WHAT IS FORMULA ONE ??? Highest class of auto racing sanctioned by the Federation Internationale de I’Automobile (FIA) It referred to as “The pinnacle of Motor Sports” Formula one cars race at high speeds up to 360 km per hour with engines reviving up to a formula imposed limit of 18,000 rpm
F1 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP Consists of 2 championships Drivers Constructors Upcoming season includes 12 teams and 24 drivers and 20 Grands Prix It includes races some of the most iconic tracks like Spa-Francorchamps, Monza, Nurburgring and silverstone
AERODYNAMICS OF F1 CARS Increase downforce of the car Reduce the drag on the car and consequently improving top speed of the car Both are interrelated to each other
CONCEPT OF DOWNFORCE Downforce describes the downward pressure created by the aerodynamic characteristic of a car. The principle that allows an aeroplane to rise off the ground by creating lift is used in reverse to apply force that presses the race car against the surface of the car . This effect is called aerodynamic grip. It can only be achieved at the cost of increased drag.
Stastics for the Downforce Downforce Drag L/D Cd Speed For (in lbs) (in lbs) measureme nts (in mph)Short Oval 3460 1310 2.64 1.397 165Street 3040 1070 2.84 1.141 165circuitsSpeedway 2835 972 2.92 0.669 220
CALCULATING DOWNFORCE D is Downforce in Newtons WS is Wingspan in Metres H is Height in Metres AoA is Angle of Attack F is Aerodynamic coefficient ρ is Air density in kg/m3 V is Velocity in m/s2
How the Downforce is generated??? FRONT WINGSThe shape of airfoils , includingsurface area,aspect ratio andcross section of the device.Larger Angle of attack createsmore downforce Its End Plates reduce drag andalso direct air over the frontwheels Accounts approx. 33% of thedownforce
Contd… REAR WING Upper portion ia atraditional multi-elementairfoil with end plates. Lower portion pulls ordrives air from the undertray Generates approximately33%of the downforce.
TYRES The only points ofcontact with track surface Accelerartion andcornering very muchdepends on the tyresinteraction Anti-thesis of optimalaerodynamics becausethey contribute significantdrag
ENGINES Normally aspirated 2.4 L V8 engines Fuel injected controlled by standard engine control unitmanufactured by Mclaren Limited to 18,000 rpm Produce upto 750 hp Current engine manufacturers are Ferrari, Mercedes,Renault and Cosworth
STEERING WHEEL Most importantinterface for the driver Controls for enginesmixtures, engine map,car-pit radio etc aroundThe steering Cost around ₤ 30,000
REAR DIFFUSERS Gather and organise the high-speed air rushing underthe car It helps in preventing flow separation from the undertrayprofile. These are precisely defined for reducing drag losses. Another major importance factor is to achieve the highervelocity (lower pressure).
DOUBLE DECK DIFFUSER Some teams interpretedregulations to make diffuserchannels wider Their diffuser channelswere wider and hence moreEffective in generatingDownforce It was pioneered by Brawn,Toyota and Williams
FLEXI WINGS Red bull wing allow nonlinear deformation abovecertain loads and still clearedFIA test Running front wings closerto the ground allows for evengreater downforce Example of aeroelasticityin front wing design
F-DUCT SYSTEM Rear wing stalling devicecontrolled by leg of a driver Gain a significant greatertop speed for the MP4/25 upto 7-12 km/h It was pioneered byMclaren
BLOWN DIFFUSER Blowing exhaust intothe difuser to increase themass flow and henceincrement in downforce It allowed lap timeimprovement of 1 sec. It was pioneered byRed Bull