Competitiveness of Indian Cities

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  • 1. India’s contribution in world’s GDP (in 2010 and in 2030)2. It’s GDP increase over a period
  • Top 10 States that are major contributors in India’s GDPRegions/cities of these states that are among the top 15 GDP contributorsThe diagram on the second page of the report that details on our area of focus
  • Graph depicting population size and growth rateGraph with urban population and rural population (rural-urban divide)
  • Like the graph on slide 7, make one for towns, urban agglomerations, districts, villages over years
  • 1. India’s contribution in world’s GDP (in 2010 and in 2030)2. It’s GDP increase over a period
  • - With level of urbanization grows many other factors such as literacy rate, income level factories, transportation, etc.
  • City I, II, III and the % of urban population, with the number of units
  • -talk about competitiveness
  • Mumbai slum versus growth
  • Rise in diff. occupationWorking populationIncrease in opportunity
  • Urban Poverty: 25.7% of the total urban population still lives below the poverty line as defined officially by the Planning commission based on survey data from the NSSO
  • Competitiveness of Indian Cities

    1. 1. Competitiveness of Indian Cities Dr. Amit Kapoor Honorary Chairman, Institute for Competitiveness, IndiaBased on the Institute for Competitiveness, India report “India City Competitiveness Report 2012” authored by Dr. Amit Kapoor (Honorary Chairman,Institute for Competitiveness) and Johnson Paul (Senior Associate Director, Institute for South Asian Studies) with research & editorial support from AnkitaGarg (Senior Researcher, Institute for Competitiveness)
    2. 2. NATURAL ENDOWMNETS POPULATION & GDP’s OF THE WORLD 12.6% of the Land area, 17% of the Population, 2.6% of the Russia 7% of the Land area, GDP 5% of the Population, 23% of the GDP USA China 2.3% of the Land area, 7.2 % of the Land area, 17.8% of the India 19.2% of the Population, 2.6% of the Population, 10.4% of the 6.5% of the Land area, GDP GDP 2.8% of the Population, 3.5% of the GDP 0.93% of the Land area, Brazil 0.72% of the Population, 0.58% of the GDP South Africa Source:- World Bank and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    3. 3. INDIA IS THRIVING – NOW AND WILL IN FUTURE % contribution in World’s GDP 12 2010 European Others Union 30% 9.82 26% 10 9.32 9.10 8.81 8.37 9.27 United States Japan China 8 GDP growth (annual %) India 23% 7.80 3% 9% 9% 8.28 6 5.22 5.30 2030 Projection 4 4.93 European 4.03 Others Union 3.77 35% 18% United States 2 16% India Japan China 4% 9% 18% 0 *value for 2012 and 2011 is for Q1 Source:- World Bank and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    4. 4. PROSPERITY IN INDIA 140000 High but declining versus India High and rising versus India Goa 120000 Highly Productive and Prosperity Rising versus India Gross Domestic Product per Capita, 2010 All India GSDP /Capita rate 100000 Delhi (CAGR) of 8.36 % ts Haryana 80000 Maharashtra Punjab All India Average of 46,836 Gujarat Himachal Pradesh 60000 Rupees/capita Kerala Karnataka Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Sikkim Chhattisgarh Uttarakhand West Bengal OrissaMeghalaya Arunachal Pradesh 40000 Mizoram Tripura Rajasthan Assam Nagaland Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Manipur Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Bihar 20000 Low and declining versus India Low but rising versus India 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Gross Domestic Product per Capita CAGR rate, 2008-2010 Source:- Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    5. 