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Contents: Main TOPIC : Bacillus pumilus
1) Bacillus pumilus
2) Genome and cell structure
3) Scientific classification
Genes: Bacillus pumilus
Binomial name: Bacillus pumilus
4) Ecology and Pathogenesis
5) B.PumilusHuman infection
6) Environmental roles
Use as model organism
In Vitro Assessmentof MarineBacillus for Use as Livestock Probiotics
what is bacillus pumilus?
Bacilluspumilus is a Gram-positive.
These are Rod shape bacteria.
Bacilluspumilus aerobic, spore-forming bacillus .
commonly found in soil. B. pumilus spores—with the exception of mutant strain ATCC
7061—generally show high resistance to environmental stresses,
Show resistance to, including UV light exposure, desiccation, and the presence
of oxidizers such as hydrogen peroxide.
Strains of B. pumilus found at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory were found to be
particularly resistant to hydrogen peroxide.
A strain of B. pumilus isolated from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) was found to
have high salt tolerance and to inhibit the growth of marine pathogens, including Vibrio
alginolyticus, when cultured together.Bacillus pumilus:
colonies on agar smooth and slightly yellowish; can not grow anaerobically; can not
hydrolyze starch; can not reduce nitrate.
B. pumilus contains one circular chromosome
Each chromosomes having 4000 genes and 3600-3900 proteins .
Caused infection both plants and animals.
Genome and cell structure
B. pumilus contains one circular chromosome including about 4000 genes and 3600-3900
proteins with varying length in the range of 3.7 to 3.8 Mbp. 41% of the DNA base pairs in B.
pumilus are G-C. The cellular structure of B. pumilus is similar to other Bacillus species such
as B. subtilis, B. megaterium, and B. cereus, the outer layer of the peptidoglycan cross-links in B.
pumilus is covered by teichoic and lipoteichoic acids same as the most other Gram positive
These acids contain polyglycosyl phosphates with mono- and disaccharides as their monomers
that can play a role in adhesion to different surfaces like the host cells.
On the other hand, these phosphate groups on the surface of B. pumilus can provide net
negative charge on the cell surface that allowing to capture some essential cations such as Ca2+
and Mg2+ that are necessary for cell life.
Kingdom : Bacteria
Genes : Bacillus pumilus
Binomial name: Bacillus pumilus
Ecology and Pathogenesis
acillus pumilus participates in a wide range of symbiotic relationships. B. pumilus can function
as a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria within the rhizosphere of agriculturally significant
plants such as red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). In wheat, B.
pumilus also induces plant resistance to Take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis), a fungal disease
which can significantly damage wheat crops .
Additionally, B. pumilus is thought to function as a plant growth promoting endophyte in Vitis
vinifera grape plants . Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp, can host Bacillus pumilusin the
gut, where it inhibits infections by Vibrio harveyi, V. alginolyticus, and V. parahaemolyticus, all
of which are known to be significant bacterial pathogens of shrimp .
B. pumilus is significant to ecosystem biochemistry because it functions as a nitrogen fixing
bacteria capable of metabolically transforming molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) .
Human infection by Bacillus pumilus is rare, however in 2006 B. pumilus in rice was found to be
responsible for 3 cases of food poisoning. The isolated strain produced a complex of
lipopeptides called pumilacidins, known to have toxic effects on epithelial cells.
The symptoms that resulted from infection included dizziness, headache, chills, back pain,
stomach cramps, and diarrhea.
Furthermore, in 2007 a report summarizing 3 case studies was published concluding that a
strain of Bacillus pumilus was responsible for the development of cutaneous lesions
morphologically similar to those caused by Bacillus anthracis.
Human infection due to Bacillus pumilus is exceptional. According to the report they reported
3 cases of cutaneous infection caused by B. pumilus that occurred in 3 shepherds, 2 of whom
were members of the same family. The lesions appeared to have a morphology similar to that
of cutaneous anthrax lesions. Two patients were cured after treatment with amoxicillin-
clavulanate, and the third patient was cured after prolonged treatment with ciprofloxacin. To
our knowledge, primary cutaneous infection due to B. pumilus has not been reported. B.
pumilus should be considered in patients who develop lesions suggestive of cutaneous anthrax.
The genus Bacillus consists of a heterogenic group of gram-positive, endospore-forming, rod-
shaped, facultative anaerobic bacteria. Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. The
disease can occur in different forms . By far the most common is cutaneous anthrax, which
accounts for>90% of all human cases. Cutaneous infection usually results from contact with
infected animals or animal products (such as hides or wool) contaminated with B.
