Chap013 MIS

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Chap013 MIS

  1. 1. 1Chapter 13 Computer HardwareMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. 2 Learning ObjectivesIdentifythe major types and uses of microcomputer, midrange, and mainframe computer systems.Outline the major technologies and uses of computer peripherals for input, output, and storage.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. 3 Learning Objectives (continued)Identifythe components and functions of a computer system.Identify the computer system and peripherals you would acquire or recommend for a business of your choice.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. 4 Section I Computer Systems: End User and Enterprise ComputingMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. 5 Types of Computer SystemsAll computers are systems of input, processing, output, storage, and control components.Three basic categories Mainframe Midrange computers MicrocomputersMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. 6 Types of Computer Systems (continued)Mainframe Enterprisesystems Superservers Transaction processors SupercomputersMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. 7 Types of Computer Systems (continued)Midrange Network servers Minicomputers Web servers Multi-user systemsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. 8 Types of Computer Systems (continued)Microcomputers Personalcomputers Network computers Technical workstations PDAs Information appliancesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. 9 Microcomputer SystemsThe most important category of computers Desktop LaptopWorkstation computersNetwork serversMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. 10 Microcomputer Systems (continued)Selection criteria Solid performance at a reasonable price Operating system ready ConnectivityMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. 11 Microcomputer Systems (continued)Network computers Designed primarily for use with the Internet and corporate intranets For specialized or limited computing applications Lower cost of purchase, upgrades, maintenance, and supportMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. 12 Microcomputer Systems (continued)Network computers (continued) Other benefits Ease of software distribution and licensing Computing platform standardization Reduced end user requirements Improved manageabilityMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. 13 Microcomputer Systems (continued)Information appliances PDAs Set-top boxes and video-game consoles Wireless PDAs Cellular and PCS phonesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. 14 Microcomputer Systems (continued)Computer terminals Dumb terminals Intelligent terminals Network terminals Transaction terminalsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. 15 Midrange Computer SystemsMulti-user systems that can manage networks of PCs and terminalsLess costly to buy, operate, and maintain than mainframesPopular as network serversMinicomputersMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. 16 Mainframe Computer SystemsLarge, fast, powerfulHandle high transaction processing volumes or complex computational problemsSuperservers for large client/server networks and high-volume Internet websitesPopular for data mining and warehousingMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. 17 Mainframe Computer Systems (continued)Supercomputers Extremely powerful systems specifically designed for scientific, engineering, and business applications requiring extremely high speeds for massive numeric computations Use parallel processing architectures Process at speeds measured in gigaflops and teraflopsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. 18 The Computer System ConceptComputers are organized according to the following system functions: Input Keyboards Touch screens Pens Electronic mice Optical scanners Convert data into electronic formMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. 19 The Computer System Concept (continued) Processing Central Processing Unit (CPU) Two subunits Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) Control UnitMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. 20 The Computer System Concept (continued) Output Video display units Printers Audio response units Convert electronic information into human-intelligible formMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. 21 The Computer System Concept (continued) Storage Storedata and software instructions May also include cache memory Primary storage unit (hard drive) Secondary storage Magnetic disks Optical disk drivesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. 22 The Computer System Concept (continued) Control The registers and other circuits of the control unit interpret software instructions and transmit directions to the other components of the computer systemMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. 23 The Computer System Concept (continued)Computer processing speeds Milliseconds (thousandths of a second) Microseconds (millionths of a second) Nanoseconds (billionths of a second) Picoseconds (trillionths of a second)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. 24 The Computer System Concept (continued) Clock speeds Megahertz (MHz) Millions of cycles per second Gigahertz (GHz) Billions of cycles per secondMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. 25 Section II Computer Peripherals: Input, Output, and Storage TechnologiesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. 26 PeripheralsGeneric name given to all input, output, and secondary storage devicesDepend on direct connections or telecommunications links to the CPUAll peripherals are online devicesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. 