Inequality and Poverty in India

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Inequality and Poverty in India

  1. 1. Dr. Amit KapoorHonorary Chairman, Institute for Competitiveness, India & Professor of Strategy, MDI, Gurgaon, India
  2. 2. Poverty Concept and DefinitionsNarrow vs Broader Definitions:Nolan and Whelan define poverty in terms of the inability to participate in society(which is broader than more ‘absolute’ definitions confined to subsistence needs),but emphasize that what is distinctive is the ‘inability to participate owing to lack ofresources’ (1996: 188).By implication they exclude non-material elements found in broad UNdefinitions, for example: ‘lack of participation in decision-making’, ‘a violation ofhuman dignity’, ‘powerlessness’ and ‘susceptibility to violence’ (cited inLangmore, 2000: 37). Similarly, they exclude some of the non-material aspectsemphasized by people in poverty themselves, such as lack of voice, respect andself-esteem, isolation and humiliation (UKCAP, 1997; Galloway, 2002). Source: World bank,2012
  3. 3. Poverty Concept and DefinitionsIncome or Living Standards:Another source of variation in definitions of poverty, reflected in the literature onmeasurement, lies in whether they are rooted in conceptualizations that areconcerned with, on the one hand, a person’s material resources, especiallyincome, and, on the other, with actual outcomes in terms of living standards andactivities (Nolan and Whelan, 1996).Put simply, someone is ‘“poor” when they have both a low standard of living anda low income’ (Gordon et al., 2000b: 91).A. B. Atkinson makes a related, but more fundamental, distinction between aconcern with standard of living and a concern with a citizen’s ‘right to a minimumlevel of resources’ (1989: 12, emphasis added). Source: World bank,2012
  4. 4. Poverty Concept and DefinitionsIncome Or Capabilities:Amartya Sen offers an alternative perspective on the role of low income in thedefinition of poverty. It has been hugely influential within the internationaldevelopment context, contributing to a paradigm shift in the meaning ofdevelopment away from economic growth and GDP to a focus on ‘poverty as adenial of choices and opportunities for living a tolerable life’ (UNDP, 1997: 2;Vizard, 2001).The human poverty and development indices published in the annual UNDPHuman Development Report reflect Sen’s approach.Sen takes a step backwards from both income and living standards to ask whythey matter. His answer is that they don’t matter in their own right, for they aresimply instrumental to what really matters, namely the kind of life that a person isable to lead and the choices and opportunities open to her in leading that life. Atthe heart of his approach is an understanding of living as involving ‘being anddoing’. Source: World bank,2012