5. MAIN CONTRIBUTORS IN INDIA’S GROWTH Mumbai, Pune 900000 800000 Lucknow, Kanpur 700000 Dec-11 GDP (in crores of rupees) Hyderabad 600000 Kolkata Ahmedabad, Surat 500000 Chennai Bengaluru 400000 Jaipur Thiruvananthapuram 300000 200000 100000 0 Source:- RBI and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    6. 6. INDIAN STATES WITH HIGH GROWTH HAVE HIGH URBANIZATION RATE 120.00 Delhi 100.00 80.00 Goa Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Urbanization level (in %) 60.00 Kerala Mizoram Gujarat Karnataka Punjab Andhra Pradesh Haryana West Bengal 40.00 Uttarakhand Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan Manipur Jammu & Kashmir Nagaland Jharkhand Tripura Chhattisgarh Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh Orissa Meghalaya Assam Bihar 20.00 Himachal Pradesh 0.00-200000 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 -20.00 GDP (Dec-11) in Rs. CroreInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    7. 7. TREND IN POPULATION SIZE AND GROWTH RATE (1901-2011) 1800 30 1650.62 1600 24.8 24.66 1494.63 25 23.85 1400 21.51 1338.64 21.34 1210.19 20 Decadal Growth Rate (in %) 1200 Population (in millions) 1028.74 17.64 14.22 15 1000 13.31 846.42 11 800 10 683.33 600 5.75 548.16 439.23 5 400 361.09 318.66 0.1 278.98 238.4 252.09 251.32 0 200 -0.03 0 -5 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041 Population (in millions) Decadal Growth rate (in %) Source:- Government of India Census and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    8. 8. THE RURAL-URBAN DIVIDE 100% 90% 80% 70% 71.5 68.8 76.7 74.3 60% 82.7 82.1 80.1 89.2 89.7 88.9 88 86.2 50% 40% 30% 20% 28.5 31.2 23.3 25.7 10% 17.3 17.9 19.9 10.8 10.3 11.1 12 13.8 0% 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Rural Urban Source:- Government of India Census and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    9. 9. 1000 1500 2000 2500 500 0 693.8 926.4 773.7 925.2 691.7 871 655.6 775.3Institute for Competitiveness, India 617.3 806.7 747.8 1040.3 931 1025.4 725.9 951.4 791.6 975.4 708 888.3 722.9 845.4 616.3 831.2 629.4 908 RURAL(Monthly per capita in Rs) 775.3 830.7 POVERTY LINE URBAN AND RURAL IN INDIA 631.9 771.7 743.7 961.1 871 955 686.9 989.8 850 939.3 1016.8 1147.6 567.1 736 URBAN (Monthly per capita in Rs) 641 777.7 830 960.8 755 846 728.9 1035.2 639 800.8 663.4 782.7 663.7 799.9 Source:- GOI and Institute for Competitiveness Analysis 719.5 898.6Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor 643.2 830.6
    10. 10. INCREASE IN NUMBER OF TOWNS, UAS AND VILLAGES (1971-2011) Towns (in Numbers) UAs (in Numbers) 8000 7935 400 381 382 384 Number of Towns Number of UAs 6000 300 276 4689 5161 231 4029 4000 2921 200 2000 100 0 0 1971 1981 1971 1991 1981 2001 1991 2011 2001 2011 Villages (in Numbers) 620000 Number of Villages 608789 600000 593732 580000 579688 556561 556014 560000 540000 520000 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011*UAs = Urban Agglomerations Source:- Government of India Census and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    11. 11. URBANIZATION: SIGN OF A DEVELOPING EOCONOMY 90 80 70 60 50 40 31.16 25.72 27.78 30 23.33 17.97 18.24 20 10 17.29 0 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Degree of Urbanization Literacy Rates (%) Registered Motor Vehicles (No.) Mobile Cellular Subscription (per 100 people) Source:- Government of India Census, World Bank, Road Transport Year Book& Figure and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    12. 12. DISTRIBUTION OF TOWNS BY SIZE CLASS Cities Population 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Classification Class I > 1,00,000 76 102 148 218 300 393 Class II 50,000-1,00,000 91 129 173 270 345 401 Class III 20,000-50,000 327 437 558 743 947 1151 Class IV 10,000-20,000 608 719 827 1059 1167 1344 Class V 5,000-10,000 1124 711 623 758 740 888 Class VI < 5,000 567 172 147 253 197 191 Greater Mumbai UA Class I UAs/Towns 468 Million plus UAs/Towns 53 Delhi UA Mega Cities 3 Kolkata UA Source:- Government of India Census and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    13. 