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Persuasive Writing


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Persuasive Writing

  1. 1. Rhetoric: The Art of Persuasion (speaking and writing effectively) How much do you know?
  2. 2. Who persuades you? <ul><li>Television Commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Radio- “Don’t turn that dial” </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Election speeches </li></ul><ul><li>Billboards </li></ul><ul><li>Bumper Stickers </li></ul><ul><li>You even use persuasion on your parents! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Who’s Aristotle? <ul><li>Aristotle : 384 BC- 322 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Greek Philosopher (a study concerned with ethics and reasoning among other things) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Student of Plato: another Greek philosopher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rhetoric,” to Aristotle= “ability to see the available means of persuasion </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Three Elements of Persuasion: <ul><li>3 types of persuasive approaches </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Logos (Greek for “word”)- appeals to logic or reasoning provides evidence, statistics, proof </li></ul><ul><li>2. Pathos (Greek for “suffering” or “experience”)- appeals to emotions </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ethos (Greek for “character”)- proves you are reliable/credible source, proves you are someone worth listening to </li></ul>
  5. 5. 3 Ways to Persuade! <ul><li>Using Logos (appealing to logic)- use facts/statistics/evidence to help support your argument </li></ul><ul><li>Using Ethos (proves you are a reliable source)- try to find things you may have in common with your audience and build on them </li></ul><ul><li>Using Pathos (appealing to emotions)- use vivid words, figurative language, and imagery- make your audience feel what you are talking about </li></ul>
  6. 6. Relate & Develop <ul><li>How to RELATE to your audience & DEVELOP your argument further… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try using: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anecdotes/short stories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quotes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparisons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expert opinions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Keep It Balanced! <ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writer/Speaker Purpose </li></ul></ul></ul>Topic/Subject
  8. 8. Know your audience! <ul><li>In order to be most effective, you must KNOW your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>4 things you must know! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Basic data: age, gender, education, occupation- How might these change your approach? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Knowledge of the topic: Do your audience members already have knowledge about your topic?- How might this change your approach? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Audience Attitude: Does your audience agree or oppose your topic? Is the audience mixed or apathetic?- How might this change your approach? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Audience Goal: What is the overall goal of your speech/writing? How might this change your approach? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Purpose Statement <ul><li>Decide your purpose in the beginning! </li></ul><ul><li>Write a purpose statement which defines your main goal or objective for your speech/writing. </li></ul><ul><li>This purpose statement will become your thesis statement! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Thesis <ul><li>Thesis statement: the main point you are trying to make throughout your paper, it shows what you believe and where you stand on the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself… “What is the point of my work? What am I trying to prove?” </li></ul><ul><li>Needs an implied “should,” ex: This novel needs to be carefully read for details about the author’s life. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Steps to writing a persuasive letter <ul><li>Determine and define your audience </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Define your purpose for writing </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what information to include </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Outline how best to support your position & what reasons or benefits will the reader find convincing? </li></ul><ul><li>Try to foresee the possible or potential objections of your readers </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Discover if there are any special circumstances that you should keep in mind. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Then… <ul><li>Decide what you want your reader to do </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the objections that must be overcome </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Make as strong a case as necessary </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Use a direct request if your reader will have minimal objections </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Ask immediately for the information or service you want </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Give readers all the information they need </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Tell readers what you want them to do </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ways to prevent REJECTION! <ul><li>Catch the reader's interest by mentioning common ground </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Define the problem you share </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the solution to the problem </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Show that negative elements (cost, time) are outweighed by the benefits of acting </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize any additional benefits to acting </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Tell readers exactly what you want them to do </li></ul>