  5. 5. Poverty Concept and DefinitionsAbsolute and Relative Poverty:This distinction has been central to post-war debates about how to define poverty.Definitions deployed in the late nine- tenth and early twentieth century by CharlesBooth and Seebohm Rowntree, the pioneers of modern poverty research, weresupposedly ‘absolute’ in the sense that poverty was said to be understood as lackingsufficient money to meet basic physical needs.At its most basic, absolute poverty is defined in terms of survival; more commonly itrefers to subsistence, linked to a basic standard of physical capacity necessary forproduction (paid work) and reproduction (the bearing and nurturing of children).The notion of ‘relative’, which links the concepts of relative poverty anddeprivation, needs unpacking, as it embraces a number of different meanings. Broadlythese fall into two, interrelated, categories concerning, first, the nature of thecomparisons to be made in judging whether poverty exists and, second, the nature ofhuman needs. Source: World bank,2012
  6. 6. 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 693.8 926.4 773.7 925.2 691.7 871 655.6 775.3 617.3 806.7 747.8 1040.3 931 1025.4Source: Planning Commission, 2012 725.9 951.4 791.6 975.4 708 888.3 722.9 845.4 616.3 831.2 629.4 908 RURAL(Monthly per capita in Rs) 775.3 830.7 631.9 771.7 743.7 961.1 871 955 686.9 989.8 850 939.3 1016.8 1147.6 567.1 736 Poverty Line Urban and Rural in India URBAN (Monthly per capita in Rs) 641 777.7 830 960.8 755 846 728.9 1035.2 639 800.8 663.4 782.7 663.7 799.9 719.5 898.6 643.2 830.6
  7. 7. Poverty according to Tendulkar Methodology West Bengal 34.2 26.7 Uttarakhand 32.7 18 Uttar Pradesh 40.9 37.7 Tripura 40 17.4 Tamil Nadu 29.4 17.1 Sikkim 30.9 13.1 Rajasthan 34.4 24.8 Punjab 20.9 15.9 Orissa 57.2 37 Nagaland 8.8 20.9 Mizoram 15.4 21.1 Meghalaya 16.1 17.1 Manipur 37.9 47.1 Maharashtra 38.2 24.5 Madhya Pradesh 48.6 36.7 Kerala 19.6 12 Karnataka 33.3 23.6 Jharkhand 45.3 39.1 Jammu & Kashmir 13.1 9.4 Himachal Pradesh 22.9 9.5 Haryana 24.1 20.1 Gujarat 31.6 23 Goa 24.9 8.7 Delhi 13 14.2 Chhattisgarh 49.4 48.7 Bihar 54.4 53.5 Assam 34.4 37.9 Arunachal Pradesh 31.4 25.9 Andhra Pradesh 29.6 21.1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 % age of Persons below Poverty line (Tendulkar Methodology)-2004-05 % age of Persons below Poverty line (Tendulkar Methodology)-2009-10Source: Planning Commission
  8. 8. Poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day (PPP) (% of population) 2011 or last year available Nigeria 84.49 South Africa 31.33Russian Federation 0.05 Rwanda 82.37 India 68.72 China 29.79 Brazil 10.82 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Source: World bank,2012
  9. 9. Poverty headcount ratio at $1.25 a day (PPP) (% of population) 2011 or last year available Nigeria 67.98 South Africa 13.77 Rwanda 63.17Russian Federation 0 India 32.67 China 13.06 Brazil 6.14 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Source: World bank,2012