13. URBAN INDIA OF 1951 Cities Size Class By Population 10 - 30 million 5 - 10 million 1 - 5 million 0.1 – 1 million Source:- India Urban Conference 2011: Evidence & Experience - IIHSInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    14. 14. SNAPSHOT OF URBAN INDIA IN 2011 Cities Size Class By Population 10 - 30 million 5 - 10 million 1 - 5 million 0.1 – 1 million Source:- India Urban Conference 2011: Evidence & Experience - IIHSInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    15. 15. URBAN INDIA OF 2031 Cities Size Class By Population 10 - 30 million 5 - 10 million 1 - 5 million 0.1 – 1 million Source:- India Urban Conference 2011: Evidence & Experience - IIHSInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    16. 16. ENHANCING THE PROSPERITY OF URBAN INDIA via COMPETITIVENESS  Competitiveness is the productivity with which a region utilizes its human, capital, and natural resources  Productivity determines wages and the standard of living – Productivity growth determines sustainable economic growth  It is not what industries a nation competes in that matters for prosperity, but how productively it competes in those industries  Productivity in an economy depends on a combination of domestic and foreign firms  Innovation in products and processes is necessary to drive productivity growth  Only productive businesses can create wealth and jobs States compete to offer the most productive environment for business  The public and private sectors play different but interrelated roles in creating a productive economy Leading to the prosperity of the regionInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    17. 17. INFLUENCES ON COMPETITIVENESS Multiple Geographic Levels WORLD ECONOMY BROAD ECONOMIC AREAS GROUP OF NEIGHBOURING NATIONS NATIONS STATES, PROVINCES METROPOLITAN AREAS, RURAL AREAS [Our Focus] Source:- Institute for Strategy and CompetitivenessInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    18. 18. DRIVERS OF COMPETITIVENESS Quality of overall business Concentration of resources Policy Coordination among Multiple Levels of environment and urban growth Geography/GovernmentInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    19. 19. MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS: THE FRAMEWORK Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry • Local rules and incentives that encourage investment and productivity . - E.g. performance based salaries, incentives for capital investments, intellectual property protection Factor Demand • Vigorous local competition i.e., Conditions - Openness to foreign and local Conditions competition - Sophistication of company operations Access to high quality business inputs i.e., Sophisticated and demanding local - Natural endowments customers and needs e.g., - Human resources - Strict quality, safety, and environmental - Capital availability standards - Physical infrastructure – Consumer protection laws - Administrative infrastructure – Government procurement of - Information infrastructure Related and advanced technology - Scientific and technological infrastructure Supporting – Early demand for products and Services. Industries • Local availability of suppliers and supporting industries • Presence of clusters instead of isolated firmsInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    20. 20. HIERARCHY OF CITY COMPETITIVENESS INDEX Overall Competitiveness Factor Demand Context for Strategy Related & Conditions Conditions & Rivalry Supporting Industry 1. Financial 1. Demographics 1. Competition 1. Supplier 2. Physical 2. Income Distribution Intensity & Diversity Sophistication 3. Communication and Spending of Firms 2. Institutional Support 4. Administrative Pattern 2. Business Incentives 5. Human Capacity 6. Innovation Nearly 200 IndicatorsInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    21. 