Fenugreek seeds
-AMMAR BABAR
-11FET1009
-ammar2896@gmail.com
- ICT (MUMBAI)
Description
•

This is an annual herb, about two feet high.

•

Three parts :

•

DESCRIPTION- The hard, brown, red and ye...
HistorY
•

Used since ancient times in Egypt, Greece and Rome,
fenugreek seeds were said to be almost a panacea (good for
...
•

FenUGreeK
FenUGreeK
seeDs
seeDs
Fenugreek Seeds are aromatic, bitter, may be eaten
raw or cooked.

• Bitterness is main...
classiFication
Kingdom
Division

Magnoliophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Fabales

Family

Fabaceae

Genus

Trigonella
...
SEED
STRUCTURE EMBRYO
ENDOSPORE
SEED COAT

• This endosperm contains galactomannan gum.
• The endosperm is surrounded by a...
Proximate Composition (%) Of Fenugreek Seeds
Proximate Composition (%) Of Fenugreek Seeds
Principle
Energy
Carbohydrates
P...
ChEmiCal ConSTiTUEnTS
Steroids

C27 - Sapogenin

N- compounds

Trigonelline, choline and betaine( anti-diabetic)

Anthocya...
PRoDUCTion
•

Fenugreek is a Rabi crop ( Sept-Oct)

•

It require cool climate during vegetative
growth & warm dry climate...
Name

Description

Color of the
seed

Resistance Average
To Rot
Yield

Maturity

RMt 1

Semi-erect, tall
and moderately
br...
Sowing
•

The land should be prepared but related ploughing
and harrowing (atleast twice).

•

Ideal sowing time N. India ...
Seed treatment
Sowing should be done 30cm apart in rows with a plant-to-plant
spacing of 10 cm. The depth of seed should n...
IrrIGatIOn &HarVeStInG
•

Irrigation-A light irrigation is recommended soon after the sowing.

•

Afterwards, about four i...
POSt HarVeSt
•

Threshing -is a process by which seeds are separated from the plants. Manual
threshing is normally done on...
FENUGREEK SEED USES
FENUGREEK SEED USES
FENUGREEK
GALACTOMANNAN

Various industrial applications.

SAPONINS
(DIOSGENIN)

...
IndUStrIaL PrOCeSS
•

Destoning - Reliable removal of high-density impurities such as stones and pieces of
metal and glass...
Publication number- US5997877
Publication type- Grant
Application number- US 09/199,649
Fenugreek gum has three grades
Types

Galactomannan content

Gum A

86% of galactmannan

White or slight yellowish
powder ...
APPLICATIONS OF FENUGREEK GUM POWDER
APPLICATIONS OF FENUGREEK GUM POWDER
FENUGREEK
APPLICATION

FUNCTION

USAGE LEVELS

B...
Reasons to consume fenugReek
seeds

•

It is cheap and easily available.

•

Can be consumed in many forms - Fenugreek tea...
Fenugreek seeds - Cultivation and Gum production.
Fenugreek seeds - Cultivation and Gum production.
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Fenugreek seeds - Cultivation and Gum production.

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Fenugreek

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  • In Fenugreek seeds, the gum (gel fiber) fraction consists of galactomannan which is made up of galactose and mannose units. The gum also resembles guar gum in structure and is very viscous (15 centipoise) when dissoved in water.
    The neutral detergent fiber is made up of indigestible carbohydrates such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.
    According to Ribes et al (1984), the defatted fraction of fenugreek seeds contains 50.2% fiber and consists of 17.7% gum, 22% hemicellulose, 8.3% cellulose and 2.2% lignin.
  • When Gum A and B dissolves in water, odorless translucent white gel occurs, and its taste is like cereal. When you use it as a viscous agent, we recommend that you use Gum A and B.
    Gum C are by-products of Gum A and B, which still have a faint curry smell and are more yellowish brown than Gum B. But if you use it for the things not to be dissolved in water like health supplements, tablets, and capsules.
    The use of Gum C is recommended because they are cheaper than Gum A and B. Gum A is purest gum and is used for cosmetic raw material.
  • Fenugreek seeds - Cultivation and Gum production.

