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Content Area 2: Ancient Mediterranean part 2

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Archaic & Ancient Greek art

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Content Area 2: Ancient Mediterranean part 2

  1. 1. Content Area 2: Ancient Mediterranean 3500 BCE – 300 CE PART TWO APAH - Valenzuela 36 Works
  2. 2. Sub Units: a. Ancient Near East (Stokstad Ch. 2) b. Ancient Egypt (Stokstad Ch. 3) c. Aegean / Ancient Greek (Stokstad Ch. 4 & 5) d. Etruscan / Ancient Roman (Stokstad Ch. 6)
  3. 3. Part III Aegean Art & The Art of Ancient Greece Stokstad Chapters 4 & 5 Required Images from AP: 11
  4. 4. The Aegean in The Bronze Age... Since AP doesn’t include Aegean art in your image set, this will be a BRIEF overview of the art of the Aegean. I would encourage you to READ chapter four so you have some background, as it is the foundation for Greek art. It WILL be on your next test.
  5. 5. Aegean Cultures & Periods: Cycladic: 3000-1600 BCE (Cycladic islands in the Aegean Sea) *Produced stylized statuettes of nude standing females and nude males playing musical instruments Minoan: 1900-1375 BCE (Island of Crete) *Built mixed-use palaces with complex ground plans Mycenaean: 1600-1100 BCE (Greece) *Built massive citadels marked by cyclopean masonry and corbelled vaulting Aegean art’s three main civilizations:
  6. 6. Fresco Secco - Dry (Egypt) Buon Fresco - Wet (Aegean)
  7. 7. Mask of Agememnon; Mycenae, Gold, National Museum in Athens
  8. 8. The Cyclades
  9. 9. The Minoans: Crete
  10. 10. Minoan Architecture: Palace Complex at Knossos c. 2000-1375 BCE
  11. 11. Minoan Sculpture
  12. 12. Mycenaean Art & Architecture
  13. 13. Art of Ancient Greece Stokstad Chapter 5 AP Required Works: 10
  14. 14. Greek Artistic Periods: Archaic (600-480 BCE) Classical (480- 323 BCE) Hellenistic (323 - 30 BCE)
  15. 15. H I S T O R Y
  16. 16. EU: Greek art is characterized by pantheon of gods (particular set of gods; literally a pantheon is a temple or house of worship) that are represented by intricately done images of them decorating large civic or religious buildings. ● Greek art is studied chronologically according to changes in styles ● Greek works are not studied according to dynastic rule, as in Egypt, but according to broad changes in stylistic patterns ● Greek art is most known for idealization and harmonic proportions, both in sculpture and in architecture. ● Greek art has had an important impact on European art, particularly in the 18th century.
  17. 17. EU: Much ancient writing survives in the fields of literature, law, politics and business. These documents shed light on Greek civilization as a whole, and on Greek art in particular. ● Greek writing contains some of the earliest contemporary accounts about art and artists. ● Epics form the foundation of Greek writing. The texts were at first transmitted orally, but later recorded in writing.
  18. 18. Greek Art & Periods Geometric Period The Orientalizing Period The Archaic Period The Early Classical Period The High Classical Period The Late Classical Period The Hellenistic Period The Classical Period
  19. 19. Greek Pottery
  20. 20. Tomb Pottery:
  21. 21. Geometric Period
  22. 22. Orientalizing Period
  23. 23. Archaic Period 600 - 480 BCE Ajax and Achilles Playing a Game, Exekias, black figure amphora, later 6th century, 61cm, Vatican CIty Museum
  24. 24. archaic sculpture
  25. 25. Statue of a kouros (youth), ca. 590– 580 b.c.; Archaic Greek, Attic Naxian marble; H. without plinth 76 in. (193.04 cm)
  26. 26. A cast and painted cast of the Peplos Kore in the Museum of Classical Archaeology in Cambridge, England. The original is in the Acropolis Museum.
  27. 27. Classical Period (c.480-323 BCE)
  28. 28. Early Classical High Classical Late Classical Hellenistic Period
  29. 29. THE CHIASTIC PRINCIPLE
  30. 30. Doric + Ionic
  31. 31. The Erechtheion
  32. 32. Side A
  33. 33. Side B
  34. 34. Aphrodite of Knidios Late Classical -350 BCE marble Artist: Praxiteles
  35. 35. Hellenistic Period of Greece: Art & Architecture 323 - 31 BCE
  36. 36. Important to Note: ● Hellenistic Greek States were governed by Kings unlike previous periods where they were democratically ruled by their citizens. ● These rulers were specifically interested in exotic goods and amassed a great deal of them through building commercial relationships with cultures from all over Eurasia ● People moved freely throughout the Hellenistic world and everyone spoke a common language, koine, a kind of colloquial Greek.
