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# Sampling

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### Sampling

1. 1. SAMPLING <br />
2. 2. Sampling<br />Sampling is simply the process of learning about the population on the basis of a sample drawn from it.<br />Sampling is a tool which helps to know the characteristics of the universe or population by examining only a small part of it.<br />
3. 3. Terminology<br />Population - Population is the group which is used to generalize the study.<br />Sample - Sample is the group of people that is to be selected for study.<br />Census- A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population<br />Sampling Design- It is a technique or procedure for selecting item for the sample. <br />
4. 4. Sampling frame- The listing of the accessible population from which the sample is drawn is called sampling frame.<br />Response- Response is a specific measurement value that a sampling unit supplies.<br />Population Parameter – When mean or average is calculated on entire population, this is not referred as statistics, it is a population parameter.<br />
5. 5. Why Sampling???<br />Time constraints<br />Cost constraints<br />Easy and convenient Processing<br />Reuse of population<br />Lesser resources required<br />Helpful in studying the hypothetical data.<br />
6. 6. SAMPLING MODEL<br />
7. 7. Characteristic of sampling<br />Representativeness<br />Adequacy<br />Independence<br />Homogeneity<br />
8. 8. Steps in sample design<br />Type of Universe<br />Sampling Unit<br />Source List<br />Size of Sample<br />Parameters of Interest<br />Budgetary Constraints<br />Sampling Procedure<br />
9. 9. Types of Sampling Design<br />NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING<br />PROBABILITY SAMPLING<br />JUDGEMENT SAMPLING<br />SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING<br />SYSTEMATIC <br />SAMPLING<br />QUOTA SAMPLING<br />CLUSTER SAMPLING<br />CONVENIENCE SAMPLING<br />STRATIFIED SAMPLING<br />
10. 10. NON PROBABILIITY SAMPLING<br />It is a sampling procedure which does not afford any basis for estimating the probability that each item in the population has of being included in the sample. <br />Also known as deliberate sampling, purposive sampling.<br />
11. 11. PROBABILITY SAMPLING<br />Probability sampling is a sampling procedure where every item in the universe has an equal chances of inclusion in the sample. <br />Also known as ‘random sampling’ or ‘chance sampling’. <br />
12. 12. CHARATERSTICS OF GOOD SAMPLE DESIGN<br />Must result in a truly representative sample<br />Must result in small sampling errors<br />Must be viable in context of funds available for the research study.<br />Must be such so that systematic bias can be controlled in a better way.<br />
13. 13. Techniques of selecting arandom sample<br />Size of sample<br /> - Size of universe<br /> - Resources available<br /> - Degree of accuracy<br /> - Homogeneity<br /> - Nature of study<br /> - Method of sampling adopted<br /> - Nature of respondents<br />
14. 14. Merits of sampling<br />Less time consuming<br />Less cost<br />More reliable results<br />More detailed information<br />Practical method<br />To judge the accuracy of the information obtained on a census basis.<br />
15. 15. Limitations of sampling<br />Unplanned sampling is often misleading<br />Requires experts<br />At times complicated<br />Not appropriate when every unit in the domain has to be studied.<br />
16. 16.    Thank you    <br />