Bacillus species other than B. anthracis produce spores that are widespread in the
environment, and isolation from a specimen may represent contamination. However, it is well
recognized that these organisms are capable of causing serious human infections, including
endocarditis, sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, endophthalmitis, and surgical wound infections .
Primary cutaneous infection due to Bacillus species other than B. anthracis is exceptional.
We report 3 cases of cutaneous infection due to Bacillus pumilus that occurred in 3 shepherds,
2 of whom were members of the same family. The lesions had a morphology similar to that of
cutaneous anthrax lesions. To our knowledge, primary cutaneous infection caused by B.
pumilus has not been reported.
The cell wall of Bacillus is a structure on the outside of the cell that forms the second barrier
between the bacterium and the environment, and at the same time maintains the rod shape
and withstands the pressure generated by the cell's turgor.
The cell wall is composed of teichoic and teichuronic acids. B. subtilis is the first bacterium for
which the role of an actin-likecytoskeleton in cell shape determination
and peptidoglycan synthesis was identified, and for which the entire set of peptidoglycan-
synthesizing enzymes was localised. The role of the cytoskeleton in shape generation and
maintenance is important
Use as model organism:
Bacillus subtilis is one of the best understood prokaryotes, in terms of molecular and cellular
biology. Its superb genetic amenability and relatively large size have provided the powerful
tools required to investigate a bacterium from all possible aspects. Recent improvements in
fluorescence microscopy techniques have provided novel and amazing insight into the dynamic
structure of a single cell organism. Research on B. subtilis has been at the forefront of bacterial
molecular biology and cytology, and the organism is a model for differentiation, gene/protein regulation, and
cell cycle events in bacteria
Many Bacillus species are able to secrete large quantities of enzymes. Bacillus
amyloliquefaciens is the source of a natural antibiotic protein barnase (a ribonuclease), alpha
amylase used in starch hydrolysis, the protease subtilisin used with detergents, and
the BamH1 restriction enzyme used in DNA research.
A portion of the Bacillus thuringiensis genome was incorporated into corn (and cotton) crops.
The resulting GMOs are therefore resistant to some insect pests.
Bacillus speciesare almostubiquitousinnature,e.g.insoil,butalsooccurinextreme environments
such as highpH (B. alcalophilus),hightemperature (B. thermophilus),or highsalt(B. halodurans). B.
thuringiensis producesa toxinthatcan kill insectsandthushas beenusedasinsecticide.
Two Bacillus species are considered medically significant: B. anthracis, which causes anthrax,
and B. cereus, which causesfood poisoning similar to that caused by Staphylococcus. A third
species, B. thuringiensis, is an important insect pathogen, and is sometimes used to control
insect pests. The type species is B. subtilis, an important model organism. It is also a notable
food spoiler, causing ropiness in bread and related food. Some environmental and commercial
strains of B. coagulans may play a role in food spoilage of highly acidic, tomato-based products.
An easy way to isolate Bacillus species is by placing nonsterile soil in a test tube with water,
shaking, placing in meltedmannitol salt agar, and incubating at room temperature for at least a
day. Colonies are usually large, spreading, and irregularly shaped. Under the microscope,
the Bacillus cells appear as rods, and a substantial portion of the cells usually contain
oval endospores at one end, making it bulge.
In Vitro Assessmentof MarineBacillus for Use as Livestock Probiotics:
Six antimicrobial-producingseaweed-derived Bacillus strainswere evaluated in vitro asanimal
probiotics,incomparisonto two Bacillus fromanEU-authorizedanimal probioticproduct.Antimicrobial
activitywasdemonstratedonsolidmediaagainstporcine Salmonella and E. coli. The marine isolates
were mostactive againstthe latter,hadbetteractivitythanthe commercial probioticsand Bacillus
pumilus WIT 588 also reduced E. coli countsinbroth.All of the marine Bacillus toleratedphysiological
concentrationsof bile,withsome astolerantasone of the probiotics.Spore countsforall isolates
All of the marine Bacillus grewanaerobicallyandthe sporesof all exceptone isolategerminatedunder
anaerobicconditions.Allwere sensitiveto a panel of antibioticsandnon harbored Bacillus enterotoxin
genesbutall,except B. pumilus WIT588, showedsome degreeof β-hemolysis.However,trypanblue
dye exclusionandxCELLigenceassaysdemonstratedalackof toxicityincomparisontotwopathogens;
infact, the commercial probioticsappearedmore cytotoxicthanthe majorityof the marine Bacillus.
Overall,some of the marine-derived Bacillus,inparticular B. pumilus WIT588, demonstrate potential
for use as livestockprobiotics.
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