21. CITIES THAT WE STUDY Srinagar Jammu Shimla Amritsar Ludhiana Dehradun Chandigarh FaridabadDelhi Meerut Gurgaon Noida Agra Jaipur Kanpur Lucknow Guwahati Allahabad Patna Varanasi Asansol Jabalpur Dhanbad Bhopal Ranchi Kolkata Ahmedabad Indore Jamshedpur Vadodara Raipur Rajkot Surat Nagpur Bhubaneswar Nashik Mumbai Pune Vishakhapatnam Hyderabad Vijayawada Bengaluru Mysore Chennai Coimbatore Puducherry Kozhikod e Madurai Kochi ThiruvananthapuramInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    22. 22. EVERY CITY HAS A DIFFERENT STORY Crucial to understand each city as what is right for one city will not necessarily be right for the other. “Mega Cities” “Million plus Cities” Variables DELHI KOLKATA JAMSHEDPUR KOCHI Population 16753235 4486679 2291032 3279860 No. of Branches of Commercial Banks 2177 1121 179 634 Literacy Rate: Female 80.93 84.98 67.33 94.27 No. of GSM users (per lakh) 265 145 11 19 Molestation Incidence 550 226 6 67 Ownership of consumer durable- 23 25 19 31 Home Theater Share of total passenger traffic 21.8 15.1 0.7 1.1 (airways) Consumer Price Index for Industrial 169 178 103* 158 Workers Starting a business cost (% per capita 51.1 39.6 51.5 47.2 income)Institute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    23. 23. POPULATION OF MAJOR INDIAN CITIES: 2011 Ludhiana Chandigarh 3487882 1054686 New Delhi 16753235 Jaipur Lucknow Guwahati 6663971 4588455 1260419 Vadodara 4157568 Ahmedabad Indore 7208200 3272335 Tier 1 Kolkata Surat Tier 2 Nagpur 4486679 6079231 Bhubaneswar 4653171 Tier 3 Pune 2246341 Mumbai 9426959 12478447 Vishakhapatnam Hyderabad 4288113 4010238 Vijayawada 4529009 Bengaluru 9588910 Mysore Chennai 2994744 4681087 Kochi Coimbatore 3279860 3472578 Thiruvananthapuram 3307284 Source:- Census of India 2011Institute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    24. 24. LOOK AT THE ENTIRE PICTURE For instance, Mumbai Weak Areas Strong Areas 20925 Paying Taxes (Time) 271 Population density Total-corruption cases registered 1228 Work Force Participation Rate (per 1000) 434Variables 9093 Variables Number of accidental deaths 94.28 Literacy rate: Males Number of slums 61300 Media Reach-Press 98.8Institute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    25. 25. A GLIMPSE: CITY COMPETITIVENESS RANK First 25 Cities Overall Competitiveness Context for Firm Related & Supporting Rank City Factor Conditions Demand Conditions Score Strategy & Rivalry Industries 1 Delhi 69.732 1 1 1 10 2 Mumbai 67.856 2 2 2 4 3 Chennai 62.323 4 5 5 2 4 Hyderabad 61.782 3 12 7 1 5 Kolkata 61.464 6 11 6 3 6 Gurgaon 61.167 7 7 4 23 7 Bengaluru 61.100 5 3 8 18 8 Noida 60.406 9 38 3 5 9 Pune 59.854 8 4 9 8 10 Ahmedabad 58.036 15 8 15 7 11 Nagpur 56.942 17 15 12 14 12 Chandigarh 56.842 10 17 25 15 13 Jaipur 56.263 18 6 19 26 14 Coimbatore 55.955 29 45 10 6 15 Kochi 55.884 28 23 14 11 16 Surat 55.726 26 10 17 20 17 Nashik 55.651 33 9 21 9 18 Indore 55.637 11 35 22 37 19 Thiruvananthapuram 55.434 22 18 18 28 20 Kozhikode 55.212 35 19 11 32 21 Mysore 55.118 12 39 30 33 22 Bhubaneswar 54.642 13 42 27 43 23 Vadodara 54.627 32 25 16 25 24 Rajkot 54.607 36 14 20 27 25 Lucknow 54.584 23 16 39 22Institute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    26. 