Phytosterols

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Phytosterols, which encompass plant sterols and stanols, are steroid compounds similar to cholesterol which occur in plants. It has a cholesterol lowering action.

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Phytosterols

  1. 1. PHYTOSTEROLS -AMMAR BABAR -T.Y. B.Tech (Foods) -11FET1009 -ICT ( MUMBAI) -ammar2896@gmail.com
  2. 2. CONTENTS  FACTS  ROLE OF NUTRACEUTICALS  DIFFERENTIATION  INTRODUCTION  CHEMICAL STRUCTURES  EXTRACTION  MECHANISM  PRODUCTS  REGULATIONS  NEWS AND RESEARCH
  3. 3. FACTS!!!  India ranks No.1 in the world for number of cardiac patients, with 10% of the population affected.  The US and Europe are jointly No.2 with 7% each.  WHO expects heart disease to be the single greatest killer in India by 2015.  Highest growth of heart disease is among young corporate executives. Over 40% of urban Indians have high lipid levels.  Additionally, 31% of urban Indians are either overweight or obese.  Costs related to heart disease exceed 60 billion dollars per year.
  4. 4. ROLE OF NUTRACEUTICALS Too much of cholesterol in your blood, it can build up on the walls of your arteries causing various heart related problems Healthy diet plays an important role in lowering the blood cholesterol levels. Functional food having cholesterol lowering action will be effective in lowering the risk of heart diseases. Thus we can have maximum benefits without modification of diet. Chemical drugs have many side-effects hence use of natural substances (Nutraceuticals) is increasing.
  5. 5. PHYTOSTEROL  It was recognized in 1950s that plant sterols lower serum concentrations of cholesterol  Naturally occur only in plant and soluble only in alcohol  Phytosterol has two classes : sterols and stanols.  Phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters (200types) are a group of steroid alcohols and esters  They hormones produced by the plants to help in adaptation to different temperatures.
  6. 6. Chemical Structure • They consist of a steroid skeleton with a hydroxyl group attached to the C-3 atom of the A-ring and an aliphatic side chain attached to the C-17 atom of the D-ring. Sterols have a double bond, typically between C-5 and C-6 of the sterol moiety, whereas this bond is saturated in phytostanols
  7. 7. Classification Phytosterols has two classes -Sterols -Stanols (Saturated) sitosterol campesterol sitostanol campestanol
  8. 8. DIFFERENTIATION PHYTOSTEROL CHOLESTEROL Synthesized by plants only Synthesized by liver(from AcetylCoA) and it is also a essential component of cell membrane Helps plant to maintain the temperature Helps in maintaining membrane permeability and fluidity Helps to lower the Low Density Lipo- protien(LDL) in the blood( by 10%) Serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. Daily intake should be 1-2gm for beneficial effects Less than 200mg through diet since body also synthesize it.
  9. 9. Dietary phytosterols  The richest naturally occurring sources of phytosterols are vegetable oils and products made from them.  They can be present in the free form and as esters of fatty acid/cinnamic acid or as glycosides, respectively.  The bound form is usually hydrolyzed in the small intestines by pancreatic enzymes. Phytosterol food sources Total phytosterol content (mg/100g) Oils Rice bran 1055 Corn 952 Wheat germ 553 Flax seed 338 Cottonseed 327 Soybean 221 Peanut 206 Olive 176 Coconut 91 Palm 49
  10. 10. Vegetables (mg /100g) Beet root 25 Brussels sprout 24 Cauliflower 18 Onion 15 Carrot 12 Cabbage 11 Yam 10 Fruits (mg/100g) Orange 24 Banana 16 Apple 12 Cherry 12 Peach 10 Pear 8 Nuts (mg/ 100g) Cashew 158 Almond 143 Pecan 108 Pistachio 108 Walnut 108 Legumes (mg/100g) Pea 135 Kidney bean 127 Broad bean 124 The intake of naturally occurring phytosterols ranges between 150–450 mg/day
  11. 11. Extraction of Phytosterols PHASE 1 1 • Deodorization lead in removal of volatiles and gives us a distillate that is rich in free fatty acids, but also significant levels of tocopherols (5-15%) and phytosterols (8-20%). 2 • Transesterification is carried out to give fatty acid methyl esters , and we get free tocopherols and free phytosterols which are separated by distillation. 3 • The free tocopherols are separated from free phytosterols by solvent crystallization and filtration
  12. 12. EXTRACTION: VEGETABLE OIL 4 • Addition of MeOH:H2SO4 (50-80degC) • Vigorous stirring for 2-6hrs 5 • Vaccum distillation of methanol • Separation of H2SO4 by hot water washing 6 • Crystallization at 0-25degC for 1-10hrs • Filtration then washing with hexane at 10deg • Pure crystals of sterols Publication number US7632530 B2 Publication type Grant Application number US 11/373,933 Publication date 15 Aug 2009 Filing date 13 Mar 2006 Priority date 8 April 2005 A process for the preparation of high purity phytosterols from deodourizer distillate from vegetable oils. The yield of phytosterols obtained is in the range of 80-90% of free sterols available in with 95-99% purity.
  13. 13. Production of phytostanols from phytosterols • Phtosterols (Pd/Pt at High pressure) Phytostanols
  14. 14. Mechanism -https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p-ruFt-s_Bk
  15. 15. Mechanism of action 2) Phytosterol precipitates marginally soluble cholesterol into non absorbable form in the intestine. 1)Reduces the absorption of cholesterol by competing with cholesterol for incorporation into the bile salts micelles or for uptaking of cholesterol by enterocytes. 3) Phytosterols enhance cholesterol excretion back into the intestinal lumen through the ABC G5/G8 transporters 4)They could also prevent esterification of free cholesterol.