  37. 37. A Few More Notes: ● With this newfound modernity, people also felt alienated and alone. At one time, they were in complete control of every detail of government and society, and now they were governed by bureaucrats. ● This feeling of alienation can be seen in the art of the time and read in both philosophy and literature. ● Both the art and the writing of the time reveals feelings of intensity, desperation, great emotion and toil, and even protest against commercialism and modernity. ● Art specifically expressed the importance of the individual and represented actual people as opposed to gods and ideal perfection.
  38. 38. by Athanadoros, Hagesandros, and Polydoros of Rhodes Laocoön and his Sons, early first century C.E., marble, 7'10 1/2" high (in the Vatican Museum)
  39. 39. Photo by Mrs. V at The Louvre
  40. 40. Dying Gaul, ancient Roman marble copy of a lost bronze Greek sculpture, c. 220 B.C.E.
  41. 41. Acropolis of Pergamon
  42. 42. ENDURING UNDERSTANDING 2-4. The art of Ancient Greece and Rome is grounded in civic ideals and polytheism. Etruscan and Roman artists and architects accumulated and creatively adapted Greek objects and forms to create buildings and artworks that appealed to their tastes for eclecticism and historicism. Essential Knowledge 2-4a. Ancient Greek art was produced in Europe and western Asia, primarily in the region of present-day Greece, Turkey, and southern Italy, from 600 B.C.E. to 100 C.E. Etruscan art (c. 700–100 B.C.E., from the region of Etruria in central Italy) and ancient Roman art was produced in Europe and western Asia from c. 753 B.C.E. to 337 C.E. The arts of these early western artistic cultures are generally studied chronologically. Additionally, archaeological models and stylistic analysis have identified periods based on stylistic changes. Artworks are assigned to periods according to styles (e.g., archaic Greek), governments, or dynasties (e.g., the Roman Republic). Essential Knowledge 2-4b. Art considered Ancient Greek includes works from the archaic, classical, and Hellenistic periods, as defined according to artistic style, not by political units such as governments or dynasties. Etruscan art is typically considered as a single cultural unit even though Etruria was comprised of separate city-states. Roman art includes works from the republican, early imperial, late imperial, and late antique periods, as defined using governmental structures and dynasties rather than stylistic characteristics. Many Hellenistic works are in fact Roman in origin, which favors presenting these traditions at the same time.
  43. 43. Essential Knowledge 2-4c. Ancient Greek, Etruscan, and Roman artists and architects were influenced by earlier Mediterranean cultures. Ancient Greek religious and civic architecture and figural representation are characterized by idealized proportions and spatial relationships, expressing societal values of harmony and order. Art from the Etruscan and Roman periods is typified by stylistic and iconographical eclecticism and portraiture. Etruscan and ancient Roman art express republican and imperial values, power, and preference for conspicuous display. Etruscan and Roman architecture are characterized by investment in public structures. Roman architecture is also characterized by borrowing from its immediate predecessors (Greek and Etruscan) and by technical innovation. Essential Knowledge 2-4d. Ancient Greek and Roman art provides the foundation for the later development of European and Mediterranean artistic traditions. From the 18th century onward, European and American observers admired ancient Greek and Roman ethical and governmental systems, which contributed to prioritizing art and architecture that could be associated with political elites and cultural capitals (e.g., Rome). More recently, art historians have examined art produced by contemporary subjects or “provincial” populations.
  44. 44. ENDURING UNDERSTANDING 2-5. Contextual information for ancient Greek and Roman art can be derived from contemporary literary, political, legal, and economic records as well as from archaeological excavations conducted from the mid-18th century onward. Etruscan art, by contrast, is illuminated primarily by modern archaeological record and by descriptions of contemporary external observers. Essential Knowledge 2-5a. Some of the earliest written statements about artists and art making survive from the ancient Greek and Roman worlds. Little survives of the rich Etruscan literary tradition that is documented in Roman sources. Essential Knowledge 2-5b. The Greek, Etruscan, and Roman cultures shared a rich tradition of epic storytelling (first orally transmitted, later written) that glorified the exploits of gods, goddesses, and heroes. The texts recorded a highly developed rhetorical tradition that prized public oratory and poetry. Religious rituals and prognostications were guided by oral tradition, not texts.
  45. 45. Πεπερασμένος! (Finished!)

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