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Unit No. 3
Entrepreneurship and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Small
scale industry, product range, capital investmen...
2
SSI’s
• Stands for Small Scale Industries
• MSME in Indian Context
• Governed by MSME Act, 2006
Small Scale Industries
• A SSI is an industrial undertaking in which the investment in
fixed assets in plant and machinery...
• The ministry of micro, small and medium enterprises acts as
the nodal agency for growth and development of SSIs in the
c...
Classification
Definitions After 2nd
Oct. 2006
Investment Ceiling for Plant, Machinery or Equipments
Classification Manufacturing
Enterpr...
Importance of MSMEs
• Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) are vital for
development of a country
– Helps reshaping...
Facts About MSME
• This sector contributes 8% of India’s GDP.
• It contributes 45% of manufactured output
and 40% of its e...
• The Small Scale Industry Sector holds the Key to
Economic Prosperity of the Indian Economy,
Characterized by abundant La...
Features of SSI
Characteristics of
Small Enterprises :
• A Small Enterprise is generally a “One Man Show”.
• Owner himself / herself is al...
Characteristics of
Small Enterprises :
• Small Enterprises use indigenous resources & therefore can be
located anywhere su...
• You need to make group of 5 and find any first
generation entrepreneur and discuss about his journey.
The detailed repor...
Advantages of Small
Enterprises :
15
 They are the Back Bone of the Industrial
Activity in the Country & are playing a ve...
2) They have Low Gestation Period & thereby Expensive
Financial Resources are not idled unproductively for long
periods.
3...
8) They Innovate & Introduce New Products
particularly to cater to Local Needs.
9) They influence & improve Standard of Li...
Role of Small enterprises in Indian
economy
Problems of SSI
Selection of Ownership
Legal Forms of Business
Three basic legal forms of business:
• Proprietorship - Single owner, unlimited liability, control...
24
25
• Employment
• Spreading social equality
• Some small financial banks have precisely targeted to loan
MSMEs’
26
24 Mantra Organic
• N Balasubramanian
• Founded in 2004, who
witnessed first-hand the
deep impact debt has on
rural farmer...
• They undertook the responsibility of converting 20 per
cent or 11,000 hectares of land in Sikkim by working with
close t...
• We identify smallholder farmers who are progressive and
enter in to a one-on-one contract. Our model is favorable
for ma...
Government Policy towards SSI
Small Scale Enterprises have been given an important
place in the frame work of Indian Plann...
Objectives
• The generation of Immediate Employment
Opportunities with relatively Low Investment.
• The promotion of more ...
Therefore, the Govt of India as well as various State Govts in the
Country have started various programs & evolved policie...
Governmental Support to Small
Scale Enterprises :
33
 Immediately after independence, Govt of India
initiated various ste...
• Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) 1948
• Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) 1956
• Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) 1...
Impact of Liberalization,
Privatization & Globalization of
Small Enterprises :
The process of Liberalization & Economic Re...
Salient features of the price policy
1. Increasing in the investment limit in plant and machinery of tiny
enterprises from...
6. Market promotion of small-scale industries products through co-operative/public sector
institutions, other specialized ...
Tax Benefits: Boon for the Growth of
SSIs
• Need for Tax benefits
• Tax Holidays (Section 80J of income tax act,1961):- Sm...
• Depreciation (Section 32 of the income tax act,
1961):- Small-scale industry is entitled to a
deduction on depreciation ...
• Rehabilitation Allowance (33-B income tax act, 1961):-
• (i) Flood, Cyclone, earthquake or other natural upheavals.
• (i...
• Investment Allowance (31-A income tax act, 1961):- The
investment allowance under the section 31A of the
Income-tax Act,...
• Expenditure on Scientific Research (35 income tax act, 1961):- The
following deductions in respect of expenditure on sci...
Greater Attention on TQM in
Small Enterprise:-
TQM can help strengthening of small enterprises in the following manner:
•(...
Entrepreneurship Development: Unit No. 3
Entrepreneurship Development: Unit No. 3
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Entrepreneurship Development: Unit No. 3

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As per PTU Syllabus: Entrepreneurship and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Small scale industry, product range, capital investment, ownership patterns -Importance and role played by SSI in the development of the Indian economy - Problems faced by SSI’s and the steps taken to solve the problems - Policies governing SSI’s.