27 Input TechnologiesNatural user interface Enter data and commands directly into a computer Electronic mice and touch pads Optical scanning, handwriting recognition, voice recognitionMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. 28 Pointing DevicesUsed for entering data and textWork with your operating system’s graphical user interface (GUI)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. 29 Pointing Devices (continued) Electronic mouse Trackball Pointingstick Touch pad Touch screenMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. 30 Pen-Based ComputingUsed in many hand-held computers and PDAs Digitizer pen Graphics tabletMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. 31 Speech Recognition SystemsDigitize,analyze, and classify your speech and its sound patternsAllow operators to perform data entry without using their hands to key in data or instructionsSpeaker-independentVoice-messaging computersMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. 32 Optical ScanningRead text or graphics and convert them into digital inputEmploy photoelectric devices to scan the characters being readMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. 33 Optical Scanning (continued)Opticalcharacter recognition (OCR) Reads OCR characters & codes Merchandise tags Product labels Sort mail, score testsHand-held optical scanning wands Reads bar coding Universal Product Code (UPC)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. 34 Other Input TechnologiesMagnetic stripe technology Credit cardsSmart cards Embedded microprocessor chip Debit, credit, and other cardsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. 35 Other Input Technologies (continued)Digital cameras Still cameras Digital camcordersMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. 36 Other Input Technologies (continued)Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) technology Used by banks to sort and post checks and deposit slips 14 characters of a standardized design Reader-sortersMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. 37 Output TechnologiesVideoPrintStorageMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  38. 38. 38 Video OutputVideo monitors Cathode ray tube (CRT) Liquid crystal displays (LCDs)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  39. 39. 39 Printed OutputInkjet Spray ink onto the page one line at a timeLaser Use an electrostatic process similar to a copierMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  40. 40. 40 Storage Trade-OffsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  41. 41. 41 Storage Trade-Offs (continued)Computer storage fundamentals Information is stored through the presence or absence of electronic or magnetic signals Binary representation 1 = ON 0 = OFFMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  42. 42. 42 Storage Trade-Offs (continued)Computer storage fundamentals (continued) Bit The smallest element of data May have a value of either one or zero Byte Basic grouping of bits Typically, a byte consists of 8 bits and represents one character of dataMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  43. 43. 43 Storage Trade-Offs (continued)Computer storage fundamentals (continued) Storage capacities Kilobytes (KB) 1,000 bytes Megabytes (MB) 1 million bytesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  44. 44. 44 Storage Trade-Offs (continued)Computer storage fundamentals (continued) Gigabytes (GB) 1 billion bytes Terabytes (TB) 1 trillion bytes Petabyte (PB) 1 quadrillion bytesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  45. 45. 45 Storage Trade-Offs (continued)  Direct and sequential access  Terms direct access and random access describe the same concept  An element of data or instructions can be directly stored and retrieved by selecting and using any of the locations on the storage media  Each storage position  Has a unique address  Can be individually accessed in approximately the same timeMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  46. 46. 46 Storage Trade-Offs (continued)Direct and sequential access (continued) Sequential access Does not have unique storage addresses Serial process Data are recorded one after another in a predetermined sequence. Locating an individual item requires searching all of the data until the desired item is locatedMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  47. 47. 47 Storage Trade-Offs (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  48. 48. 48 Semiconductor MemoryPrimary storage of your computerAdvantages Small size Great speed Shock and temperature resistantDisadvantage VolatilityMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  49. 49. 49 Semiconductor Memory (continued)Two basic types of semiconductor memory RAM – random access memory Volatile memory Read/write memory “working” memoryMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  50. 50. 50 Semiconductor Memory (continued) ROM – read only memory Nonvolatile Used for permanent storage Can be read but not erased or overwrittenMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  51. 51. 51 Semiconductor Memory (continued) Variations of ROM PROM Programmable read only memory EPROM Erasable programmable read only memoryMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  52. 52. 52 Magnetic Disk StorageMost common form of secondary storageData is recorded on tracks in the form of tiny magnetized spotsThousands of bytes recorded on each trackMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  53. 53. 53 Magnetic Disk Storage (continued)Types of Magnetic Disks Floppy disks Zip disks Hard disk drivesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  54. 54. 54 Magnetic Disk Storage (continued)Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAID)  Provides large capacities with high access speeds  Data are accessed in parallel over multiple paths from many disks  Fault tolerant  Storage area networks (SANs)  Fiber channel LANs that connect many RAID unitsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  55. 