4%) Melanoma of skin 27,930 (4%) Ovary 15,310 (6%) Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 28,190 (4%) Pancreas 16,210 (6%) Uterine corpus 41,200 (6%) Colon & Rectum 27,300 (10%) Colon & Rectum 75,810 (11%) Breast 40,970 (15%) Lung & Bronchus (81,770 (12%) Lung & Bronchus 72,130 (26%) Breast – 212,920 (31%)
  5. 5. Four Most Common Categories of Cancer <ul><li>Carcinomas – 85% of all cancers tend to be classified here (organs, skin, nerves, membranes) </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcomas – bone, blood, connective tissue (2% of malignant cancers) </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphomas – immune tissues/system (i.e., Hodgkin’s Disease and non-Hodgkin’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Leukemia - blood and blood-forming tissues (bone marrow) </li></ul>See Table 16.2
  6. 6. Staging Cancer <ul><li>There has been an identification system known as the TNS staging system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T = recognizes the extent of malignancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N = progressed or not to the lymph node </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M = presence or absence of metastasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A numerical system tracks the extent of the growth potential of cancer (I, II, III, or IV) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Causes of Cancer <ul><li>Cigarette Smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Growing older (age) </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol Consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Close Relatives with certain types of Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) </li></ul><ul><li>Diethylstillbestrol (DES) </li></ul>Lifestyle Factors Implicated in Cancer
  8. 8. Causes of Cancer (cont.) <ul><li>Exposure to Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Ionizing Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical and other substances </li></ul>Environmental Factors Implicated in Cancer
  9. 9. Current Research Regarding Causes and Treatment <ul><li>Molecular and Cellular Causes of Cancer </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Altered DNA may be responsible for abnormal growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell Cycle Research </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defects in the synthesis or assembly of DNA during replication may cause genetic instability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gene Mutation Research </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some individuals may be susceptible to mutation of suppressor genes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjuvant Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substances to enhance the action of drugs to treat cancer i.e. chemicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Immunotherapy Research </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boosting the immune system to prevent tumor growth or attack cancer cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stem Cell Transplantation Research </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of cells in bone marrow before radiation or chemotherapy and later restored </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Lung Cancer <ul><li>Two Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-small cell (most common) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small (oat) cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early detection symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent cough, blood in the sputum, constant chest pain, recurring pneumonia, or bronchitis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser therapy (PDT) </li></ul></ul>Leading cause of cancer death in women
  11. 11. Breast Cancer <ul><li>Identifiable protective factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breast feeding and having children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early Detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thickening in the breast or underarm area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional warning signs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in the size or shape of the breast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge from the nipple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in the color or texture of the skin of the breast or around the areola </li></ul></ul>Second leading cancer killer of all women
  12. 12. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer <ul><ul><li>Being a woman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early menstrual cycle for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women with no children or having children later in life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormone replacement therapy use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense breast tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family History </li></ul><ul><li>Previous breast biopsy </li></ul><ul><li>Previous breast exposure to radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>High fat diet </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic alterations </li></ul>
  13. 13. Early Detection Through Regular Breast Self-Exams (BSE) The American Cancer Society still recommends breast self-examination for women age 20 and over every month
  14. 14. Breast Cancer (cont.) <ul><li>Screening and Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biopsies (excisional or incisional) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment (two categories) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local therapy (surgery or radiation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery is the most common treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lumpectomy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mastectomy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modified radical mastectomy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic (chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or biological therapy) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Uterine and Cervical Cancer <ul><li>Uterine cancer begins in the endometrium (lining of the uterus) </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical cancer begins in the cervix and are considered squamous cell carcinomas </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 9,700 women develop cervical cancer each year </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical cancer is 100% curable and endometrial cancer is 94% curable when detected early </li></ul><ul><li>Deaths related to ovarian and uterine cancer, which comprise only 13 percent of the cancers of women, are exceeded only by lung, breast, and colon cancers </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cervical Cancer <ul><li>Risk factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early and continued sexual activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HPV and/or Herpes infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention/Early Detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual abstinence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pap tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful selection of sexual partners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery (minor or major) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Uterine Cancer <ul><li>Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early menarche, late menopause, lack of ovulation, never having given birth, ERT, use of tamoxifen, and also in diabetics, obese, and hypertensive women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention/Early Detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize high levels of estrogen and regular physician care </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone treatment </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Ovarian Cancer <ul><li>Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor that begins in the ovaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to what is recommended for breast cancer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prophylactic oophorectomy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Referred as the “silent cancer” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annual pelvic exams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic screenings (CA-125 radioimmunoassay) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug therapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In 2006, ACS estimates that there will be 20,180 new cases of ovarian cancer and 15,310 women will die from this cancer </li></ul>Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women
  19. 19. Skin Cancer <ul><li>Skin cancer is the most prevalent and most curable type of cancer found in women </li></ul><ul><li>Basal cell carcinomas are the most common type of malignancy in humans </li></ul><ul><li>They are usually raised, hard, reddish lesions with a pearly surface and rarely metastasize </li></ul><ul><li>These carcinomas are typically scaly and slightly elevated </li></ul><ul><li>They are a relatively slow-growing malignancy </li></ul>
  20. 20. Skin Cancer (cont.) <ul><li>Malignant melanoma is the most dangerous but less common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe sunburn during childhood, chronic sun exposure during young adulthood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce exposure to sun’s rays, use sunscreens, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Cancer Society guidelines (next slide) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation, Laser therapy, tissue destruction (heat or freezing) </li></ul></ul></ul>Skin Cancer is the most prevalent and curable type of cancer in women
  21. 21. American Cancer Society ABCD Method A symmetry B order irregularity C olor change D iameter greater than 6mm
  22. 22. Colon and Rectum Cancer <ul><li>In 2006, an estimated 75,810 new cases of colon and rectal cancer will be diagnosed in women and 27,300 women are estimated to die from the disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal and family history, polyps, or ulcerative colitis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventive Screening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital rectal exam yearly after age 40 for women, FOBT, and sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy exam every 3-5 years after age 50 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rectal exams, stool test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Steps to Take When Diagnosed with Cancer <ul><li>Once a woman knows the type of cancer, she can call the National Cancer Institute at 1-800-4-CANCER </li></ul><ul><li>Get a second opinion before deciding on a particular treatment protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you feel certain about your options </li></ul><ul><li>Social support is a critical factor in recovery from cancer. There are many avenues of social support to pursue during all stages of treatment </li></ul>
  24. 24. Complementary Treatment in Cancer Management <ul><li>Magnetic and Electronic Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radionic devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galvanic devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-level output electrical devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Color and light treatment devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Food remedies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetarian diets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbal and vitamin therapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Spiritual and Meditation Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acupuncture and Acupressure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Chapter Sixteen Reducing Your Risk of Cancer