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carboxylic acid

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Carboxylic acid  derivatives
Carboxylic acid derivatives
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carboxylic acid

  2. 2. “CONTENTS” Introduction To Carboxylic Acids Classification Nomenclature Preparation Of Carboxylic Acid Physical Characteristics Chemical Properties Reaction involove H atom of Carbonyl Group Reaction involove OH atom of Carbonyl Group Reaction involving carboxyl group Applications
  3. 3. “CARBOXYLIC ACID” A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a (-COOH). (-COOH) itself made up of Carbonyl Group Hydroxyl Group General Formula will be :-
  4. 4. “CLASSIFICATION” It can be Alipatic Or Aromatic Acids. It can be furthur classified as mono,di,tri or poly carboxylic acid depending upon the number of carboxyl groups
  5. 5. “NOMENCLATURE” For IUPAC name,These acids derived from the name of alkanes containing the same number of carbon aton as th eacid.But the ending “-e” of the alkane name is replaced with suffix “-ioc acid”. Methane Methanoic Acid Propane Propanoic Acid For Common Name,it is named on the bases of source from which it was isolated. Butyric Acid Butyrum means butter Formic Acid Formica means Ant
  6. 6. “Preparation Of Carboxylic Acid”
  7. 7. “Preparation Of Carboxylic Acid” OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS:- Primary alcohols and aldehyde are Oxidized to their corresponding carboxylic acid. Oxidizing agent like potassium dichromate is used.
  8. 8. “Preparation Of Carboxylic Acid” FROM ALKANENITRILE:- Hydrolysis of alkanenitrile on boiling with mineral acids or alkalis yeild corresponding carboxylic acid.
  9. 9. “Preparation Of Carboxylic Acid” FROM GRIGNARD REAGENTS:- Carboxylic Acid can be prepared by the action of grignard reagent with carbon dioxide.
  10. 10. “Preparation Of Carboxylic Acid” FROM HYDROLYSIS OF ESTERS:- Ester on boiling witg conc. Sodium hydroxide yeild sodium salt of the acid.Salt when treated with dil.HCl gives carboxylic acid.
  11. 11. “Preparation Of Carboxylic Acid” BY OXIDATIVE CLEAVAGE OFALKENES:- Alkenes when heated with KMnO4 are cleaved at the double bond to form carboxylic acid.
  12. 12. “Physical Properties”:-
  13. 13. “Physical Properties” Smell:- First three aliphatic acids C1-C3 are colourless and have pungent smell.The next three acids are colourless and has unpleasent smell. Solubility:- Carboxylic acids are soluble in organic solvents.They are also soluble in water due to hydrogen bonding.As, mass increases, the solubility decreases.
  14. 14. “Physical Properties” Boiling Point:- Boiling point is higher due to H- bonding.It increases as size increases.
  15. 15. “Physical Properties” Melting Point:- It increases with increases irregularly with increase in molecular mass.Carboxylic acid with even number have higher melting point than next lower and higher member containing odd number of carbon atoms. Propanoic acid (-22°C ) Butanoic acid (-6°C) Pentanoic acid (-36°C )
  16. 16. “Chemical Properties”:- Reaction involove H atom of Carbonyl Group Reaction involove OH atom of Carbonyl Group Reaction involving carboxyl group
  17. 17. “Reaction involve H atom of Carbonyl Group”:- Reaction with bases:- RCOOH + NaOH → RCOONa+(aq) + H2O Reaction with Carbonates and Bicarbonate:- 2RCOOH+Na2CO3 →2RCOONa(aq)+H2O+CO2(g) RCOOH+NaHCO3 →RCOONa (aq)+H2O + CO2(g) Reaction With Metals:- 2RCOOH+2Na →2RCOONa +H2
  18. 18. “Reaction involve -OH atom of Carbonyl Group”:- Reaction with PCl5 and SOCl2 :- CH3COOH+PCl5 → CH3COCl+POCl3+HCl CH3COOH+SOCl2 → CH3COCl+SO2+HCl Formation of Ester:- When carboxylic acid reacts with alcohol in presence of conc. H2SO4,ester is formed known as esterification.
  19. 19. “Reaction involve -OH atom of Carbonyl Group”:- Reaction with Ammonia:- Carboxylic acid reacts with ammonia to form ammonia salt which on heating results in formation of Amide. CH3COOH+NH3 → CH3COONH4 CH3COONH4 → CH3CONH2+H2O Formation Of Acid Anhydride:- Carboxylic acid is dehydrated in the presence of P2O5
  20. 20. “Reaction involve Carboxyl Group”:- Partial Reduction Of Alcohols:- Carboxylic acid reacts with LiAlH4 and reduced to alcohols. Complete Reduction To Alkanes:- Carboxylic acid reacts with HI andred phosphorus gives alkanes. CH3COOH + 4[H] → CH3CH2OH+H2O
  21. 21. “APPLICATIONS”:-
  22. 22. “APPLICATION”:- Carboxylic acids are also important in manufacture of greases, crayons, and plastics. Higher fatty acids are used in the manufacture of soaps. Organic acids are used in foods, cold drinks, etc. For example, acetic acid is used as vinegar. Organic acids are used for the preparation of many drugs such as aspirin, phenacetin etc. Acetic acid is used as coagulant in the manufacture of rubber. Acetic acid is also used in the manufacture of various dye stuffs, perfumes and rayon.
  23. 23. “REFERENCES”:-   chemistry-ii/carboxylic-acids-and-their- derivatives/preparation-of-carboxylic-acids   _Acids/Synthesis_of_Carboxylic_Acids/Preparation_of_carbo xylic_acids  h19preparecarboxylic.html  dical  carboxylic-acids.html