Womens Health 12


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Womens Health 12

  1. 1. Chapter Twelve Using Alcohol Responsibly
  2. 2. Women and Alcohol <ul><li>Alcohol has been consumed by humans for thousands of years </li></ul><ul><li>Societal attitudes regarding women’s use of alcohol has been inconsistent and ambivalent </li></ul><ul><li>In early American, women played a significant role in the control of alcohol during the temperance movement </li></ul><ul><li>After attempting to enforce Prohibition, alcohol is considered a legal substance with certain restrictions and is regulated by state governments </li></ul>
  3. 3. Alcohol: The Beverage <ul><li>Ethyl/ethanol is a clear, tasteless, toxic liquid when consumed, creates an intoxicating effect </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritionally, a source of “empty calories” and alcohol content of beverages differs among spirits and other drinks </li></ul><ul><li>The term, ‘proof’ refers to a number twice the alcohol concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol is a depressant upon the CNS </li></ul>
  4. 4. How Alcohol is Created <ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 yeast 2C 2 H 5 OH+2CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distillation (high temperature condensation) of fermented products </li></ul>
  5. 5. Factors Affecting Absorption of Alcohol <ul><li>Strength of beverage (% of alcohol) </li></ul><ul><li>Number of drinks consumed </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of food in the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Body weight/size </li></ul><ul><li>Blood chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional factors </li></ul><ul><li>Other beverages mixed </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why Liquor is Quicker for Women <ul><li>An enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) found in the liver and stomach is lower in women compared to men </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, 30% more alcohol enters the female bloodstream, creating a higher intoxication effect </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, the liver fails to produce ADH, allowing women to absorb almost all alcohol consumed without breaking this down </li></ul><ul><li>Other factors such as body fat percentage, body water, and the stage of the premenstrual cycle will have a profound effect upon the CNS </li></ul>
  7. 7. Women and Alcohol: A Unique Relationship <ul><li>In the past, women have used alcohol medicinally for many purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Women who consume alcoholic beverages should be concerned about the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased amounts of body fat/year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased risk of breast cancer and osteoporosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased risk of cirrhosis compared to men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of lifespan and brain impairment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Societal values placed on women who drink alcohol regularly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Criteria for Drinking Classifications (Table 12.2) <ul><li>Abstainers – does not drink at all or once a year </li></ul><ul><li>Light drinkers - drinks once a month in medium amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate drinkers – drinks once a week in small amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy drinkers- drinks large amounts at least once a week per drinking occasion </li></ul>
  9. 9. College-Aged Women and Alcohol <ul><li>To relieve stress and anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>To feel more sociable </li></ul><ul><li>To decrease inhibitions </li></ul><ul><li>For the “high” that results </li></ul><ul><li>To be part of the group </li></ul><ul><li>To lessen sexual inhibitions </li></ul><ul><li>To escape </li></ul><ul><li>To relieve worrying </li></ul><ul><li>To become less self-conscious </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce depression </li></ul>Reasons given why college-aged women drink Binge drinking is consuming four or more drinks in a row for women
  10. 10. Drinking Alcohol Responsibly <ul><li>Drink no more than one drink per hour </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time to elapse between drinks </li></ul><ul><li>Intersperse alcoholic beverages with non-alcoholic drinks </li></ul><ul><li>Sip drinks </li></ul><ul><li>Eat before drinking alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Know your limits </li></ul><ul><li>Be comfortable choosing not to drink </li></ul><ul><li>Never encourage another woman to drink </li></ul><ul><li>Know when to say “no” and say it! </li></ul>
  11. 11. College-Aged Women and Alcohol <ul><li>Hormonal Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Dieting Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Disease Development </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Effects, e.g., impaired ability to function socially </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Social Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on Relationships </li></ul>Negative consequences associated with over-consumption
  12. 12. Effect of Alcohol on the Body See Table 12.5
  13. 13. Benefits to Drinking Alcohol <ul><li>Decreased risk of heart attack </li></ul><ul><li>Increases levels of HDL </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased risk of coronary artery disease </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Increased ease during social situations </li></ul><ul><li>Increased life expectancy </li></ul>
  14. 14. Alcohol and Pregnancy <ul><li>Alcohol can impair personal health cause birth defects to their unborn fetus due to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol crosses placenta </li></ul><ul><li>Fetal liver is under-developed and can result in the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CNS dysfunction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deformed facial circumstances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major organ malformation e.g. heart defects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Even women who drink “moderately” may have infants with Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE), less severe birth defects, however, dangerous to the fetus </li></ul>
  15. 15. Addiction and Dependency <ul><li>Addiction is a compulsive, uncontrollable dependence on a substance </li></ul><ul><li>Components of addiction include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Dependence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological Dependence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Once physically dependent, if the body is deprived of alcohol, an addict will experience withdrawal symptoms </li></ul>See FYI: Stages of Withdrawal from Alcohol
  16. 16. Alcoholism <ul><li>Alcoholism – primary chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors affecting the individual </li></ul><ul><li>The number of female alcoholics in the U.S. is estimated to be between 4-7 million and can shorten life expectancy by 10-15 years </li></ul><ul><li>The cause is unknown, but the following are revealed in the background of female alcoholics: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parent(s) are alcoholics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child Abuse relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive drinking as teens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social factors contribution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. How to Help <ul><li>Learn the facts about alcohol and alcoholism </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a factual attitude vs. an emotional attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use home remedies e.g. lecturing </li></ul><ul><li>Find assistance for yourself and the alcoholic through support groups </li></ul><ul><li>Talk with people who understand the illness, not just friends and family </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the alcoholic to be responsible for behavior and consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Expect relapses and difficult days after recovery begins </li></ul><ul><li>The person has to learn to say “no, thanks” when offered alcohol </li></ul>
  18. 18. Family Issues with Alcoholic Family Members <ul><li>Codependency issues of family members </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women with co-dependent traits should obtain help through individual or group counseling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACAs) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children of Alcoholics (COAs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects of Growing up in an Alcoholic Family </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coping skill development are developed by family members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the 4 C’s of a dysfunctional family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You didn’t cause it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can’t control it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can’t cure it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can help yourself </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Treatment for Alcoholism <ul><li>Treatment centers </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Treatment (drug therapy) </li></ul><ul><li>Aftercare (follow up treatment) </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle Behavior Changes </li></ul>Intervention (confrontation) may lead to the following:
  20. 20. Prevention <ul><li>Primary prevention programs are aimed at women who have not begun to use alcohol, focusing and reducing the rate of possible new alcohol users </li></ul><ul><li>Activities are developed to reduce factors that may contribute to the early use of alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Young women often believe that alcohol use does not produce any negative consequences, therefore, thinking this is an acceptable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing positive family influences and integrating “life skills training”, will allow young women to engage in more productive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention can yield the greatest benefit if initiated at any early age (pre-school) and continued into adulthood </li></ul>
  21. 21. Chapter Twelve Using Alcohol Responsibly