  10. 10. Gini Index 2011 or last year available70605040 63.1430 54.69 50.82 48.83 42.4820 40.11 33.3810 0 Brazil China India Russian Federation Rwanda South Africa NigeriaSource: World bank,2012
  11. 11. Cities in India 8 KE UP 7 MH Number of Megacities (Population > 1 Million) 6 5 GJ MP TN 4 JH RJ AP 3 CH PB WB 2 JK DL HR BH KA 1 HP AS UK NE OR 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Number of Class A Cities ( Population > 1 LakhSource: Census 2011
  12. 12. Urbanization in India 180.0 160.0 SKPercentage Decade Growth in Urban Population 140.0 120.0 100.0 KE TR 80.0 NA 60.0 CH MN HR UK BH AP JK AN GJ GA 40.0 MEUPJH KA AS OR RJ WB MP PB TN MZ DL MH HP 20.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 % Share of Urban Population in Total Population Source: Census,2011
  13. 13. Slums and Poverty ratio in India 20.00 18.00 DL MH 16.00% og Slum Population to Total Population 14.00 HR TN 12.00 MZ PB WB AN 10.00 GO MP CH UK AP ME GJ 8.00 KA UP RJ 6.00 JK OR NA TR AS 4.00 MN JH SK KE BH 2.00 HP 0.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Poverty Ratio - Urban Source: World bank,2012
  14. 14. Households with Drinking water facilities 80 NA BH% of households without tapwater as major source of drinking water 70 AS KE 60 UP JH 50 TR CH 40 OR MN MP WB MZ 30 UK AN HR PB TN 20 GJ GA RJ AP HP DL MH JK KA 10 ME SK 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % of households with drinking water facility outside premisis (Distance >200m) Source: World bank,2012
  15. 15. Households and Sanitation 35 CH 30 OR BH% of households with no sanitation facility MP JH 25 20 TN UP 15 RJ JK KA AN GA 10 HP HR GJ WB MH PB 5 UK NA KE DL AS TR ME MZ SK AP MN 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % of households with no bathroom facility Source: World bank,2012
  16. 16. Households and Drainage facilities 70 TR 60 KE% of households with no drainage facility 50 40 OR GA MZ MNNA 30 CH BH AS WB JH TN 20 AP AN MP HP KA MH RJ JK GJ 10 UP UK PB HR DL ME SK 0 79 82 85 88 91 94 97 100 % of households with domestic use for electricity Source: World bank,2012
  17. 17. Urban Housing Shortages 4 MH 3.5 3 TNUrban Housng Shortage ( In Millions) 2.5 UK WB AN 2 GJKA 1.5 MP DL RJ 1 KE PB BH JH OR HR 0.5 CH AS UP JK AP NA ME TR MZ GA HP MN SK 0 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Per capita Floor Area ( sq m) in urban areas Source: World bank,2012
  18. 18. Rents paid by households 2500 KA 2000Average Rent Paid by houeholds ( In Rs) SK ME DL 1500 KE GA UK MH AN RJ MZ BH UP OR TN NA HR GJ 1000 AS JK HP MP TR MN AP PB JH CH WB 500 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 % of Households living in rented dwellings Source: World bank,2012