    1. 1. Fenugreek seeds -AMMAR BABAR -11FET1009 -ammar2896@gmail.com - ICT (MUMBAI)
    2. 2. Description • This is an annual herb, about two feet high. • Three parts : • DESCRIPTION- The hard, brown, red and yellow seeds are the part used medicinally and in cooking. • SHAPE & COLOR - Brownish, about 1/8 inch long, oblong, rhomboidal, with a deep furrow dividing them into two unequal lobes. • QUANTITY- They are contained, ten to twenty together, in long, narrow, sickle-like pods. • TASTE - Bitter Leaves Pea like flowers Seeds
    3. 3. HistorY • Used since ancient times in Egypt, Greece and Rome, fenugreek seeds were said to be almost a panacea (good for everything) • Fenugreek is one of the oldest medicinal plants in history; a description of this plant was found on the Ebers Papyrus 1550 BC Egypt • Fenugreek seeds have been recovered from Tell Halal, Iraq, (carbon dated to 4000 BC) Bronze Age levels. • Through the times, been used for a variety of health conditions. • Fenugreek has been around for thousands of years and used as a medicine, spice, and food for both humans and animals.
    4. 4. • FenUGreeK FenUGreeK seeDs seeDs Fenugreek Seeds are aromatic, bitter, may be eaten raw or cooked. • Bitterness is mainly due to the oil, steroidal saponins and alkaloids. • It has a strong and quite peculiar odor, hence, used in a very small quantity as a spice. • It has beautiful golden yellow color due to its coloring agent called coumadine. • That is why fenugreek seeds were used for a yellow dye by ancient Indians and Egyptians
    5. 5. classiFication Kingdom Division Magnoliophyta Class Magnoliopsida Order Fabales Family Fabaceae Genus Trigonella Species foenum-graecum Binomial name • Plantae Trigonella foenum-graecum Other Common Names - Greek hay, Bird's Foot, Boyotu, Chinagreye, Fenegriek, Fenugreek, Foenum Graecum, Greek Hay-seed, Halva, Helba, Hu Lu Pa, K'U Tou, Kelabat, Koroha, Methi, Shimli, Sickle-fruit Fenugreek and Sicklefruit Fenugreek.
    6. 6. SEED STRUCTURE EMBRYO ENDOSPORE SEED COAT • This endosperm contains galactomannan gum. • The endosperm is surrounded by a tenacious, dark brown husk. The color of the gum fraction depends upon the amount of outer husk (brown color) and cotyledon (yellow color) present
    7. 7. Proximate Composition (%) Of Fenugreek Seeds Proximate Composition (%) Of Fenugreek Seeds Principle Energy Carbohydrates Protein Total Fat Cholesterol Dietary Fiber Vitamins Folates Niacin Pyridoxine Riboflavin Thiamin Vitamin A Vitamin C Electrolytes Sodium Potassium Minerals Calcium Copper Iron Magnesium Manganese Phosphorus Selenium Zinc Nutrient Value(per 100g) 323 Kcal 58.35 g 23 g 6.41 g 0 mg 24.6 g Percentage of RDA 16% 45% 41% 21% 0% 65% 57 µg 1.640 mg 0.600 mg 0.366 mg 0.322 mg 60 IU 3 mg 14% 7% 46% 28% 27% 2% 5% 67 mg 770 mg 4.5% 16% 176 mg 1.110 mg 33.53 mg 191 mg 1.228 mg 296 mg 6.3 µg 2.50 mg 18% 123% 419% 48% 53% 42% 11% 23%
    8. 8. ChEmiCal ConSTiTUEnTS Steroids C27 - Sapogenin N- compounds Trigonelline, choline and betaine( anti-diabetic) Anthocyanins Anthocyanidin-3-rhamnoside-5-glucosides Flavonoids Quercitin, Luteolin ( contibutes to anti-microbial activity) Volatile Hexenol, aniline, phenol,hexadecane,heptanoic acid. Odour – 3-hydroxy-4,5- dimethyl-2-furanone ( HDMF) Amino acids Rich in lysine Lipids Mono and di galactosylglycerides ( lenolenic acid) and phospho lipids.
    9. 9. PRoDUCTion • Fenugreek is a Rabi crop ( Sept-Oct) • It require cool climate during vegetative growth & warm dry climate during maturity. • Well drained loamy soil suits (pH6-7) • Rich in organic matter with good drainage. • Rajasthan with more than 80% area under fenugreek cultivation. • 70-80% of world’s export is from India
    10. 10. Name Description Color of the seed Resistance Average To Rot Yield Maturity RMt 1 Semi-erect, tall and moderately branched plants bold and yellow grains Moderate 14.7 q/ha 140–150 days Co 1 Short and green brownishwith medium-sized orange seeds plants tolerant 6.80 q/ha 95 days Rajendra Kanti Tall and bushy green plants golden-yellow seeds moderately 12.50 q/ha 120 days Lam Selection 1 Bushy, green with medium-sized golden yellow seeds tolerant 7.40 q/ha 90 days HM 103 Bushy, semi-erect yellow, attractive seeds moderately 20.1 q/ha. 140–150 days Hissar Sonali Bushy, semi-erect bold, yellow, attractive grains moderately 19.0 q/ha 140–150 days