26. A GLIMPSE: CITY COMPETITIVENESS RANK Next set of 25 Cities Overall Competitiveness Context for Firm Strategy Related & Supporting Rank City Factor Conditions Demand Conditions Score & Rivalry Industries 26 Madurai 54.570 38 36 13 24 27 Bhopal 54.322 16 40 28 40 28 Kanpur 54.318 19 49 38 12 29 Faridabad 54.097 20 32 36 34 30 Ludhiana 54.022 27 28 23 42 31 Vijayawada 53.964 30 20 32 30 32 Guwahati 53.961 14 46 31 46 33 Raipur 53.849 25 31 26 38 34 Vishakhapatnam 53.741 34 22 33 31 35 Patna 53.580 37 21 42 21 36 Jabalpur 53.249 24 50 34 35 37 Agra 53.157 39 29 46 16 38 Varanasi 53.039 45 41 37 13 39 Meerut 52.975 43 34 40 17 40 Puducherry 52.905 42 27 29 39 41 Asansol 52.813 47 13 35 36 42 Dehradun 52.725 31 30 47 41 43 Ranchi 52.575 40 33 41 29 44 Allahabad 52.573 46 26 48 19 45 Shimla 52.295 21 43 43 49 46 Amritsar 52.181 41 24 24 47 47 Jammu 50.621 44 47 49 48 48 Jamshedpur 50.475 49 44 44 44 49 Dhanbad 49.829 50 48 45 45 50 Srinagar 49.732 48 37 50 50Institute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    27. 27. TOTAL POPULATION VERSUS COMPETITIVENESS 18000000 Del 16000000 14000000 Mum 12000000Total Populaiton 10000000 Ben Pun 8000000 Asa Jai Ahm Sur 6000000 All Pat Nas Vij Luc Kan Agr Vis Vad Kol Che Rai Nag Var Raj 4000000 Mee Lud Coi ThiKoc Ind Mad Koz Mys Hyd Dha Ran Jab Bho Jam Amr 2000000 Far Bhu Sri Deh Cha Noi Gur Jam Pud Guw Shi 0 48.00 53.00 58.00 63.00 68.00 Microeconomic Competitiveness Score Institute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    28. 28. TEACHERS IN GOVERNMENT SCHOOL VERSUS COMPETITIVENESS 9000 All Vis 8000 Pun Agr 7000 Nas Kol Guw KanTeachers in Government School 6000 Pat Del Var Luc Jai Vij 5000 Mee Jab Vad Ind 4000 Lud Coi Cha Ran Shi 3000 Dha Amr Nag Jam Bho Mys Mad Thi Hyd Bhu 2000 Noi Deh Mum Jam Ahm Far Koz Sur Koc Gur Che Asa Ben 1000 Sri Pud Raj 0 48.00 53.00 58.00 63.00 68.00 Microeconomic Competitiveness Score Institute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    29. 29. FEMALE LITERACY RATE VERSUS COMPETITIVENESS 100 95 Koc Koz Thi 90 Che Mum Kol Guw Ben 85 Nag Sur ChaFemale Literacy Rate Bhu Pun Del Coi Ahm 80 Pud Lud Deh Kan Mad Bho Gur Jab Raj Ind Hyd Jam Shi Vad Far Luc 75 Amr Nas Noi Vij Asa 70 Var Jam Ran Mys Mee Rai Jai 65 Dha Pat Sri All Vis Agr 60 55 48.00 53.00 58.00 63.00 68.00 Microeconomic Competitiveness ScoreInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    30. 30. EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT INDEX VERSUS COMPETITIVENESS 0.8 Koz Koc Thi Mad Coi Che 0.75 Lud Cha Amr Del 0.7 Far Gur Vis Vad Vij Raj Mys Sur Education Development Index Pun Mum Nas Nag Ahm Ben 0.65 Pud Hyd Shi 0.6 Deh Jai 0.55 Agr Var Mee Kan Luc Sri All Noi Rai Kol Jam AsaJab Bho Ind 0.5 Bhu 0.45 Dha Jam Ran Guw Pat 0.4 48.00 53.00 58.00 63.00 68.00 Microeconomic Competitiveness ScoreInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    31. 31. CHEATING INCIDENCE VERSUS COMPETITIVENESS 1420 Kol 1220 Bhu 1020 Cheating Incidence 820 Luc Thi Pun 620 Che Kan Lud 420 Vij Vis Koz Koc Agr Amr Mee Gur Var Rai Nag Bho Ahm 220 Deh Ran Pat Guw IndCoi Cha All Jab Far Mad Sur Vad Nas Sri Jam Jam Asa Raj Dha Pud Noi 20 Shi 48.00 53.00 58.00 63.00 68.00 Microeconomic Competitiveness ScoreInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    32. 32. DECADAL GROWTH RATE VERSUS COMPETITIVENESS 60 Noi 50 Ben Sur % decadal growth rate (2001-11) 40 Rai Ind Deh Far Bho Pun 30 Jai Luc Pud Sri Ran Agr Pat Ahm Del All Raj Nas Mad Coi 20 Var Cha Mee Bhu LudGuw Jam Amr Jab VadMys Vis Nag Dha Asa Jam Kan Shi Vij Che 10 Koz Mum Koc Thi Hyd 0 48.00 53.00 58.00 63.00 68.00 Microeconomic Competitiveness ScoreInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    33. 33. OWNERSHIP OF CONSUMER DURABLES - MOBILE VERSUS COMPETITIVENESS 100.5 Sri Jab Luc Jai Cha Kol Asa Ben Gur Del 100 Deh Shi IndNas Jam Pud GuwOwnership of Consumer Durables- Mobile Far Mum Vis Bho Mys Vij Mad Kan Che All Nag Amr Raj Sur Pun Hyd 99.5 Var Ahm Vad Koz Koc Thi Dha Jam 99 Mee Agr Rai Lud Coi Ran Pat Bhu 98.5 Noi 98 48.00 53.00 58.00 63.00 68.00 Microeconomic Competitiveness ScoreInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    34. 