  19. 19. Percentage and Population of Poor in India % age of Persons below Poverty line Number of Persons (In Lakhs) (Tendulkar Methodology)-2009-10Andhra Pradesh 176.6 21.1Arunachal Pradesh 3.5 25.9Assam 116.4 37.9Bihar 543.5 53.5Chhattisgarh 121.9 48.7Delhi 23.3 14.2Goa 1.3 8.7Gujarat 136.2 23Haryana 50 20.1Himachal Pradesh 6.4 9.5Jammu & Kashmir 11.5 9.4Jharkhand 126.2 39.1Karnataka 142.3 23.6Kerala 39.6 12Madhya Pradesh 261.8 36.7Maharashtra 270.8 24.5Manipur 12.5 47.1Meghalaya 4.9 17.1Mizoram 2.3 21.1Nagaland 4.1 20.9Orissa 153.2 37Punjab 43.5 15.9Rajasthan 167 24.8Sikkim 0.8 13.1Tamil Nadu 121.8 17.1Tripura 6.3 17.4Uttar Pradesh 737.9 37.7Uttarakhand 17.9 18West Bengal 240.3 26.7India 3546.8 20.9
  20. 20. Poverty Lines for various states RURAL(Monthly per capita in Rs) URBAN (Monthly per capita in Rs)Andhra Pradesh 693.8 926.4Arunachal Pradesh 773.7 925.2Assam 691.7 871Bihar 655.6 775.3Chhattisgarh 617.3 806.7Delhi 747.8 1040.3Goa 931 1025.4Gujarat 725.9 951.4Haryana 791.6 975.4Himachal Pradesh 708 888.3Jammu & Kashmir 722.9 845.4Jharkhand 616.3 831.2Karnataka 629.4 908Kerala 775.3 830.7Madhya Pradesh 631.9 771.7Maharashtra 743.7 961.1Manipur 871 955Meghalaya 686.9 989.8Mizoram 850 939.3Nagaland 1016.8 1147.6Orissa 567.1 736Puducherry 641 777.7Punjab 830 960.8Rajasthan 755 846Sikkim 728.9 1035.2Tamil Nadu 639 800.8Tripura 663.4 782.7Uttar Pradesh 663.7 799.9Uttarakhand 719.5 898.6West Bengal 643.2 830.6
  21. 21. Country Equivalents BAHA CUBA MAS Source: EIU 2011, Institute for Competitiveness Analysis
  22. 22. Prosperity in India Jammu and Kashmir 474 Himachal Pradesh Pakistan 872 China Punjab Uttarakhand 821 650 1056 Haryana 1652 Delhi Arunachal Pradesh Nepal 669 553 Uttar Pradesh Sikkim Rajasthan 320 494 Assam Nagaland 396 Bihar Meghalaya 378 571 254 Manipur 394 Gujarat Jharkhand Tripura Mizoram 941 Madhya Pradesh 404 West Bengal 544 529 377 615 Chhattisgarh 534 Odisha Maharashtra 487 945 Bay of Bengal Arabian Sea Andhra Pradesh Goa 698 1788 Karnataka 713 Tamil Nadu Kerala 801 933 Sri Lanka Indian Ocean All the figures are in dollars, The exchange rate taken for arriving at the figures was 1 US$ = 49 Rupees Source: Institute for Competitiveness Analysis
  23. 23. Demographics of India 2011 Age Pyramid for India in 2011 80+ 4469 5163 75-79 6075 7017 70-74 8910 10034 65-69 11991 12406 60-64 16693 15712 55-59 22391 20447 50-54 28157 26038 45-49 33218 31993 40-44 36773 36691 Males 35-39 40596 40164 Female 30-34 46050 42855 25-29 54078 47877 20-24 62281 55757 15-19 63479 58248 10-14 61318 57259 5-9 60092 53394 0-4 60746 5413380000 60000 40000 20000 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 Population of males / females in Thousands in 2011 Source: Census of India, Institute for Competitiveness Analysis