    11. 11. Sowing • The land should be prepared but related ploughing and harrowing (atleast twice). • Ideal sowing time N. India is last week of Oct . • Seeds are sown by the line sowing method • Recommended seed rate for both the crops is 25kg/ha.
    12. 12. Seed treatment Sowing should be done 30cm apart in rows with a plant-to-plant spacing of 10 cm. The depth of seed should not exceed 5.0cm. The seeds should be treated with rhizobium culture before sowing 10–15 tons/ha is added to enrich the soil fertility.
    13. 13. IrrIGatIOn &HarVeStInG • Irrigation-A light irrigation is recommended soon after the sowing. • Afterwards, about four irrigations are required at 30, 70–75, 85–90 and 105–110 days after sowing. Water stress during pod development stage is detrimental and hence care should be taken to avoid water stress at pod and seed development stages. • • Harvesting - Ideal time for harvesting is when the lower leaves of the plant start • shedding and pods become yellowish in color. Harvesting is done manually by cutting the plants with sickles. Delay in harvesting may lead to shattering of seeds
    14. 14. POSt HarVeSt • Threshing -is a process by which seeds are separated from the plants. Manual threshing is normally done on clean cemented floor • Cleaning and Grading -Separated seeds are heaped together on the floor which is then cleaned of dust and straw by using winnowing fans. • Storage Properly disinfested jute bags are used for packing fenugreek seeds and these bags are stored in damp-free aerated stores.
    15. 15. FENUGREEK SEED USES FENUGREEK SEED USES FENUGREEK GALACTOMANNAN Various industrial applications. SAPONINS (DIOSGENIN)  Flavoring, sweetening, antioxidant, foaming, complexing, sequestration, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial properties That’s why they are used as nutraceutical in food, drug, health food and cosmetic industry FENUGREEK OLEORESINS Used as an ingredient for imitation maple flavors and is effective in butter, butterscotch, black walnut, nut and spice flavors
    16. 16. IndUStrIaL PrOCeSS • Destoning - Reliable removal of high-density impurities such as stones and pieces of metal and glass is achieved on the basis of differences in specific gravity. (Destoner MTSC) • Combinator- For the classification of grain into heavy, and removal of light impurities with additional destoning. (MTKB - Combi-Cleaner with air-cycling system) • Separation and Classification - Classifies various products according to size.Excellent separating efficiency. (Buhler Separator Classifier MTRB with aspiration channel MVSH)
    17. 17. Publication number- US5997877 Publication type- Grant Application number- US 09/199,649
    18. 18. Fenugreek gum has three grades Types Galactomannan content Gum A 86% of galactmannan White or slight yellowish powder with a slight original smell. Gum B 80-86% of galactomannan light yellowish powder with a slight original smell. Gum C 60-80% of galactomannan light brownish powder with a slight curry smell.
    19. 19. APPLICATIONS OF FENUGREEK GUM POWDER APPLICATIONS OF FENUGREEK GUM POWDER FENUGREEK APPLICATION FUNCTION USAGE LEVELS Baked goods and breads Provides texture , reatains moisture 0.15-0.45 % Gravies and soups Adds viscosity and suspension 0.20-0.50 % Dressing , sauces , dips Adds viscosity , suspension and stabilizers emulsions 0.20-0.50 % Beverages Adds viscosity and suspension 0.10-0.25 % Frozen products Increses freeze/thaw stability 0.05-0.45 % Nutritional bars Retains moisture 0.05-0.25 % Meal replacement systems Adds texture 0.05-0.50 % Nutritional beverages Adds viscosity , suspension , mouthfeel 0.05-0.40 %
    20. 20. Reasons to consume fenugReek seeds • It is cheap and easily available. • Can be consumed in many forms - Fenugreek tea made from the seeds is used as a gargle in sore throats and for fevers. The drink is mucilaginous, nutritious, and soothing to the intestinal canal. • The seeds are rich in dietary fiber, which may be the main reason it can lower blood sugar levels in diabetes. • Fenugreek is useful for atherosclerosis, constipation, diabetes, high cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia. • It can be employed as a substitute for cod-liver oil in scrofula, rickets, anemia, debility following infectious diseases.

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