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Entrepreneurship Development: Unit No. 3

  1. 1. Unit No. 3 Entrepreneurship and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Small scale industry, product range, capital investment, ownership patterns -Importance and role played by SSI in the development of the Indian economy - Problems faced by SSI’s and the steps taken to solve the problems - Policies governing SSI’s.
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. SSI’s • Stands for Small Scale Industries • MSME in Indian Context • Governed by MSME Act, 2006
  4. 4. Small Scale Industries • A SSI is an industrial undertaking in which the investment in fixed assets in plant and machinery, whether held on ownership term or on lease or hire purchase, does not exceed Rs.1 Crore. • This investment limit is varied by the government from time to time. • Entrepreneurs in small scale sector are normally not required to obtain a licence either from the Central Government or the State Government for setting up units in any part of the country. Registration of a small scale unit is also not compulsory.
  5. 5. • The ministry of micro, small and medium enterprises acts as the nodal agency for growth and development of SSIs in the country. (http://msme.gov.in/Web/Portal/New-Default.aspx) • Objective: To promote SSIs and enhance their competitiveness Various public sector enterprises assist it.
  6. 6. Classification
  7. 7. Definitions After 2nd Oct. 2006 Investment Ceiling for Plant, Machinery or Equipments Classification Manufacturing Enterprises Service Enterprises Micro Up to Rs. 2.5 million Up to Rs. 1 million Small Between 2.5 to 50 million Rs. 1 to 20 million Medium Rs. 50 million to Rs. 100 million Rs. 20 to 50 million
  8. 8. Importance of MSMEs • Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) are vital for development of a country – Helps reshaping the productive sectors – Generates employment – Creating an environment for entrepreneurship – Promotes innovation • Globally, MSMEs contribute over 90% of Business Enterprises and 50-60% of Total Employment. (UNIDO Report 2009-10)
  9. 9. Facts About MSME • This sector contributes 8% of India’s GDP. • It contributes 45% of manufactured output and 40% of its exports. • It provide employment to about 60 million people through 26 million enterprises.
  10. 10. • The Small Scale Industry Sector holds the Key to Economic Prosperity of the Indian Economy, Characterized by abundant Labor Supply, Unemployment & Under Employment , Scarcity of Finance, Growing Modern Large Industries providing scope for development of Ancillary Industries & so on. • The Small Scale Industry has grown phenomenally during the last Six Decades & has acquired a very prominent place in the Socio – Economic Development in the Country. 10
  11. 11. Features of SSI
  12. 12. Characteristics of Small Enterprises : • A Small Enterprise is generally a “One Man Show”. • Owner himself / herself is also a Manager of the Enterprise. Thus, a Small Enterprise is managed in a personalized manner. • A Small Enterprise has lesser Gestation Period compared to a Large Enterprise. • Small Enterprises generally carryout their operations so as to cater to the Local & Regional Markets. 12
  13. 13. Characteristics of Small Enterprises : • Small Enterprises use indigenous resources & therefore can be located anywhere subject to the availability of these resources like Raw Materials, Labor, Transport Facilities etc. • They are fairly Labor Intensive with comparatively smaller Capital Investment than the Larger Units. • Using Local Resources, Small Units are decentralized & dispersed to Rural Areas & Smaller Towns • Small Enterprises are more susceptible & highly reactive & receptive to Socio – Economic conditions compared to larger enterprises 13
  14. 14. • You need to make group of 5 and find any first generation entrepreneur and discuss about his journey. The detailed report comprised of the below points have to be submitted on 29th March, 2016: 1. Brief Profile of Person 2. Business Idea 3. Steps in Setting Business 4. Challenges faced by entrepreneur and how he overcome the same The entrepreneur has to got approved from undersigned latest by 22nd March, 2016 and interview of friends/family is not allowed. 14
  15. 15. Advantages of Small Enterprises : 15  They are the Back Bone of the Industrial Activity in the Country & are playing a very important role in improving the Socio – Economic Conditions of the people. Advantages of these Enterprises are as follows : 1) They create greater Employment Opportunities thro Labor Intensive processes & thereby help in tackling the Unemployment Problem.