  24. 24. Demographics of India 2026 Age Pyramid for India in 2026 80+ 8412 11465 75-79 9937 10644 70-74 15820 15819 65-69 22185 21982 60-64 28268 28651 55-59 32968 34124 50-54 37704 38267 45-49 43702 41361 40-44 51965 46466 Male 35-39 60313 54219 Female 30-34 61859 56739 25-29 60113 55998 20-24 59176 52410 15-19 59529 52739 10-14 59500 52734 5-9 58396 51790 0-4 55328 49256 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 Projected Population of males / females in Thousands Source: Census of India, Institute for Competitiveness Analysis
  25. 25. Overall Dependence Ratio of States Dependence Ratios 2011 Dependence ratio 2026 West Bengal 44.58 42.35 Uttarakhand 56.39 47.88 Uttar Pradesh 66.11 55.02 Tamil Nadu 43.07 43.78 Rajasthan 60.51 46.67 Punjab 46.62 41.77 Orissa 48.47 43.43 NE States Excluding Assam 44.57 42.23 Maharashtra 48.85 42.72 Madhya Pradesh 60.18 48.37 Kerala 45.23 45.96 Karnataka 45.97 43.46 Jharkhand 55.35 47.13 Jammu & Kashmir 50.27 43.11 Himachal Pradesh 46.91 42.87 Haryana 51.12 41.24 Gujarat 48.40 43.16 Delhi 39.96 34.81 Chattisgarh 57.45 48.40 Bihar 49.71 47.67 Assam 51.97 45.14 Andhra Pradesh 45.05 42.4980.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 Dependence ratio 2011 Dependence ratio 2026 Source: Census of India, Institute for Competitiveness Analysis
  26. 26. Factors of Poverty Disease Ignorance Apathy Poverty Disease DependencySource: 1967, 1987, 2007 Phil Bartle
  27. 27. Misery Index for states (Rural) 2009-10 West Bengal 23.87 Uttar Pradesh 19.67 Uttaranchal 19.22 Tripura 21.72 Tamil Nadu 27.07 Sikkim 19.42 Rajasthan 20.04 Punjab 23.17 Orissa 21.11 Nagaland 30.62 Mizoram 16.42 Meghalaya 12.47 Manipur 15.89 Maharashtra 25.02 Madhya Pradesh 21.08 Kerala 26.55 Karnataka 20.81 Jharkhand 21.92Jammu and Kashmir 20.47 Himachal Pradesh 16.37 Haryana 24.17 Gujarat 23.21 Goa 20.02 Delhi 21.22 Chattisgarh 17.92 Bihar 17.51 Assam 21.90 Arunachal Pradesh 15.92 Andhra Pradesh 21.55 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 Source: NSSO, and RBI
  28. 28. Misery Index for states (Urban) 2009-10 West Bengal 23.17 18.57 Uttaranchal 20.92 26.42 Tamil Nadu 20.97 14.92 Rajasthan 20.84 24.07 Orissa 19.31 26.32 Mizoram 18.12 17.07 Manipur 16.89 23.92 Madhya Pradesh 19.88 24.05 Karnataka 21.51 23.82Jammu and Kashmir 22.77 18.77 Haryana 22.37 20.31 Goa 19.82 17.92 Chattisgarh 19.02 20.91 Assam 20.70 19.62 Andhra Pradesh 19.55 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 Source: NSSO, and RBI
  29. 29. Components of Misery Index (Rural) West Bengal 7.2 16.67 Uttar Pradesh 5.6 14.07 Uttaranchal 4.5 14.72 Tripura 14.1 7.62 Tamil Nadu 14.1 12.97 Sikkim 4.7 14.72 Rajasthan 3.1 16.94 Punjab 6.2 16.97 Orissa 8.1 13.01 Nagaland 15.9 14.72 Mizoram 1.7 14.72 Meghalaya 0.9 11.57 Manipur 4.1 11.79 Maharashtra 6.7 18.32 Madhya Pradesh 6.7 14.38 Kerala 17.3 9.25 Karnataka 4 16.81 Jharkhand 7.2 14.72Jammu and Kashmir 4.8 15.67 Himachal Pradesh 4.3 12.07 Haryana 6.1 18.07 Gujarat 6 17.21 Goa 5.3 14.72 Delhi 6.5 14.72 Chattisgarh 3.2 14.72 Bihar 5.4 12.11 Assam 6.6 15.30 Arunachal Pradesh 1.2 14.72 Andhra Pradesh 7.5 14.05 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Source: NSSO, and RBI Unemployment rate Per 100 people (Rural Areas) Inflation (CPI)