34. TOP 10 INDIA CITIES IN 2011 Delhi Jaipur Resources used by Top 10 cities Ahmadabad 0.1 Kolkata Land Surat Greater Mumbai Population 8 Pune Hyderabad Output 15 Bengaluru Chennai 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 Proportion of all-India (in %) Source:- India Urban Conference 2011: Evidence & Experience - IIHSInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    35. 35. THE UNTAPPED ASSET OF INDIA: TIER 2-3 CITIES  Consists of a pool of opportunities  Avoids the pitfalls of the megacities  More people are moving towards them as they are facing scarcity of land in Mega cities  Each city has its own competitive edge  Preferred by many people Growth of organized retail 50% 40% Growth (in %) 30% 50% 35% 20% 10% 0% Tier I cities Tier II and III cities Source:- Report on “India Boarding” by TCS and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    36. 36. URBANIZATION LEVEL OF TIER 2 CITIES Vishakapatnam 47.51 Vijaywada 41.01 Varanasi 43.43 Vadodara 49.54 Thiruvananthapuram 53.80 Surat 43.48 Rajkot 43.48 Patna 43.48 Nashik 42.53 Nagpur 68.30 Meerut 51.13 Maduari 60.64 Ludhiana 59.14 Lucknow 66.20 Kozhikode 67.15 Kochi 68.07 Kanpur 65.93 Jamshedpur 55.55 Jaipur 52.51 Indore 74.09 Dhanbad 58.13 Coimbatore 75.83 Bhopal 80.84 Asansol 66.93 Agra 45.87 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 Urbanization level (in%) Source:- Census 2011 and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    37. 37. UNTANGLING THE LINKAGES BETWEEN CITY, COMPETITIVENESS & ECONOMIC GROWTH  More advanced economies are more urbanized economies  Cities tend to be the only place where companies and individuals find opportunities for successful economic activity  Rise of cities is seen as an inevitable part of development but also as a policy challenge  Avoid a political schism between metropolitan and rural regions  Cities have a different role to play in advanced economies  From the competitiveness perspective, the policy imperative is crucial for cities as well as for rural regions  Cities and the rural regions around them should cooperate closely The case with Mumbai  Tried to manage the growth by creating artificial boundaries  The approach failed and made living conditions worse  Different policy approach is required that focuses on better public services and land use inside the city  Competitiveness-oriented policy approach can be used that changes the economic fundamentals of where people live and workInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    38. 38. EDUCATION LEVEL Literacy Rate Professionally trained teachers: Regular 200 180 Noida 69.6 160 Mumbai 99 Kolkata 61.9 140 Jaipur 89.4 120 Indore 92.2 100 Hyderabad 98.6 Gurgaon 98.6 80 Delhi 100 60 Chennai 94.8 40 Chandigarh 72.9 Bengaluru 95.6 20 Ahmedabad 89.6 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 In percentage Males Females Source:- GOI and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    39. 39. DIFFERENT OCCUPATION SEGMENTS 1800 500 446 444 434 1600 424 450 402 Total Workforce Participation rate (per 1000) 369 372 400 1400 322 303 350 309 Occupation (in numbers) 1200 296 284 300 1000 250 800 200 600 150 400 100 200 50 0 0 Occupation: Agriculture,forestry Occupation: Manufacturing Occupation: Construction Occupation: Wholesale,retail Occupation: Financing, insurance Occupation: Community services Occupation: others Total Work force Participation Rate (Per 1000) Source:- PPP Database and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor
    40. 40. SECTORWISE TOTAL INVESTMENTS IN PPP PROJECTS IN INDIA : 2011 99324.61 Urban Development Roads 244289.176 Railways 3913.03 Ports 82402.67 Health Care 1887.2 Energy 85141.18 Education 1922.47 Airports 19131 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 Project Cost (Rs. Crore) Source:- PPP Database and Institute for Competitiveness AnalysisInstitute for Competitiveness, India Presented by: Dr. Amit Kapoor

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