  16. 16. 2) They have Low Gestation Period & thereby Expensive Financial Resources are not idled unproductively for long periods. 3) They can be set up easily in Rural & Backward Areas. 4) They need Small / Local / Regional Market. 5) They encourage growth of Local Entrepreneurship. 6) They create Decentralized pattern of Ownership. 7) They foster Diversification of Economic Activities. 16
  17. 17. 8) They Innovate & Introduce New Products particularly to cater to Local Needs. 9) They influence & improve Standard of Living of Local People. 10) They provide equitable dispersal of enterprises throughout Rural & Backward Areas. 11) They earn Vital Foreign Exchange for the Country through their Exports of Goods / Services. 12) They Increase Revenue to Central & State Govts by way of Taxes Paid by them. 17
  18. 18. Role of Small enterprises in Indian economy
  19. 19. Problems of SSI
  20. 20. Selection of Ownership
  21. 21. Legal Forms of Business Three basic legal forms of business: • Proprietorship - Single owner, unlimited liability, controls all decisions, and receives all profits. • Partnership - Two or more individuals having unlimited liability who have pooled resources to own a business. • Company - Most common form of corporation; regulated by statute; treated as a separate legal entity for liability and tax purposes.
  22. 22. 24
  23. 23. 25
  24. 24. • Employment • Spreading social equality • Some small financial banks have precisely targeted to loan MSMEs’ 26
  25. 25. 24 Mantra Organic • N Balasubramanian • Founded in 2004, who witnessed first-hand the deep impact debt has on rural farmers, who in a hope to increase their produce, end up spending the loan on buying and using harmful pesticides. 27
  26. 26. • They undertook the responsibility of converting 20 per cent or 11,000 hectares of land in Sikkim by working with close to 6,000 farmers. 28
  27. 27. • We identify smallholder farmers who are progressive and enter in to a one-on-one contract. Our model is favorable for many reasons – since organic farms produce everything on the farm itself (bio-fertilisers and bio- pesticides), farmers don’t need to borrow heavy loans, and are thereby freed from the vicious cycle of debt. We also pay a premium of 10 – 20 per cent to each farmer and since 24 Mantra is their platform for produce, it eliminates middlemen entirely. Our approach results in 10 – 15 per cent profits for organic farmers. 29
  28. 28. Government Policy towards SSI Small Scale Enterprises have been given an important place in the frame work of Indian Planning for both ideological & Economic Reasons. Development of Small Scale Enterprises have been taken up with various important objectives to be realized. 30
  29. 29. Objectives • The generation of Immediate Employment Opportunities with relatively Low Investment. • The promotion of more equitable distribution of National Income. • Effective mobilization of untapped Capital & Human Skills. • Dispersal of Manufacturing activities all over the Country, leading to growth of Villages , Small Towns & economically Backward Regions.
  30. 30. Therefore, the Govt of India as well as various State Govts in the Country have started various programs & evolved policies for the Development of Micro & Small Enterprises in the Country. Various measures taken by the Central & State Govts for the development of Micro & Small Enterprises have included Product Reservations, subsidies on fixed capital investment, Sales Tax & Income Tax Concessions, Preferential allocation of credit & interest subsidy, extension of business & Govt purchases, Marketing Assistance including Export Promotion by institutions such as National Small Industries Corporation, Small Industries Development Organization & several other agencies. 32
  31. 31. Governmental Support to Small Scale Enterprises : 33  Immediately after independence, Govt of India initiated various steps for promotion & development of Small Scale & Cottage Industries. Govt of India has attached great importance to the development of Small Enterprises Sector in all the Five Year Plans since the beginning in 1951.