  30. 30. Components of Misery Index (Urban) West Bengal 6.5 16.67 Uttar Pradesh 4.5 14.07 Uttaranchal 6.2 14.72 Tripura 18.8 7.62 Tamil Nadu 8 12.97 Sikkim 0.2 14.72 Rajasthan 3.9 16.94 Punjab 7.1 16.97 Orissa 6.3 13.01 Nagaland 11.6 14.72 Mizoram 3.4 14.72 Meghalaya 5.5 11.57 Manipur 5.1 11.79 Maharashtra 5.6 18.32 Madhya Pradesh 5.5 14.38 Kerala 14.8 9.25 Karnataka 4.7 16.81 Jharkhand 9.1 14.72Jammu and Kashmir 7.1 15.67 Himachal Pradesh 6.7 12.07 Haryana 4.3 18.07 Gujarat 3.1 17.21 Goa 5.1 14.72 Delhi 3.2 14.72 Chattisgarh 4.3 14.72 Bihar 8.8 12.11 Assam 5.4 15.30 Arunachal Pradesh 4.9 14.72 Andhra Pradesh 5.5 14.05 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Source: NSSO, and RBI Unemployment rate Per 100 people (Urban Areas) Inflation (CPI)
  31. 31. Misery Index for Rural Areas : Composition 2005-06 2007-08 2009-10 2005-06 2007-08 2009-10 2005-06 2007-08 2009-10 Urban Unemployment rates Inflation rate Misery Index Andhra Pradesh 8.4 6.5 5.5 3.92 7.23 14.05 12.32 13.73 19.55 Arunachal Pradesh 9.4 4.8 4.9 4.07 7.47 14.72 13.47 12.27 19.62 Assam 9.6 10.8 5.4 4.02 7.47 15.30 13.62 18.27 20.70 Bihar 11.8 7.8 8.8 6.44 7.03 12.11 18.24 14.83 20.91 Chattisgarh 9.1 8.1 4.3 4.07 7.47 14.72 13.17 15.57 19.02 Delhi 3.7 2.6 3.2 4.07 7.47 14.72 7.77 10.07 17.92 Goa 12.4 7.7 5.1 4.07 7.47 14.72 16.47 15.17 19.82 Gujarat 5.4 3.8 3.1 5.13 5.21 17.21 10.53 9.01 20.31 Haryana 5.4 3.5 4.3 4.16 10.92 18.07 9.56 14.42 22.37 Himachal Pradesh 5.8 6.4 6.7 3.63 2.45 12.07 9.43 8.85 18.77 Jammu and Kashmir 7.7 7.1 7.1 4.06 5.36 15.67 11.76 12.46 22.77 Jharkhand 13.1 9.6 9.1 4.07 7.47 14.72 17.17 17.07 23.82 Karnataka 8.7 5.2 4.7 0.29 10.63 16.81 8.99 15.83 21.51 Kerala 20.1 18.2 14.8 1.14 7.75 9.25 21.24 25.95 24.05 Madhya Pradesh 6.2 6.6 5.5 5.07 6.19 14.38 11.27 12.79 19.88 Maharashtra 8.5 6.7 5.6 5.14 7.46 18.32 13.64 14.16 23.92 Manipur 9.4 5.7 5.1 5.47 8.90 11.79 14.87 14.60 16.89 Meghalaya 9.4 5.6 5.5 6.70 7.07 11.57 16.10 12.67 17.07 Mizoram 9.4 4.8 3.4 4.07 7.47 14.72 13.47 12.27 18.12 Nagaland 9.4 17.4 11.6 4.07 7.47 14.72 13.47 24.87 26.32 Orissa 9.7 8.9 6.3 4.38 9.59 13.01 14.08 18.49 19.31 Punjab 6.9 4.7 7.1 6.15 7.43 16.97 13.05 12.13 24.07 Rajasthan 5 5.3 3.9 9.28 6.30 16.94 14.28 11.60 20.84 Sikkim 9.4 7.4 0.2 4.07 7.47 14.72 13.47 14.87 14.92 Tamil Nadu 8.5 11.2 8 2.01 8.63 12.97 10.51 19.83 20.97 Tripura 9.4 26.6 18.8 6.36 6.27 7.62 15.76 32.87 26.42 Uttaranchal 3.8 9.3 6.2 4.07 7.47 14.72 7.87 16.77 20.92 Uttar Pradesh 6.6 7.3 4.5 7.23 6.13 14.07 13.83 13.43 18.57 West Bengal 10.7 9.6 6.5 1.79 8.22 16.67 12.49 17.82 23.17 India 8.3 7.4 5.8 4.07 7.47 14.72 12.37 14.87 20.52Source: World bank,2012