  16. 16. Other functions PHYTOSTEROLS 4)reducing blood sugar level and inflammation 1) Anticarcinogenic properties 2) Immune regulation 3)Reducing prostate enlargement
  17. 17. Disease Method Result Cardio vascular disease Involved persons with a family history of hypercholesterolemia, consuming spreads fortified with 1.8 to 2.8 grams of sterols/stanols per day over a period of 1-3 months lowered total cholesterol by seven to 11 percent. Enlarged prostate Includes a six-month study of 200 men showing symptoms of Enlarged prostate were given 60 mg/d of beta-sitosterol . Increased peak urinary flow and decreased post-void residual urine volume compared to placebo. rheumatoid arthritis 2mg of sterols/day for 3 months helping to decrease inflammation and calm the overactive immune response Control blood sugar in diabetes 2mg of sterols/day for 6-8 months sitosterol has been shown to normalize blood sugar and insulin levels in Type II diabetics by stimulating the release of insulin in the presence of non-stimulatory glucose concentrations, and inhibiting glucose-6-phosphatase.
  18. 18. Enrichment of food products with phytosterols • Increased interest in phytosterols after canola oil- based maragrine, enriched by sitostenol ester was introduced comercially in Finland in 1995. • Nowadays cream cheese, salad dressing and yoghurt are also used. • They can also be incorporated into baked products, fruit juice, ice cream, and other vehicles. • They are also being sold with other functional ingredients such as fiber, healthy oils non- absorbable diacylglycerol, almonds, soy protein and minerals.
  19. 19. Stability during processing  Under harsh conditions (high temperature i.e. >100˚C and in the presence of oxygen) oxidation of phytosterols can take place.  Microbiologically inert.  Stable over wide pH range.
  20. 20. Food product 3.4gm of Phytostanol ester content in ( FAO REGULATION) Spread 4 Slices Yoghurt drink 100 ml Milk drink 250 ml Rye bread 4 slices Capsules 6capsules Snack Bar 64 gm Dressing 30 ml In December 2004 the EU Commission published Regulation 608/2004/EC concerning the labelling of foods “with added plant sterols/plant stanols” Manufacturer Brand name Raisio Plc. Benecol ® Cognis Vegapure ® Lipofoods Lipophytol TM Enzymotech Ltd. CardiaBeat TM Pharmaconsult Oy Ltd Multibene ®
  21. 21. Conditions and restrictions of use  The Panel recommends that the products to which phytosterols are added should be consumed only by people who want to lower their blood cholesterol.  The scientific justification of the claim is related to a daily intake of 2 g of plant sterols added to fat-based food formats and low-fat foods such as milk and yoghurt.  Other food forms should be evaluated for their cholesterol-lowering effect.  Should follow labelling regulations issued by EU in Dec’04
  22. 22. DRUG INTERACTIONS POSITIVE NEGATIVE It shows synergistic action with statin therapy drugs ( CHOLESTROL LOWERING) Consumption of plant sterol- and stanol- enriched foods at doses of 1.5 g/d or more have not been found to have adverse effects on fat-soluble vitamin status in well-nourished populations. Hence resulting in an additional 7-11% reduction in LDL cholesterol. A number of studies have observed 10-20% reductions in plasma carotenoids after short- term and long-term consumption of plant sterol- or stanol-enriched foods
  23. 23. Adverse effects  The product may not be nutritionally appropriate for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children under the age of five years; patients on cholesterol lowering medication should only consume the product under medical supervision.  Alteration in testosterone metabolism by inhibiting 5-alpha reductase which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone.  High doses could potentially affect signal transduction or membrane bound enzyme activity in the cells.  Nausea, indigestion, constipation, diarrhea, etc.
  24. 24. Recent news and research  Phytosterols to be added in dark chocolates to produce a cholesterol-cutting product capable of an FDA health claim  Plant sterols can prevent Alzheimer’s disease  Those who have asthma or other respiratory diseases should be careful, because many supplements are made from soy, can trigger outbreaks.  Phtosterols enriched Peanut butter - Dr. Atif Awad ( State University of New York at Buffalo )  Bunge’s Award winning Functional food – Phtosterol ( phtobake) in microwave pizzas
  25. 25. REFERENCES • Cholesterol-lowering phytosterols: factors affecting their use and efficacy by Timothy P Carr ,Mark M Ash ,Andrew W Brown (26th july 2010). • Phytosterols as functional food Components and Nutraceuticals – Paresh C.Dutta • Phytosterols, Phytostanols And Their Esters -chemical and technical assessment by Richard Cantrill, Ph.D., reviewed by Yoko Kawamura, Ph.D., for the 69th JECFA1 • Mechanisms of decreased cholesterol absorption mediated by phytosterols in the intestinal lumen-Andrew W. Brown University of Nebraska-Lincoln,(1-1-2011)
  26. 26. Reference  http://www.raysahelian.com/phytosterols.html  http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/agns/pdf/jecfa/cta/69/Phytosterols.p df  http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/nda_op_ej781_art14_004_pla nt_sterols-and_blood_cholesterol.pdf?ssbinary=true  https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad =rja&uact=8&ved=0CDMQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ifst.org%2Fdocume nt.aspx%3Fid%3D1481&ei=7gdGU5K- HsGHrgeepYDgAw&usg=AFQjCNHtlRihogD3cZ4nab- FjeVxyTkT1g&bvm=bv.64507335,d.bmk

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