  32. 32. • Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) 1948 • Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) 1956 • Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) 1977 • Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) 1980 • Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) 1990 • http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/essay/economics-essay/governmen 34
  33. 33. Impact of Liberalization, Privatization & Globalization of Small Enterprises : The process of Liberalization & Economic Reforms , since 1991, have thrown up new challenges to the small enterprises sector , simultaneously creating tremendous opportunities for the growth of this sector. In this changed scenario, building Competitive Strengths, introducing Technology Up gradation & Quality Improvement are important issues which need to be addressed in order to build the capacity to withstand emerging pressures & ensure sustained growth. Also small enterprises sector needs to reposition itself if it has to meet the growing demands for ancillary items , subcontracting etc from other Medium & Large Enterprises , requiring higher standards of Quality, Economies of Scale & strict delivery schedules. 35
  34. 34. Salient features of the price policy 1. Increasing in the investment limit in plant and machinery of tiny enterprises from Rs. 2 Lakhs to Rs. 5 Lakhs, irrespective of the location of the enterprise. 2. Inclusion of industry related service and business enterprises, irrespective of their location as small-scale industries. 3. To introduce a limited partnership act. This would limit the financial liability of the new enterprises to the capital invested. 4. Introduction of a scheme of integrated infrastructural development for small-scale industries. 5. Introduction of factoring services to help solve the problems of delayed payments of small-scale sector.
  35. 35. 6. Market promotion of small-scale industries products through co-operative/public sector institutions, other specialized professional/marketing agencies and the consortium approach. 7. To set up a Technology Development Cell in the small industries development organization. 8. To accord priority to small and tiny sector in the allocation of indigenous raw materials. 9. Setting up of an Export Development Center in the small industries development organization. 10.To widen the scope of the National Equity Fund (NEF) to enlarge the single window scheme and also to associate commercial banks with provision of composite loans. The new policy was founded on a proper understanding of the fundamental problems of the small- scale sector and the measures proposed by it have integrated the various handicaps that face this sector.
  36. 36. Tax Benefits: Boon for the Growth of SSIs • Need for Tax benefits • Tax Holidays (Section 80J of income tax act,1961):- Small-scale industries, are exempted from the payment of income-tax of their profits subject to a maximum of 6% per annum of their capital employed. This exemption in tax is allowed for the period of five years from the commencement of production. • Conditions:- (i) The unit should not have been formed by the splitting or reconstitution of an existing unit. • (ii) The unit should employ ten or more workers in a manufacturing process with power, or at least twenty workers without power.
  37. 37. • Depreciation (Section 32 of the income tax act, 1961):- Small-scale industry is entitled to a deduction on depreciation on block of assets at the prescribed rate • In the case of the small-scale industry, deduction from the actual cost of plant and machinery is allowed subject to a maximum of rupees 20 Lakhs 39
  38. 38. • Rehabilitation Allowance (33-B income tax act, 1961):- • (i) Flood, Cyclone, earthquake or other natural upheavals. • (ii) Riot or civil disturbance Accident fire or explosion • (iii) Action by an enemy or action taken in combating an enemy. • The rehabilitation allowance should be used for the business purposes within three years of the unit's re-establishment reconstruction of revival. • The rehabilitation allowance is allowed to the unit equivalent of 60% of the amount of the deduction allowable to the unit.
  39. 39. • Investment Allowance (31-A income tax act, 1961):- The investment allowance under the section 31A of the Income-tax Act, 1961, is allowed at the rate of 25% of the cost of acquisition of new plant or machinery installed • A small-scale industry can avail of investment allowance provided it has put to use machinery or plant either in the year of installation or in the immediate following year, falling which the benefit will be forfeited.
  40. 40. • Expenditure on Scientific Research (35 income tax act, 1961):- The following deductions in respect of expenditure on scientific research are allowed • (i) Any revenue expenditure incurred on scientific research related to the business of the assessee in the previous year. • (ii) Any sum that it pays to a scientific research association or a university, college, institutions or to a public company which has as its object, the undertaking of scientific research. • (iii) Any capital expenditure incurred on scientific research related to the business of the assessee subject to the provision of section 35(2) of the Income Tax Act, 1961.
  41. 41. Greater Attention on TQM in Small Enterprise:- TQM can help strengthening of small enterprises in the following manner: •(i) By increasing efficiency in processes. •(ii) By providing more time for innovation and creativity. •(iii) Boosting the morale of employees •(iv) Improving the quality of products and services •(v) Enhancing customer satisfaction •(vi) Snatching higher market share •(vii)Generating higher productivity •(viii) Achieving higher profits, etc.

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