55. 55 Magnetic Tape StorageUsed as secondary storageAlso used in robotic automated drive assembliesLower-cost storageArchival storageMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  56. 56. 56 Optical Disk StorageCD-ROMCD-RCD-RWDVDDVD-ROMDVD-RAMMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  57. 57. 57 Optical Disk Storage (continued)Business applications Image processing Provide access to reference materials in a convenient, compact form videosMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  58. 58. 58 Discussion QuestionsDo you agree with the statement: “The network is the computer”?What trends are occurring in the development and use of the major types of computer systems?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  59. 59. 59 Discussion Questions (continued)Do you think that network computers (NCs) will replace personal computers (PCs) in business applications?Are networks of PCs and servers making mainframe computers obsolete?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  60. 60. 60 Discussion Questions (continued)What trends are occurring in the development and use of peripheral devices? Why are those trends occurring?When would you recommend the use of each of the following: Network computers NetPCs Network terminals  Information appliances in business applicationsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  61. 61. 61 Discussion Questions (continued)What processor, memory, magnetic disk storage, and video display capabilities would you require for a personal computer that you would use for business purposes?What other peripheral devices and capabilities would you want to have for your business PC?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  62. 62. 62 Real World Case 1 – City of Richmond & Tim Beaty BuildersThe Business Value of PDAsWhat are the business benefits of PDAs for business applications?What are the limitations of PDAs for business use?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  63. 63. 63 Real World Case 1 (continued)The City of Richmond now wants to use tablet PCs for some applications. What are the advantages of tablet PCs over PDAs and laptop PCs for business applications?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  64. 64. 64 Real World Case 1 (continued)Will the convergence of PDAs, sub-notebook PCs, and cell phones produce an information appliance that will make all of those categories obsolete?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  65. 65. 65 Real World Case 2 – United Technologies & Eastman KodakThe Business Case for Consolidating Computer Operations and SystemsWhat are some of the business benefits that United Technologies will gain from the consolidation of its computer systems, data centers, software, and help centers?What limitations might there be?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  66. 66. 66 Real World Case 2 (continued)What are the business benefits of standardizing on selected models from one manufacturer of desktop and laptop PCs as UTC did with Dell and Kodak did with IBM?What limitations might there be?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  67. 67. 67 Real World Case 2 (continued)What are the business benefits of UTC’s policy of “locking down” its new Dell PCs so employees can’t download other software from the Internet?Do you agree with this policy?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  68. 68. 68 Real World Case 2 (continued)Should a conglomerate like UTC with many diverse companies standardize its PC hardware and software and lock out downloads of other software?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  69. 69. 69 Real World Case 3 – Boscov’s, Winnebago, & WPS HealthMoving to Linux on the MainframeHow can a mainframe run the equivalent of hundreds of Linux server applications at the same time?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  70. 70. 70 Real World Case 3 (continued)Why can the total cost of ownership of running Linux applications on the mainframe be less than on Intel-based servers?What other IT and business benefits may be achieved?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  71. 71. 71 Real World Case 3 (continued)What challenges or limitations can arise in moving business applications from servers to Linux on a mainframe?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  72. 72. 72 Real World Case 4 – La-Z-Boy & Corporate ExpressThe Business Benefits of Server ConsolidationWhat are the business and technical benefits of using multiple servers to run business applications for a company?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  73. 73. 73 Real World Case 4 (continued)What are the business and technical challenges facing companies who depend on many distributed server systems?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  74. 74. 74 Real World Case 4 (continued)What are the business and technical benefits of server consolidation initiatives?What are the limitations of such a strategy?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  75. 75. 75 Real World Case 5 – Los Alamos National LaboratoryThe ROI of Blade ServersWhat are the business and technical benefits of using blade servers versus rack-mounted or traditional servers?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  76. 76. 76 Real World Case 5 (continued)What limitations or challenges might there be in the use of blade servers?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  77. 77. 77 Real World Case 5 (continued)When should a company consider using blade servers?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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