  32. 32. Misery Index for Urban Areas : Composition 2005-06 2007-08 2009-10 2005-06 2007-08 2009-10 2005-06 2007-08 2009-10 Rural Unemployment rates Inflation rate Misery IndexAndhra Pradesh 9 8.6 7.5 3.92 7.23 14.05 12.92 15.83 21.55Arunachal Pradesh 5.3 2.8 1.2 4.07 7.47 14.72 9.37 10.27 15.92Assam 5.4 7 6.6 4.02 7.47 15.30 9.42 14.47 21.90Bihar 4.9 9.2 5.4 6.44 7.03 12.11 11.34 16.23 17.51Chattisgarh 8.7 6.7 3.2 4.07 7.47 14.72 12.77 14.17 17.92Delhi 2.2 3.8 6.5 4.07 7.47 14.72 6.27 11.27 21.22Goa 16.1 4.9 5.3 4.07 7.47 14.72 20.17 12.37 20.02Gujarat 4.1 3.5 6 5.13 5.21 17.21 9.23 8.71 23.21Haryana 8 6.9 6.1 4.16 10.92 18.07 12.16 17.82 24.17Himachal Pradesh 4.9 6.8 4.3 3.63 2.45 12.07 8.53 9.25 16.37Jammu and Kashmir 6.7 5.9 4.8 4.06 5.36 15.67 10.76 11.26 20.47Jharkhand 11.6 9.2 7.2 4.07 7.47 14.72 15.67 16.67 21.92Karnataka 7.1 6 4 0.29 10.63 16.81 7.39 16.63 20.81Kerala 22.7 19.3 17.3 1.14 7.75 9.25 23.84 27.05 26.55Madhya Pradesh 5.1 6.7 6.7 5.07 6.19 14.38 10.17 12.89 21.08Maharashtra 7.9 8.8 6.7 5.14 7.46 18.32 13.04 16.26 25.02Manipur 5.3 4.2 4.1 5.47 8.90 11.79 10.77 13.10 15.89Meghalaya 5.3 1.5 0.9 6.70 7.07 11.57 12.00 8.57 12.47Mizoram 5.3 0.6 1.7 4.07 7.47 14.72 9.37 8.07 16.42Nagaland 5.3 7.1 15.9 4.07 7.47 14.72 9.37 14.57 30.62Orissa 9.9 8.3 8.1 4.38 9.59 13.01 14.28 17.89 21.11Punjab 10.6 8.2 6.2 6.15 7.43 16.97 16.75 15.63 23.17Rajasthan 4.2 5.1 3.1 9.28 6.30 16.94 13.48 11.40 20.04Sikkim 5.3 4.2 4.7 4.07 7.47 14.72 9.37 11.67 19.42Tamil Nadu 14.9 17.3 14.1 2.01 8.63 12.97 16.91 25.93 27.07Tripura 5.3 18.3 14.1 6.36 6.27 7.62 11.66 24.57 21.72Uttaranchal 3.3 8.9 4.5 4.07 7.47 14.72 7.37 16.37 19.22Uttar Pradesh 5.2 5.3 5.6 7.23 6.13 14.07 12.43 11.43 19.67West Bengal 11.7 12.2 7.2 1.79 8.22 16.67 13.49 20.42 23.87India 8.1 8.4 6.8 4.07 7.47 14.72 12.17 15.87 21.52
  33. 33. Change in Rural Misery Index 40.000 Rajasthan Jharkhand 35.000CAGR Growth rate in Misery Index (Rural) 2005-06 to 2009-10 Meghalaya 30.000 Karnataka Uttarakhand 25.000 Punjab Madhya Pradesh Mizoram 20.000 Bihar Orissa West Bengal Manipur Andhra Pradesh Sikkim Tamil Nadu Jammu & Kashmir 15.000 Himachal Pradesh Kerala Chhattisgarh Haryana Nagaland Goa Gujarat Uttar Pradesh Assam 10.000 Maharashtra 5.000 Tripura Arunachal Pradesh Delhi 0.000 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 -5.000 Misery Index Rural 2009-10 Source: NSSO, and RBI
  34. 34. Change in Urban Misery Index 30.00 KarnatakaCAGR Growth rate in Misery Index (Urban) 2005-06 to 2009-10 Meghalaya 25.00 Bihar Rajasthan 20.00 Orissa Chhattisgarh West Bengal Jharkhand Uttarakhand Tamil Nadu Maharashtra Mizoram 15.00 Manipur Andhra Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Punjab Himachal Pradesh Goa 10.00 Uttar Pradesh Assam Kerala Gujarat Sikkim Delhi 5.00 Haryana Tripura Nagaland Madhya Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh 0.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00 22.00 24.00 26.00 28.00 Misery Index Urban 2009-10 Source: NSSO, and RBI
  35. 35. The End

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